ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritic human synovial fluid was obtained from the knees of 20 patients and was compared with four different calf sera solutions frequently used as lubricants in knee simulator wear testing. Assuming that the fluid after arthroplasty was the same as the fluid in patients with osteoarthritis, the total protein concentration, protein constituent fractions, osmolality, trace element concentrations, and the thermal stability obtained via differential scanning calorimetry were determined. Human synovial fluid, with an average total protein concentration of 34 g/L, was significantly different from all undiluted calf sera. However, alpha-calf serum and iron-supplemented alpha-calf serum were closest in protein constituent fractions (albumin, alpha-1-globulin, alpha-2-globulin, ss-globulin, and gamma-globulin) to human synovial fluid. Diluting calf sera with low-ion distilled water to a total protein concentration of 17 g/L (as recommended by ISO 14243) produced non-clinically relevant total protein concentration and osmolality levels. Performing the same dilution of iron-supplemented alpha-calf serum with phosphate-buffered saline solution and 1.5 g/L hyaluronic acid produced an artificial lubricant with both a clinically relevant level of osmolality and clinically relevant thermal stability as seen in human synovial fluid from patients with osteoarthritis. The present study suggested that alpha-calf serum, phosphate-buffered saline solution and hyaluronic acid were essential constituents of an artificial lubricant to mimic the major biochemical properties of human synovial fluid for simulator wear testing of total knee replacements.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 09/2010; 94(3):961-71. · 2.63 Impact Factor