Lynn B Jorde

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (248)2202.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In order to explore the diversity and selective signatures of duplication and deletion human copy number variants (CNVs), we sequenced 236 individuals from 125 distinct human populations. We observed that duplications exhibit fundamentally different population genetic and selective signatures than deletions and are more likely to be stratified between human populations. Through reconstruction of the ancestral human genome, we identify megabases of DNA lost in different human lineages and pinpoint large duplications that introgressed from the extinct Denisova lineage now found at high frequency exclusively in Oceanic populations. We find that the proportion of CNV base pairs to single nucleotide variant base pairs is greater among non-Africans than it is among African populations, but we conclude that this difference is likely due to unique aspects of non-African population history as opposed to differences in CNV load. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science 08/2015; 349(6253). DOI:10.1126/science.aab3761 · 33.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most isolated congenital heart defects are thought to be sporadic and are often ascribed to multifactorial mechanisms with poorly understood genetics. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) occurs in 1 in 15,000 live-born infants and occurs either in isolation or as part of a syndrome involving aberrant left-right development. Previously, we reported causative links between TAVPR and the PDGFRA gene. TAPVR has also been linked to the ANKRD1/CARP genes. However, these genes only explain a small fraction of the heritability of the condition. By examination of phased single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data from 5 distantly related TAPVR patients we identified a single 25 cM shared, Identical by Descent genomic segment on the short arm of chromosome 12 shared by 3 of the patients and their obligate-carrier parents. Whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis identified a non-synonymous variant within the shared segment in the retinol binding protein 5 (RBP5) gene. The RBP5 variant is predicted to be deleterious and is overrepresented in the TAPVR population. Gene expression and functional analysis of the zebrafish orthologue, rbp7, supports the notion that RBP5 is a TAPVR susceptibility gene. Additional sequence analysis also uncovered deleterious variants in genes associated with retinoic acid signaling, including NODAL and retinol dehydrogenase 10. These data indicate that genetic variation in the retinoic acid signaling pathway confers, in part, susceptibility to TAPVR.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0131514. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131514 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of retrotransposon insertions in non-model taxa can be technically challenging and costly. This has inhibited progress in understanding retrotransposon insertion dynamics outside of a few well studied species. To address this problem, we have extended a retrotransposon based capture and sequence method (ME-Scan) to identify insertions belonging to the Ves family of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) across seven species of the bat genus Myotis. We identified between 120,000 and 143,000 SINE insertions in six taxa lacking a draft genome by comparing to the M. lucifugus reference genome. On average, each Ves insertion was sequenced to 129.6x coverage. When mapped back to the M. lucifugus reference genome, all insertions were confidently assigned within a 10 bp window. Polymorphic Ves insertions were identified in each taxon based on their mapped locations. Using cross-species comparisons and the identified insertion positions, a presence-absence matrix was created for ~796,000 insertions. Dollo parsimony analysis of more than 85 thousand phylogenetically informative insertions recovered strongly supported, monophyletic clades that correspond with the biogeography of each taxa. This phylogeny is similar to previously published mitochondrial phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of M. vivesi. These results support the utility of our variation on ME-Scan to identify polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in taxa without a reference genome and for large-scale retrotransposon-based phylogenetics. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 05/2015; 7(6). DOI:10.1093/gbe/evv099 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in ATP1A3 cause Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) by disrupting function of the neuronal Na+/K+ ATPase. Published studies to date indicate 2 recurrent mutations, D801N and E815K, and a more severe phenotype in the E815K cohort. We performed mutation analysis and retrospective genotype-phenotype correlations in all eligible patients with AHC enrolled in the US AHC Foundation registry from 1997-2012. Clinical data were abstracted from standardized caregivers' questionnaires and medical records and confirmed by expert clinicians. We identified ATP1A3 mutations by Sanger and whole genome sequencing, and compared phenotypes within and between 4 groups of subjects, those with D801N, E815K, other ATP1A3 or no ATP1A3 mutations. We identified heterozygous ATP1A3 mutations in 154 of 187 (82%) AHC patients. Of 34 unique mutations, 31 (91%) are missense, and 16 (47%) had not been previously reported. Concordant with prior studies, more than 2/3 of all mutations are clustered in exons 17 and 18. Of 143 simplex occurrences, 58 had D801N (40%), 38 had E815K (26%) and 11 had G937R (8%) mutations. Patients with an E815K mutation demonstrate an earlier age of onset, more severe motor impairment and a higher prevalence of status epilepticus. This study further expands the number and spectrum of ATP1A3 mutations associated with AHC and confirms a more deleterious effect of the E815K mutation on selected neurologic outcomes. However, the complexity of the disorder and the extensive phenotypic variability among subgroups merits caution and emphasizes the need for further studies.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0127045. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127045 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth prior to a gestational age (GA) of 37 completed weeks, affects more than 10 % of births worldwide. PTB is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and is associated with a broad spectrum of lifelong morbidity in survivors. The etiology of spontaneous PTB (SPTB) is complex and has an important genetic component. Previous studies have compared monozygotic and dizygotic twin mothers and their families to estimate the heritability of SPTB, but these approaches cannot separate the relative contributions of the maternal and the fetal genomes to GA or SPTB. Using the Utah Population Database, we assessed the heritability of GA in more than 2 million post-1945 Utah births, the largest familial GA dataset ever assembled. We estimated a narrow-sense heritability of 13.3 % for GA and a broad-sense heritability of 24.5 %. A maternal effect (which includes the effect of the maternal genome) accounts for 15.2 % of the variance of GA, and the remaining 60.3 % is contributed by individual environmental effects. Given the relatively low heritability of GA and SPTB in the general population, multiplex SPTB pedigrees are likely to provide more power for gene detection than will samples of unrelated individuals. Furthermore, nongenetic factors provide important targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Human Genetics 04/2015; 134(7). DOI:10.1007/s00439-015-1558-1 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies of human populations have used the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) as a marker, but MSY sequence variants have traditionally been subject to ascertainment bias. Also, dating of haplogroups has relied on Y-specific short tandem repeats (STRs), involving problems of mutation rate choice, and possible long-term mutation saturation. Next-generation sequencing can ascertain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an unbiased way, leading to phylogenies in which branch-lengths are proportional to time, and allowing the times-to-most-recent-common-ancestor (TMRCAs) of nodes to be estimated directly. Here we describe the sequencing of 3.7 Mb of MSY in each of 448 human males at a mean coverage of 51 ×, yielding 13,261 high-confidence SNPs, 65.9% of which are previously unreported. The resulting phylogeny covers the majority of the known clades, provides date estimates of nodes, and constitutes a robust evolutionary framework for analysing the history of other classes of mutation. Different clades within the tree show subtle but significant differences in branch lengths to the root. We also apply a set of 23 Y-STRs to the same samples, allowing SNP- and STR-based diversity and TMRCA estimates to be systematically compared. Ongoing purifying selection is suggested by our analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of non-synonymous variants in 15 MSY single-copy genes.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 12/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1093/molbev/msu327 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tibetans do not exhibit increased hemoglobin concentration at high altitude. We describe a high-frequency missense mutation in the EGLN1 gene, which encodes prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), that contributes to this adaptive response. We show that a variant in EGLN1, c.[12C>G; 380G>C], contributes functionally to the Tibetan high-altitude phenotype. PHD2 triggers the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which mediate many physiological responses to hypoxia, including erythropoiesis. The PHD2 p.[Asp4Glu; Cys127Ser] variant exhibits a lower Km value for oxygen, suggesting that it promotes increased HIF degradation under hypoxic conditions. Whereas hypoxia stimulates the proliferation of wild-type erythroid progenitors, the proliferation of progenitors with the c.[12C>G; 380G>C] mutation in EGLN1 is significantly impaired under hypoxic culture conditions. We show that the c.[12C>G; 380G>C] mutation originated ~8,000 years ago on the same haplotype previously associated with adaptation to high altitude. The c.[12C>G; 380G>C] mutation abrogates hypoxia-induced and HIF-mediated augmentation of erythropoiesis, which provides a molecular mechanism for the observed protection of Tibetans from polycythemia at high altitude.
    Nature Genetics 08/2014; 46(9). DOI:10.1038/ng.3067 · 29.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The genetics involved in Ewing sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis are poorly understood. EWS/FLI and related EWS/ETS chimeras upregulate numerous gene targets via promoter-based GGAA-microsatellite response elements. These microsatellites are highly polymorphic in humans, and preliminary evidence suggests EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression is highly dependent on the number of GGAA motifs within the microsatellite. Objectives Here we sought to examine the polymorphic spectrum of a GGAA-microsatellite within the NR0B1 promoter (a critical EWS/FLI target) in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors, and characterize how this polymorphism influences gene expression and clinical outcomes. Results A complex, bimodal pattern of EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression was observed across a wide range of GGAA motifs, with maximal expression observed in constructs containing 20–26 GGAA motifs. Relative to white European and African controls, the NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite in tumor cells demonstrated a strong bias for haplotypes containing 21–25 GGAA motifs suggesting a relationship between microsatellite function and disease susceptibility. This selection bias was not a product of microsatellite instability in tumor samples, nor was there a correlation between NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms and survival outcomes. Conclusions These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms observed in human populations modulate EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression and may influence disease susceptibility in Ewing sarcoma.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104378. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104378 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the whole-genome sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The 2.26-Gb genome of a female marmoset was assembled using Sanger read data (6x) and a whole-genome shotgun strategy. A first analysis has permitted comparison with the genomes of apes and Old World monkeys and the identification of specific features that might contribute to the unique biology of this diminutive primate, including genetic changes that may influence body size, frequent twinning and chimerism. We observed positive selection in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor genes (growth pathways), respiratory complex I genes (metabolic pathways), and genes encoding immunobiological factors and proteases (reproductive and immunity pathways). In addition, both protein-coding and microRNA genes related to reproduction exhibited evidence of rapid sequence evolution. This genome sequence for a New World monkey enables increased power for comparative analyses among available primate genomes and facilitates biomedical research application.
    Nature Genetics 07/2014; Nat Genet. 2014 Aug;46(8):850-7.(46):850–857. DOI:10.1038/ng.3042. · 29.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-throughput sequencing of related individuals has become an important tool for studying human disease. However, owing to technical complexity and lack of available tools, most pedigree-based sequencing studies rely on an ad hoc combination of suboptimal analyses. Here we present pedigree-VAAST (pVAAST), a disease-gene identification tool designed for high-throughput sequence data in pedigrees. pVAAST uses a sequence-based model to perform variant and gene-based linkage analysis. Linkage information is then combined with functional prediction and rare variant case-control association information in a unified statistical framework. pVAAST outperformed linkage and rare-variant association tests in simulations and identified disease-causing genes from whole-genome sequence data in three human pedigrees with dominant, recessive and de novo inheritance patterns. The approach is robust to incomplete penetrance and locus heterogeneity and is applicable to a wide variety of genetic traits. pVAAST maintains high power across studies of monogenic, high-penetrance phenotypes in a single pedigree to highly polygenic, common phenotypes involving hundreds of pedigrees.
    Nature Biotechnology 05/2014; 32(7). DOI:10.1038/nbt.2895 · 41.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The VAAST pipeline is specifically designed to identify disease-associated alleles in next-generation sequencing data. In the protocols presented in this paper, we outline the best practices for variant prioritization using VAAST. Examples and test data are provided for case-control, small pedigree, and large pedigree analyses. These protocols will teach users the fundamentals of VAAST, VAAST 2.0, and pVAAST analyses. Curr. Protoc. Hum. Genet. 81:6.14.1-6.14.25. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Current protocols in human genetics / editorial board, Jonathan L. Haines ... [et al.] 04/2014; 81:6.14.1-6.14.25. DOI:10.1002/0471142905.hg0614s81
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    ABSTRACT: Phevor integrates phenotype, gene function, and disease information with personal genomic data for improved power to identify disease-causing alleles. Phevor works by combining knowledge resident in multiple biomedical ontologies with the outputs of variant-prioritization tools. It does so by using an algorithm that propagates information across and between ontologies. This process enables Phevor to accurately reprioritize potentially damaging alleles identified by variant-prioritization tools in light of gene function, disease, and phenotype knowledge. Phevor is especially useful for single-exome and family-trio-based diagnostic analyses, the most commonly occurring clinical scenarios and ones for which existing personal genome diagnostic tools are most inaccurate and underpowered. Here, we present a series of benchmark analyses illustrating Phevor's performance characteristics. Also presented are three recent Utah Genome Project case studies in which Phevor was used to identify disease-causing alleles. Collectively, these results show that Phevor improves diagnostic accuracy not only for individuals presenting with established disease phenotypes but also for those with previously undescribed and atypical disease presentations. Importantly, Phevor is not limited to known diseases or known disease-causing alleles. As we demonstrate, Phevor can also use latent information in ontologies to discover genes and disease-causing alleles not previously associated with disease.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2014; 94(4):599-610. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.03.010 · 10.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We hypothesized that genetic variation affects responsiveness to 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) for recurrent preterm birth prevention. Study Design Women of European ancestry with ≥1 spontaneous singleton preterm birth at <34 weeks' gestation who received 17P were recruited prospectively and classified as a 17P responder or nonresponder by the difference in delivery gestational age between 17P-treated and -untreated pregnancies. Samples underwent whole exome sequencing. Coding variants were compared between responders and nonresponders with the use of the Variant Annotation, Analysis, and Search Tool (VAAST), which is a probabilistic search tool for the identification of disease-causing variants, and were compared with a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway candidate gene list. Genes with the highest VAAST scores were then classified by the online Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) system into known gene ontology molecular functions and biologic processes. Gene distributions within these classifications were compared with an online reference population to identify over- and under- represented gene sets. Results Fifty women (9 nonresponders) were included. Responders delivered 9.2 weeks longer with 17P vs 1.3 weeks' gestation for nonresponders (P < .001). A genome-wide search for genetic differences implicated the NOS1 gene to be the most likely associated gene from among genes on the KEGG candidate gene list (P < .00095). PANTHER analysis revealed several over-represented gene ontology categories that included cell adhesion, cell communication, signal transduction, nitric oxide signal transduction, and receptor activity (all with significant Bonferroni-corrected probability values). Conclusion We identified sets of over-represented genes in key processes among responders to 17P, which is the first step in the application of pharmacogenomics to preterm birth prevention.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 04/2014; 210(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2014.01.013 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have used a variety of analytical methods to identify genes targeted by selection in high-altitude populations located throughout the Tibetan Plateau. Despite differences in analytic strategies and sample location, hypoxia-related genes, including EPAS1 and EGLN1, were identified in multiple studies. By applying the same analytic methods to genome-wide SNP information used in our previous study of a Tibetan population (n = 31) from the township of Maduo, located in the northeastern corner of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (4200 m), we have identified common targets of natural selection in a second geographically and linguistically distinct Tibetan population (n = 46) in the Tuo Tuo River township (4500 m). Our analyses provide evidence for natural selection based on iHS and XP-EHH signals in both populations at the p<0.02 significance level for EPAS1, EGLN1, HMOX2, and CYP17A1 and for PKLR, HFE, and HBB and HBG2, which have also been reported in other studies. We highlight differences (i.e., stratification and admixture) in the two distinct Tibetan groups examined here and report selection candidate genes common to both groups. These findings should be considered in the prioritization of selection candidate genes in future genetic studies in Tibet.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e88252. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088252 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2014; 210(1):S7. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.10.042 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The determination of the relationship between a pair of individuals is a fundamental application of genetics. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that identity-by-descent (IBD) information generated from high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data can greatly improve the power and accuracy of genetic relationship detection. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) marks the final step in increasing genetic marker density by assaying all single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), and thus has the potential to further improve relationship detection by enabling more accurate detection of IBD segments and more precise resolution of IBD segment boundaries. However, WGS introduces new complexities that must be addressed in order to achieve these improvements in relationship detection. To evaluate these complexities, we estimated genetic relationships from WGS data for 1490 known pairwise relationships among 258 individuals in 30 families along with 46 population samples as controls. We identified several genomic regions with excess pairwise IBD in both the pedigree and control datasets using three established IBD methods: GERMLINE, fastIBD, and ISCA. These spurious IBD segments produced a 10-fold increase in the rate of detected false-positive relationships among controls compared to high-density microarray datasets. To address this issue, we developed a new method to identify and mask genomic regions with excess IBD. This method, implemented in ERSA 2.0, fully resolved the inflated cryptic relationship detection rates while improving relationship estimation accuracy. ERSA 2.0 detected all 1(st) through 6(th) degree relationships, and 55% of 9(th) through 11(th) degree relationships in the 30 families. We estimate that WGS data provides a 5% to 15% increase in relationship detection power relative to high-density microarray data for distant relationships. Our results identify regions of the genome that are highly problematic for IBD mapping and introduce new software to accurately detect 1(st) through 9(th) degree relationships from whole-genome sequence data.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2014; 10(1):e1004144. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004144 · 7.53 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2014; 133(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.038 · 11.48 Impact Factor
  • F1000 Research 11/2013; DOI:10.12688/f1000research.2-255.v1
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    ABSTRACT: Although more than 100 non-HLA variants have been tested for associations with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in candidate gene studies, only a few have been replicated. We sought to replicate reported associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PTPN22, TNFA and MIF genes in a well-characterized cohort of children with JIA. We genotyped and analyzed 4 SNPs in 3 genes: PTPN22 C1858T (rs2476601), TNFA G-308A, G-238A (rs1800629, rs361525) and MIF G-173C (rs755622) in 647 JIA cases and 751 healthy controls. We tested for association between each variant and JIA as well as JIA subtypes. We adjusted for multiple testing using permutation procedures. We also performed a meta-analysis that combined our results with published results from JIA association studies. While the PTPN22 variant showed only modest association with JIA (OR = 1.29, p = 0.0309), it demonstrated a stronger association with the RF-positive polyarticular JIA subtype (OR = 2.12, p = 0.0041). The MIF variant was not associated with the JIA as a whole or with any subtype. The TNFA-238A variant was associated with JIA as a whole (OR 0.66, p = 0.0265), and demonstrated a stronger association with oligoarticular JIA (OR 0.33, p = 0.0006) that was significant after correction for multiple testing. TNFA-308A was not associated with JIA, but was nominally associated with systemic JIA (OR = 0.33, p = 0.0089) and enthesitis-related JIA (OR = 0.40, p = 0.0144). Meta-analyses confirmed significant associations between JIA and PTPN22 (OR 1.44, p <0.0001) and TNFA-238A (OR 0.69, p < 0.0086) variants. Subtype meta-analyses of the PTPN22 variant revealed associations between RF-positive, RF-negative, and oligoarticular JIA, that remained significant after multiple hypothesis correction (p < 0.0005, p = 0.0007, and p < 0.0005, respectively). We have confirmed associations between JIA and PTPN22 and TNFA G-308A. By performing subtype analyses, we discovered a statistically-significant association between the TNFA-238A variant and oligoarticular JIA. Our meta-analyses confirm the associations between TNFA-238A and JIA, and show that PTPN22 C1858T is associated with JIA as well as with RF-positive, RF-negative and oligoarticular JIA.
    Pediatric Rheumatology 10/2013; 11(1):40. DOI:10.1186/1546-0096-11-40 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by antibody deficiency, poor humoral response to antigens, and recurrent infections. To investigate the molecular cause of CVID, we carried out exome sequence analysis of a family diagnosed with CVID and identified a heterozygous frameshift mutation, c.2564delA (p.Lys855Serfs(∗)7), in NFKB2 affecting the C terminus of NF-κB2 (also known as p100/p52 or p100/p49). Subsequent screening of NFKB2 in 33 unrelated CVID-affected individuals uncovered a second heterozygous nonsense mutation, c.2557C>T (p.Arg853(∗)), in one simplex case. Affected individuals in both families presented with an unusual combination of childhood-onset hypogammaglobulinemia with recurrent infections, autoimmune features, and adrenal insufficiency. NF-κB2 is the principal protein involved in the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, is evolutionarily conserved, and functions in peripheral lymphoid organ development, B cell development, and antibody production. In addition, Nfkb2 mouse models demonstrate a CVID-like phenotype with hypogammaglobulinemia and poor humoral response to antigens. Immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy of transformed B cells from affected individuals show that the NFKB2 mutations affect phosphorylation and proteasomal processing of p100 and, ultimately, p52 nuclear translocation. These findings describe germline mutations in NFKB2 and establish the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway as a genetic etiology for this primary immunodeficiency syndrome.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2013; 93(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.09.009 · 10.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20k Citations
2,202.54 Total Impact Points


  • 1981–2015
    • University of Utah
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Primary Children's Medical Center
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1994–2014
    • Maine Institute for Human Genetics and Health
      Bangor, Maine, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development / Center for Human Genetics
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2003
    • Louisiana State University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States
  • 1995–2003
    • Salt Lake City Community College
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Anthropology
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • Andhra University
      • Department of Anthropology
      Vizag, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • 1999
    • Shriners Hospitals for Children
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1988–1997
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Economic and Social History
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1992
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1990–1991
    • Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1989
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Adult Psychiatry
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States