L G Leksell

Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (21)85.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of intravenous infusions of the stable prostaglandin analogue 9-deoxo-16,16-dimethyl-9-methylene-PGE2 (9-methylene-PGE2) in a dosage of 10 or 24 micrograms/min were studied in the consicious euhydrated, dehydrated, and hyperhydrated with the simultaneous administration of exogenous arginine vasopressin (AVP), sheep. The infusions decreased urine osmolality and increased urine flow and renal free water clearance. The results indicate that 9-methylene-PGE2 exhibits its diuretic effect by antagonizing the antidiuretic action of AVP. In the hyperhydrated sheep receiving AVP the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH) was simulated. As the prostaglandin analogue effectively blocked the antidiuretic effect of the AVP-administration it appears that 9-methylene-PGE2 may play a future role as a diuretic agent, especially in conditions characterized by water retention and dilutional hyponatremia such as SIADH.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/1985; 402(4):360-3. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stable prostaglandin analogue 9-deoxo-16, 16-dimethyl-9-methylene-PGE2 (9-methylene-PGE2) was infused intravenously (0.5 ml/min) in the dosage of 20 micrograms/min for 2 h in conscious euhydrated man. The administration of 9-methylene-PGE2 rapidly induced an increase in urine flow (from 1.2 +/- 0.07 to 5.35 +/- 1.07 ml/min) concomitantly with a decrease in urine osmolality (from 827 +/- 40 to 193 +/- 44 mOsm/kg). Parallel to this tubular reabsorption of sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg3+) increased and that of potassium (K+) decreased as shown by a reduction in the clearance for respective ion divided by the clearance of inulin. Apparently the water diuresis was mediated by an inhibition of arginine vasopressin's (AVP) antidiuretic effect. The mechanism behind the increase in renal tubular reabsorbtion of Na+ could possibly be a 9-methylene-PGE2 mediated modulation of the renal aldosterone effect. However the protocol followed did not provide any evidence for this, or any other explanation of the observed renal retention of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The results reported here indicate that 9-methylene-PGE2 may have a future use as a water diuretic agent in patients suffering from water retention and dilutional hyponatraemia such as seen in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (AVP) release commonly known as SIADH or Schwartz-Bartter's Syndrome.
    Clinical Physiology 01/1985; 4(6):449-59.
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    ABSTRACT: The renal arginine vasopressin (AVP) excretion in response to acute systemic hypotension induced by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (30-40 micrograms/kg min-1) at different experiment intervals (0, 2, 4, 7 and greater than or equal to 12 days) was studied in the conscious hyperhydrated sheep. During the first post-infusion hour, 2.5 times more AVP was excreted in response to hypotension induced at greater than or equal to 12 day intervals than that observed at intervals of 0-7 days. No interexperimental time dependence of the AVP response to SNP infusion was seen with intervals of 0-7 days. The attenuated AVP release obtained with reduced experiment intervals (0-7 days) was accompanied by shorter antidiuresis and a less accentuated natriuresis during the post-hypotensive period in comparison to what was observed with greater than or equal to 12 day experiment intervals. There were no interval-dependent differences in maximal fall of mean arterial pressure, or onset and recovery of the hypotension induced by SNP administration. It is suggested that acute systemic hypotension causes such a massive AVP release that more than one week is needed for complete restoration of a releasable neurohypophyseal pool of the hormone.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 09/1984; 121(4):393-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Physiology - CLIN PHYSIOL. 01/1984; 4(6):449-459.
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    ABSTRACT: Infusions (20 microliters/min) of isotonic (0.27 M) mannitol dissolved in Na-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were made for 2 h into the lateral cerebral ventricle (IVT) of conscious 68 h dehydrated sheep. The IVT infusion induced a conspicuous drop in renal sodium excretion and marked rise in plasma renin concentration (PRC). The antinatriuretic response to the IVT infusion was not altered by the intravenous administration of ADH or te converting enzyme blocker (SQ 14225, Captopril). Surgical bilateral renal denervation did not change the antinatriuretic response while the increase in PRC was extinguished. Samples of CSF were collected prior to, and 15 min after the end of the infusion. These showed a reduction in CSF [Na], while CSF osmolality remained unchanged. The study supports the view that sodium sensitive receptors close to the cerebral ventricular system participate in the regulation of renal sodium excretion and renin release, it also suggests that renal sodium excretion is affected by an unknown hormonal factor of cerebral origin, while the release of renin seen in response to a reduction in CSF [Na] is mediated by the renal nerves.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 06/1982; 115(1):141-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ablation of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and adjacent midline tissue in the anterior wall of the optic recess of the third ventricle resulted in greatly reduced water drinking to intracarotid infusion of hypertonic NaCl in sheep. Daily food and water intake and angiotensin II drinking were not consistently reduced by these lesions. Tissue in or close to the OVLT is probably involved in osmotically induced water-drinking.
    Brain Research 04/1982; 236(1):210-5. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • B Andersson, L G Leksell, M Rundgren
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    ABSTRACT: Here we have reviewed mainly the cerebral regulation of water intake and its relationship with the regulation of the water-retaining antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Much new information of obvious interest has been gained by experiments in conscious animals, by studies in healthy humans, and by clinical investigations. Of particularly great value has been the development of a sensitive radioimmunoassay for determination of plasma ADH (59). The sketchy picture that emerges in light of this new information is as follows. The osmotic regulation of water intake and ADH secretion is exerted by juxtacerebroventricular sensors apparently mainly located on the anterior border of the third ventricle. These sensors may be accessible both to CSF-borne and blood-borne stimuli and inhibitors, and their activity seems to be correlated to the Na concentration of the ECF rather than to its tonicity. A less sensitive volume regulation of water intake and ADH secretion is effectuated by cardiovascular distention and pressure receptors monitoring the effective circulating blood volume, and in severe volume depletion states also by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Afferent impulses from the cardiovascular receptors exert a tonic inhibition of the ADH release by acting upon its final neuronal link (the cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei). Afferent inflow from these receptors also inhibits thirst to some extent, perhaps by preventing at some synaptic level information from cerebral "thirst" sensors from reaching other parts of the brain where the information is converted into a conscious urge to drink. Therefore, increased cardiovascular receptor activity becomes manifested as elevated osmotic thresholds for ADH liberation and thirst. Severe volume depletion may induce RAS hyperactivity to such an extent that generated angiotensin II stimulates the ADH release and water intake. Demonstrated cerebral Na/angiotensin interaction suggests that this may occur via an angiotensin-induced lowering of the stimulus threshold for the sensors involved in the osmotic control of water balance. Cerebral damage affecting the sensors responsible for the osmotic regulation of water intake and ADH release may result in hypo- or adipsia associated with latent diabetes insipidus, and is apparently the ultimate cause of "essential" hypernatremia. This fragmentary outline of the cerebral control of water intake is based to a considerable extent upon circumstantial evidence, and is for that reason speculative on many points.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 02/1982; 2:73-89. · 9.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of sodium concentration of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF[Na]) in the initiation and/or satiation of Na appetite of Na-deplete or Na-replete sheep was investigated. Slow infusion (1 ml/h) into a lateral brain ventricle of an artificial sheep CSF solution was begun 0-60 min prior to and continued until the end of the Na access period (30-120 min). In Na-deficient sheep, increasing CSF[Na] caused a decrease in Na intake. In both Na-deficient and Na-replete sheep, decreasing CSF[Na] caused an increase in Na intake. The appetite was observed within 25 min of beginning infusion, which represents the most rapid induction of Na appetite yet observed. In Na-replete sheep, the appetite induced by decreasing CSF[Na] was predominantly for Na-containing solutions. A decrease in CSF[Na] of only 4-6 mmol/l was sufficient to induce Na appetite. The results derived by use of different Na, saccharide, or urea containing artificial CSF solutions suggest that there are sensors within the neuropil that respond to change of [Na] and influence salt appetite. They can be accessed by inducing change in [Na] of cerebroventricular CSF.
    The American journal of physiology 02/1982; 242(1):R51-63. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraventricular administration of supraphysiological amounts of renin, nerve growth factor preparation, or angiotensin II greatly increased the consumption of water and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solution by sheep. These effects were antagonized by intraventricular administration of drugs that prevent the formation of angiotensin II or block its receptors. The fact that these angiotensin-blocking drugs did not change the sodium intake of sodium-deficient sheep challenges the idea that central angiotensin action is involved in sodium appetite due to a deficiency.
    Science 11/1981; 214(4517):195-7. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infusions (20 microliter/min) of isotonic (0.27 M) and hypertonic (0.7 M) mannitol dissolved in Na-free artificial CSF were made for 1 h. into the lateral cerebral ventricle (IVT) of conscious water-replete sheep. The IVT infusion of both 0.27 M and 0.7 M mannitol induced a water-diuresis. Samples of CSF were collected prior to, and 5, 35, 65, 125 min after the end of the infusion. These consistently showed a reduction in CSF [Na], while CSF osmolality remained unchanged after 0.27 M mannitol, and was considerably increased after 0.7 M mannitol. In the 44 dehydrated sheep IVT infusion of 0.7 mannitol in Na-free artificial CSF was made for 6 h. The water deprivation as such caused a marked increase in plasma and CSF [Na] and osmolality. The 6 h IVT infusion of hypertonic mannitol further increased the CSF osmolality, while CSF [Na] decreased and reached a values below the normal for water-replete animals. The infusion also induced a fall in plasma ADH resulting in a water-diuresis, and extinguished the thirst of the dehydrated sheep. Furthermore, the infusion markedly reduced renal sodium excretion with causing any substantial change in blood aldosterone, in spite of the fact that there was a conspicuous increase in plasma renin concentration. The study supports the view that sodium sensitive receptors close to the cerebral ventricular system participate in the regulation of ADH secretion, water intake, renin release, and renal sodium excretion.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 06/1981; 112(1):33-40. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence supporting cerebral Na sensors in the initiation of thirst is the greater water drinking which occurs with intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of hypertonic NaCl than with ICV hypertonic saccharide solution. However, ICV infusion of hypertonic saccharide solution causes a reduction in CSF [Na], even though the saccharide is made in solution with normal [Na] of 150 mM. To prevent this, ICV infusion of hypertonic sucrose in high Na solution was made. The ICV infusion of 0.3 M sucrose/0.3 M NaCl-CSF caused water intake of 416 ± 173 ml (mean ± SEM) in 6 sheep, and CSF [Na] was 151 ± 0.9 mM, but ICV infusion of equiosmolar 0.45 M NaCl-CSF caused greater water intake of 1097 ± 202 ml and CSF [Na] increased to 178.8 ± 3.6 mM. Control ICV isotonic CSF did not cause drinking and CSF [Na] was 150.5 ± 0.8 mM whereas ICV 0.6 M sucrose-CSF ([Na]=150 mM) caused water intake of 132 ± 63 ml with CSF [Na] falling to 139.3 ± 1.3 mM. These results indicate specific brain NaCl sensors involved in thirst. Osmoreceptors may also exist because some drinking occurred with ICV sucrose despite reduced CSF [Na].
    Physiology & Behavior 11/1980; 25(4):501-4. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 02/1979; 105(1):123-5. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • L G Leksell
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PG) E2, F2 alpha (30 ng/kg . min-1) and arachidonic acid (150 and 300 ng/kg . min-1) were infused for 30 min into the lateral cerebral ventricle of conscious hydrated and non-hydrated goats. Like previously shown as concerns PGE1 PGE2 was found to inhibit the water diuresis and cause some increase in the renal sodium excretion in the hydrated animal, and to elicit thirst in the non-hydrated goat. The effects of PGE2 were enhanced when hypertonic (0.25 M) NaCl was simultaneously infused into the ventricle. The antidiuretic effect of PGF2 alpha was less pronounced, and drinking only occasionally occurred when this PG was infused into the non-hydrated animal. Only a weak, post-infusion reduction of the water diuresis was observed when arachidonic acid was administered into the hydrated goat. Neither the PG:s, nor arachidonic acid affected the temperature regulation of the animals. The possibility is discussed that the lack of febrile response was due to the choice of platinum-iridium as material for the cerebral implantations. It is suggested that PGE2 might have interacted with CSF Na+ in stimulating juxtaventricular receptors involved in the control of fluid balance. The experiments do not support the concept that PG:s of the E series constitute a cerebral humoral link in pyrogen-induced fever.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 11/1978; 104(2):225-31. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 03/1978; 102(2):254-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • L. G. Leksell
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica - ACTA PHYSIOL SCAND. 01/1978; 104(2):225-231.
  • L G Leksell, M Rundgren
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 09/1977; 100(4):494-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infusions (20 microliter/min) of hypertonic (0.3 M) NaCl and angiotensin II (1 ng/kg min-1) in isotonic (0.15 M) NaCl were made for 1 h in the hydrated goat during fully developed water diruesis. Either H2O or deuterium (D2O) WAS USED AS SOLVENT. A pronounced antidiuretic response, outlasting the infusion period by 30 min or more, was seen when the substances were dissolved in H2O. Only a weak inhibition of the water diuresis, which was extinguished during the infusion period, was obtained when D2O was used as the solvent. The infusion of 0.3 M NaCl/H2O invariably induced drinking in one of the goats, which, however, showed no drinking response to the infusions of 0.3 M NaCl/D2O. The possibility is discussed that D2O (perhaps by its inhibitory effect on (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity) reduced the sensitivity of juxtaventricular receptors regulating ADH-release and water intake.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 06/1977; 100(1):45-50. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • L G Leksell
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of infusions of PGE1 (30 ng/kg min-1) into the lateral cerebral ventricle were studied in the conscious, hydrated goat. The infusions caused release of antidiuretic hormone and increased renal sodium excretion. When PGE1 was infused together with hypertonic NaCl these effects became markedly enhanced and the infusion also induced drinking and a rise in the arterial blood pressure. Much weaker effects were obtained by the infusion of the hypertonic NaCl alone. This sodium-PGE1 interaction is discussed in relation to previously observed, central sodium-angiotensin II interaction. A more pronounced drinking effect was obtained in response to the intraventricular infusion of PGE1 + angiotensin II, than to the infusion of either substance separately. The PGE1 administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle did not induce any febrile response.
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 10/1976; 98(1):85-93. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • L G Leksell, F Lishajko, M Rundgren
    Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 04/1976; 97(1):142-4. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • B Andersson, L G Leksell, F Lishajko
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    ABSTRACT: Acute and chronic effects on the fluid balance of radio-frequency forebrain lesions were studied in the goat. Medial lesions which involved practically the entire anterior wall of the third cerebral ventricle cause persistent loss of thirst and lack of significant antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release in response to hypernatraemia and plasma hyperosmolality. As acute response to such lesions an uncompensated, temporary water diuresis was seen, which rapidly caused pronounced hypernatraemia and hypovolaemia. Lesions extending laterally to encroach upon the supraoptic nuclei resulted in persistent signs of weak, inappropriate ADH secretion (=impaired water diuresis, renal salt wasting, and pronounced hyponatraemia during hydration). Forebrain damage, mainly restricted to the septal region, caused hyperdipsia. In some goats, obvious post-lesioning increase in salt appetite was observed which could not be coreelated to the extent of their forebrain damage. The results are discussed in relation to hypothalamic syndromes in man and previous studies on central control of fluid balance in the goat.
    Brain Research 01/1976; 99(2):261-75. · 2.88 Impact Factor