Kurt T Barnhart

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (272)962.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Clomiphene is the current first-line infertility treatment in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, but aromatase inhibitors, including letrozole, might result in better pregnancy outcomes. Methods In this double-blind, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 750 women, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive letrozole or clomiphene for up to five treatment cycles, with visits to determine ovulation and pregnancy, followed by tracking of pregnancies. The polycystic ovary syndrome was defined according to modified Rotterdam criteria (anovulation with either hyperandrogenism or polycystic ovaries). Participants were 18 to 40 years of age, had at least one patent fallopian tube and a normal uterine cavity, and had a male partner with a sperm concentration of at least 14 million per milliliter; the women and their partners agreed to have regular intercourse with the intent of conception during the study. The primary outcome was live birth during the treatment period. Results Women who received letrozole had more cumulative live births than those who received clomiphene (103 of 374 [27.5%] vs. 72 of 376 [19.1%], P=0.007; rate ratio for live birth, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.87) without significant differences in overall congenital anomalies, though there were four major congenital anomalies in the letrozole group versus one in the clomiphene group (P=0.65). The cumulative ovulation rate was higher with letrozole than with clomiphene (834 of 1352 treatment cycles [61.7%] vs. 688 of 1425 treatment cycles [48.3%], P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pregnancy loss (49 of 154 pregnancies in the letrozole group [31.8%] and 30 of 103 pregnancies in the clomiphene group [29.1%]) or twin pregnancy (3.4% and 7.4%, respectively). Clomiphene was associated with a higher incidence of hot flushes, and letrozole was associated with higher incidences of fatigue and dizziness. Rates of other adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups. Conclusions As compared with clomiphene, letrozole was associated with higher live-birth and ovulation rates among infertile women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00719186 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2014; 371(2):119-129. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women with prior ectopic pregnancy (EP) have an increased failure rate when treated with single-dose methotrexate (MTX) for subsequent EP. We sought to determine whether previous EP remained a risk factor for failure when using the two-dose MTX protocol.
    The Journal of reproductive medicine. 07/2014; 59(7-8):379-84.
  • Kurt T Barnhart
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    ABSTRACT: Well-designed and -conducted clinical trials are needed to further advance the field for reproductive medicine. However, current reporting of outcomes of trials is ambiguous and disparate. In this review it is offered that the preferred outcome for clinical trials in reproductive medicine should be live birth. Multiple births should be listed, and it should be specified whether this is multiple births per couple or multiple births per conception. The unit of measure should be women (or couples) and not cycles. The duration of exposure should also be clearly identified (i.e., treatment was one cycle, a prespecified number of cycles, or a period of time). Pregnancy loss should be specified, and the denominator should be those who conceived. Although live birth is the primary outcome, complications should be defined and reported, including multiple births and other objective markers, such as preterm delivery, small-for-gestational age, or stillbirth.
    Fertility and sterility 05/2014; 101(5):1205-1208. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Tubal ectopic pregnancy can be surgically treated by salpingectomy, in which the affected Fallopian tube is removed, or salpingotomy, in which the tube is preserved. Despite potentially increased risks of persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy, salpingotomy is often preferred over salpingectomy because the preservation of both tubes is assumed to offer favourable fertility prospects, although little evidence exists to support this assumption. We aimed to assess whether salpingotomy would improve rates of ongoing pregnancy by natural conception compared with salpingectomy. Methods In this open-label, multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial, women aged 18 years and older with a laparoscopically confirmed tubal pregnancy and a healthy contralateral tube were randomly assigned via a central internet-based randomisation program to receive salpingotomy or salpingectomy. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy by natural conception. Differences in cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates were expressed as a fecundity rate ratio with 95% CI, calculated by Cox proportional-hazards analysis with a time horizon of 36 months. Secondary outcomes were persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy (expressed as relative risks [RRs] with 95% CIs) and ongoing pregnancy after ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, or IVF. The researchers who collected data for fertility outcomes were masked to the assigned intervention, but patients and the investigators who analysed the data were not. All endpoints were analysed by intention to treat. We also did a (non-prespecified) meta-analysis that included the findings from the present trial. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN37002267. Findings 446 women were randomly assigned between Sept 24, 2004, and Nov 29, 2011, with 215 allocated to salpingotomy and 231 to salpingectomy. Follow-up was discontinued on Feb 1, 2013. The cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate was 60·7% after salpingotomy and 56·2% after salpingectomy (fecundity rate ratio 1·06, 95% CI 0·81–1·38; log-rank p=0·678). Persistent trophoblast occurred more frequently in the salpingotomy group than in the salpingectomy group (14 [7%] vs 1 [<1%]; RR 15·0, 2·0–113·4). Repeat ectopic pregnancy occurred in 18 women (8%) in the salpingotomy group and 12 (5%) women in the salpingectomy group (RR 1·6, 0·8–3·3). The number of ongoing pregnancies after ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, or IVF did not differ significantly between the groups. 43 (20%) women in the salpingotomy group were converted to salpingectomy during the initial surgery because of persistent tubal bleeding. Our meta-analysis, which included our own results and those of one other study, substantiated the results of the trial. Interpretation In women with a tubal pregnancy and a healthy contralateral tube, salpingotomy does not significantly improve fertility prospects compared with salpingectomy. Funding Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMW), Region Västra Götaland Health & Medical Care Committee.
    The Lancet 02/2014; · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To summarize baseline characteristics from a large multicenter infertility clinical trial. Design Cross-sectional baseline data from a double-blind randomized trial of two treatment regimens (letrozole vs. clomiphene). Setting Academic Health Centers throughout the United States. Patient(s) Seven hundred fifty women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their male partners took part in the study. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Historic, biometric, biochemical, and questionnaire parameters. Result(s) Females averaged 30 years and were obese (body mass index [BMI] 35) with ∼20% from a racial/ethnic minority. Most (87%) were hirsute and nulligravid (63%). Most of the women had an elevated antral follicle count and enlarged ovarian volume on ultrasound. Women had elevated mean circulating androgens, LH-to-FSH ratio (∼2), and antimüllerian hormone levels (8.0 ng/mL). In addition, women had evidence for metabolic dysfunction with elevated mean fasting insulin and dyslipidemia. Increasing obesity was associated with decreased LH-to-FSH levels, antimüllerian hormone levels, and antral follicle counts but increasing cardiovascular risk factors, including prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Men were obese (BMI 30) and had normal mean semen parameters. Conclusion(s) The treatment groups were well matched at baseline. Obesity exacerbates select female reproductive and most metabolic parameters. We have also established a database and sample repository that will eventually be accessible to investigators. Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT00719186.
    Fertility and Sterility. 01/2014; 101(1):258–269.e8.
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    ABSTRACT: Antithrombin (AT) is a 65 kDa glycoprotein belonging to a group of inhibitory factors known as serpins (serine protease inhibitors). It plays a critical role in the inhibition of coagulation and inflammation processes within the environment of the vascular endothelium. Inadequate levels of functional AT in plasma results in an increased risk of thrombotic events, both venous and arterial. AT deficiency can be inherited or acquired. Congenital AT deficiency is the most severe inherited thrombophilic condition with an odds ratio of 20 for the increased risk of venous thrombosis. Acquired AT deficiency occurs in a variety of physiologic and pathologic medical conditions with similar risks of increased thrombosis. In this article, we review clinical settings characterized by an acquired AT deficiency largely or partly subsequent to protein microvascular leakage. Other different mechanisms of AT depletion are implied in some clinical conditions together with endothelial loss, and, therefore, outlined. In addition, we provide a description of the current knowledge on the specific mechanisms underlying endothelial AT leakage and on the consequences of this protein decrease, specifically looking at thrombosis. We identify potential directions of research that might prove useful in patients with acquired AT deficiency.
    Thrombosis Research 01/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Kurt T. Barnhart
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    ABSTRACT: The rationale to freeze all embryos to avoid transfer into a supraphysiologic environment to improve safety and efficacy is compelling, but not yet proven. How do we decide?
    Fertility and Sterility. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Are there improvements in the accuracy of prediction of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in women with early symptomatic pregnancy using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) curves when clinicians consider visits beyond the first 48 h after initial presentation? Two hCG values, measured 48 h (2 days) apart, are often not sufficient to accurately predict the outcome of a woman with a pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), but adding a third visit on Day 4 or 7 significantly improved the prediction for 1 in 15 women. The use of serial hCG values is commonly used to aid in the prediction of the final diagnosis in women with a PUL. Initial outcome predictions based on two hCG values may often be incorrect. This retrospective multicenter cohort study included 646 women with a PUL, recruited over 2 years. Of these women, 146 were ultimately diagnosed with EP. Women presenting to the emergency room with first trimester pain or bleeding, with a PUL, at least 2 hCG values and a definitive final diagnosis from the University of Pennsylvania, University of Miami and University of Southern California, were recruited from 2007 to 2009. Using currently recommended prediction rules, adding a third hCG evaluation on Day 4 after initial presentation significantly improved the accuracy of initial prediction from the first two values (48 h apart, or Day 2) by 9.3% (P = 0.015). Adding a third value on Day 7 improved prediction significantly by 6.7% (P = 0.031), compared with prediction based on first two values. The improvement in prediction by assessing four hCG values (Days 0, 2, 4 and 7) compared with three values (Days 0, 2 and 4) was 1.3% and not statistically significant. Missing data imputation likely biased results toward the null; predicted outcomes may not match those made by clinicians; and the study does not predict intrauterine pregnancy and spontaneous miscarriage separately. This study provides useful information for the prediction of outcomes for women with a symptomatic first trimester pregnancy of unknown location, but may not be generalizable to all pregnant women. Supported by NIH grant numbers R01-HD036455 to Dr Barnhart and Dr Sammel, K24HD060687 to Dr Barnhart, and 5T32MH065218 to Ms. Zee. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
    Human Reproduction 12/2013; · 4.67 Impact Factor
  • Kurt T Barnhart
    Fertility and sterility 11/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND At present, it is unclear which treatment strategy is best for couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility. We hypothesized that the prognostic profile influences the effectiveness of assisted conception. We addressed this issue by analysing individual patient data (IPD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs).METHODS We performed an IPD analysis of published RCTs on treatment strategies for subfertile couples. Eligible studies were identified from Cochrane systematic reviews and we also searched Medline and EMBASE. The authors of RCTs that compared expectant management (EM), intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), all three with or without controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and IVF in couples with unexplained or male subfertility, and had reported live birth or ongoing pregnancy as an outcome measure, were invited to share their data. For each individual patient the chance of natural conception was calculated with a validated prognostic model. We constructed prognosis-by-treatment curves and tested whether there was a significant interaction between treatment and prognosis.RESULTSWe acquired data from 8 RCTs, including 2550 couples. In three studies (n = 954) the more invasive treatment strategies tended to be less effective in couples with a high chance of natural conception but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P-value for interaction between prognosis and treatment outcome were 0.71, 0.31 and 0.19). In one study (n = 932 couples) the strategies with COS (ICI and IUI) led to higher pregnancy rates than unstimulated strategies (ICI 8% versus 15%, IUI 13% versus 22%), regardless of prognosis (P-value for interaction in all comparisons >0.5), but at the expense of a high twin rate in the COS strategies (ICI 6% versus 23% and IUI 3% versus 30%, respectively). In two studies (n = 373 couples), the more invasive treatment strategies tended to be more effective in couples with a good prognosis but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P-value for interaction: 0.38 and 0.68). In one study (n = 253 couples) the differential effect of prognosis on treatment effect was limited (P-value for interaction 0.52), perhaps because prognosis was incorporated in the inclusion criteria. The only study that compared EM with IVF included 38 couples, too small for a precise estimate.CONCLUSIONS In this IPD analysis of couples with unexplained or male subfertility, we did not find a large differential effect of prognosis on the effectiveness of fertility treatment with IUI, COS or IVF.
    Human Reproduction Update 10/2013; · 9.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the curve derived from serial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) values in women with spontaneous resolution of pregnancy of unknown location and to assess factors that modify the decline. Data from three sites were extracted from a clinical database of women with a symptomatic pregnancy of unknown location that required follow-up with serial hCG levels. A nonlinear mixed-effects regression model was used to generate hCG elimination curves. Four hundred forty-three women presenting with a pregnancy of unknown location that resolved without intervention were studied between September 2007 and May 2009. Women older than 35 years had a slower hCG decline (P=.001) and those with pain had a steeper decline (P=.006), but these changes did not alter the curve in a clinically meaningful way. The decline in hCG is faster for those with a higher level at presentation. The average decline of hCG in women with spontaneous resolution is slower than previously reported. However, the minimal decline in hCG for women with spontaneous resolution of a pregnancy of unknown location ranged from 35% to 50% at 2 days of follow-up and from 66% to 87% at 7 days, which is more rapid than previously reported. In a diverse population, using updated statistical methods, it was observed that the minimal decline in hCG for women with spontaneous resolution is more rapid than previously reported. A decline slower than these thresholds may indicate the presence of retained trophoblastic tissue or ectopic pregnancy. : III.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2013; 122(2 Pt 1):337-43. · 4.80 Impact Factor
  • Kurt T Barnhart
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    ABSTRACT: Interrogating the association between assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and perinatal outcome is complicated but very important. This is an introduction to a series of articles that review this potential association with an eye toward etiology of risk, and what aspects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be modified to reduce this risk. When an association is not due to chance (i.e., statistically significant), one must also consider how the association may be affected due to bias or confounding. Despite lack of the perfect study, perinatal consequences of ART are apparent, even though the vast majority of children conceived with ART are healthy. Pregnancy after IVF is altered as evidenced by risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight among infants, and an alerted prevalence of preeclampsia. The long-term clinical implications of ART, such as childhood development and metabolism, have not been established and ongoing study is proceeding. The risk attributed to multiple births is iatrogenic and needs to be minimized. Optimizing the environment at the time a woman conceives will likely have an effect on gestation as well as the health of children. Reproduction effects health and health effects reproduction.
    Fertility and sterility 02/2013; 99(2):299-302. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Suneeta Senapati, Kurt T Barnhart
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    ABSTRACT: Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1% to 2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location.
    Fertility and sterility 01/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    BMJ (online) 01/2013; 346:f197. · 17.22 Impact Factor
  • Stephen S Palmer, Kurt T Barnhart
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    ABSTRACT: A biomarker can be used for early diagnosis of a disease, identification of individuals for disease prevention, as a potential drug target, or as a potential marker for a drug response. A biomarker may also limit the use of drug (and therefore costs) to the population of patients for which the drug will be safe and efficacious. A biomarker in reproduction could be used to improve assessment of exposure, identify subgroups susceptible to treatment, predict outcome, and/or differentiate subgroups with potentially different etiologies of disease. Despite many potential uses there is low participation in reproductive biology to develop molecular biomarkers, which may be directly related to the low number of new molecular entities entering clinical trials. As the number of candidate markers in reproductive medicine is increasing, it is important to understand the pathway of development from discovery to clinical utility and recognize that the vast majority of potential markers will not be clinically useful, owing to a variety of pitfalls. Extensive testing, validation, and modification needs to be performed before a biomarker is demonstrated to have clinical utility. New opportunities and partnerships exist and should hasten the development of biomarkers in reproduction. As more biomarkers are moved into practice, a better-educated biomarker consumer will enhance the possibility that biomarker(s) will realize their great potential.
    Fertility and sterility 12/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Kurt T Barnhart
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of the diagnosis and management of women with an early pregnancy loss has been a success story. The mortality from ectopic pregnancy has objectively been decreased in the past few decades. However, modern management has resulted in a new set of issues. Over-interpretation of a single ultrasound, misunderstanding of the utility of serial hCG values, and inappropriate use of methotrexate can result in iatrogenic complications. Modern management has successfully improved the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy before rupture; it should now also focus on ensuring that an intrauterine pregnancy is not interrupted as a result of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews some of the pitfalls of the modern management of early pregnancy failure and introduces a series of articles on the subject.
    Fertility and sterility 11/2012; 98(5):1061-5. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess a scoring system to triage women with a pregnancy of unknown location. DESIGN: Validation of prediction rule. SETTING: Multicenter study. PATIENT(S): Women with a pregnancy of unknown location. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Scores assigned to factors identified at clinical presentation, total score calculated to assess risk of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in women with a pregnancy of unknown location, and a proposed three-tiered clinical action plan. RESULT(S): The cohort of 1,400 women (284 ectopic pregnancies, 759 miscarriages, and 357 intrauterine pregnancies) was more diverse than the original cohort used to develop the decision rule. The recommendations of the action plan were low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk; the recommendation based on the model score was compared with clinical diagnosis. A total of 29.4% intrauterine pregnancies were identified for less frequent follow-up observation, and 18.4% nonviable gestations were identified for more frequent follow-up observation (to rule out an ectopic pregnancy) compared with intermediate risk (i.e., monitor in current standard fashion). For a decision of possible less frequent monitoring, the specificity was 90.8% (89.0-92.6) with negative predictive value of 79.0% (76.7-81.3). For a decision of more intense follow-up observation, the specificity was 95.0% (92.7-97.2). Test characteristics using the scoring system were replicated in the diverse validation cohort. CONCLUSION(S): A scoring system based on symptoms at presentation has value to stratify risk and influence the intensity of outpatient surveillance for women with pregnancy of unknown location but does not serve as a diagnostic tool.
    Fertility and sterility 10/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Kurt Barnhart
    Fertility and sterility 09/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The term 'pregnancy of unknown location' (PUL) refers to cases where a pregnancy test is positive but the pregnancy cannot be visualized by transvaginal sonography (TVS). Various strategies integrating TVS and serum hCG measures are used to follow-up until the location and/or viability of the pregnancy becomes clear; however, the optimal strategy to predict the outcome of pregnancy in women with PUL is unknown. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the various serum hCG strategies in women with PUL. METHODS We searched Medline and EMBASE for articles which were published (in any language) from 1980 to January 2012 on strategies using serum hCG in women with PUL and reporting on the final outcome of pregnancy. RESULTS From 980 selected titles, 23 articles, all cohort studies, were included. There were 10 studies on a single serum hCG cut-off level, 4 on serum hCG ratio (hCG 48 h/hCG 0 h) and 6 on logistic regression modelling. Three other strategies were reported using serum hCG, serum progesterone and/or uterine curettage findings; each of these strategies comprised a single study. Comparative diagnostic studies have not been performed on the diagnostic value of serum hCG in women with PUL. Included studies showed substantial clinical heterogeneity in the definition of the outcome, and only data for the pregnancy outcome ectopic pregnancy (EP) were suitable for meta-analysis. The receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the serum hCG ratios and logistic regression models had a better performance as compared with an absolute single serum hCG level (as the curve was considerably closer to the diagonal, indicating no diagnostic value). CONCLUSIONS Overall the study was limited by the high clinical heterogeneity of the data but in women with PUL diagnostic strategies using serum hCG ratios, either alone or in logistic regression models, have the best diagnostic performance in the case of EP. Well defined prospective comparative studies using standardized diagnostics and clinical application plus agreed definitions of outcome are required to identify the best strategy to diagnose pregnancy outcome in women with PUL.
    Human Reproduction Update 09/2012; 18(6):603-17. · 9.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Microbicide gels studied for HIV prevention often are delivered via a single-use vaginal applicator. Using a contraceptive diaphragm such as the SILCS diaphragm for gel delivery could have advantages, including lower cost and additional pregnancy prevention. STUDY DESIGN: We performed an exploratory, nonblinded, randomized, crossover study among healthy, sexually active, nonpregnant women. Using BufferGel®, we evaluated three microbicide delivery methods for gel distribution and retention: SILCS single-sided gel delivery, SILCS double-sided gel delivery and a vaginal applicator (without SILCS). Magnetic resonance images were taken at baseline, after gel insertion, and immediately and 6 h after simulated intercourse. Three women completed all gel delivery methods described in this article. RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging analysis indicated similar gel spread in the vagina among all three methods. SILCS single-sided gel application resulted in the most consistent longitudinal coverage; SILCS double-sided gel application was the most consistent in the transverse dimension. CONCLUSIONS: Gel coverage was similar with all three methods. These results suggest that the SILCS microbicide delivery system is comparable to vaginal applicators for delivery of gel products intravaginally.
    Contraception 08/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
962.69 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Perelman School of Medicine
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Iowa
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 1994–2014
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2012
    • EMD Serono
      Rockland, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Miami, FL, United States
  • 2011
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Reproductive Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • Department of Urology
      Syracuse, NY, United States
    • Wistar Institute
      • Center for Systems and Computational Biology (CSCB)
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Reproductive Medicine
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2008
    • Eastern Virginia Medical School
      Norfolk, Virginia, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Miami
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Durham, NC, United States