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Publications (7)18.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for prostate cancer. Given its frequent failure, new therapy that reduces prostate cancer progression would be a breakthrough in treating this disease. Bisphosphonates are well-established agents for treating skeletal-related events (SREs) in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Exposure to bisphosphonates may not only reduce the incidence of SREs, but also have anticancer effects by modulating a patient's immunity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of zoledronate (ZOL) on γδ T cells, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and velocities. The effect of ZOL, with and without IL-2, on γδ T cell activation was examined in vitro. Furthermore, the activated state and the number of γδ T cells and changes in serum PSA levels were examined for patients who received ZOL infusion for the prevention of SREs. We found that ZOL activated γδ T cells, and the number of γδ T cell was increased when IL-2 was administered with ZOL in vitro. Comparisons before and after the first ZOL infusion revealed that γδ T cells in peripheral blood were activated by ZOL. Moreover, after the first ZOL treatment, reduction in serum PSA was observed in 3 of 11 patients, and reduction in PSA velocity was observed in 5 of 10 patients. Our findings indicate that ZOL stimulates γδ T cells in vivo and in vitro. This study provides further insight into the ability of γδ T cells to induce an antitumor immune response.
    Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Therapeutics 09/2010; 18(10):493-501. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for prostate cancer. Given its frequent failure, new therapy that reduces prostate cancer progression would be a breakthrough in treating this disease. Bisphosphonates are well-established agents for treating skeletal-related events (SREs) in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Exposure to bisphosphonates may not only reduce the incidence of SREs, but also have anticancer effects by modulating a patient's immunity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of zoledronate (ZOL) on gamma delta T cells, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and velocities. The effect of ZOL, with and without IL-2, on gamma delta T cell activation was examined in vitro. Furthermore, the activated state and the number of gamma delta T cells and changes in serum PSA levels were examined for patients who received ZOL infusion for the prevention of SREs. We found that ZOL activated gamma delta T cells, and the number of gamma delta T cell was increased when IL-2 was administered with ZOL in vitro. Comparisons before and after the first ZOL infusion revealed that gamma delta T cells in peripheral blood were activated by ZOL. Moreover, after the first ZOL treatment, reduction in serum PSA was observed in 3 of 11 patients, and reduction in PSA velocity was observed in 5 of 10 patients. Our findings indicate that ZOL stimulates gamma delta T cells in vivo and in vitro. This study provides further insight into the ability of gamma delta T cells to induce an antitumor immune response.
    Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Therapeutics 01/2010; 18(10):493-501. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrugs are used to treat various cancers. Response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy and expression of 5-FU-related enzymes differ among cancers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of 5-FU-related enzymes and clinicopathologic factors in bladder cancer. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 44 bladder cancers and 27 normal bladders were included in this study. After laser capture microdissection, "Danenberg tumor profile," was performed for the measurement of 5-FU-related enzymes. There was no significant difference between dihydropyrimidine hydrogenase (DPD) mRNA expression in bladder cancer and in normal bladder. On the contrary, mRNA expressions of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), thymidylate synthase (TS), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in bladder cancer were higher than those in normal bladder. Compared with previously reported DPD mRNA expressions in other types of cancer, DPD mRNA expression in bladder cancer was relatively low. The 5-FU-related enzymatic condition of bladder cancer is favorable for 5-FU.
    Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Therapeutics 01/2009; 18(4):153-62. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Until now, there have been no reliable serum markers for monitoring urothelial cancers. However, it has been reported that it is possible to detect circulating urothelial cancer cells using the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell (CCTC) Test (Immunicon, Huntingdon Valley, PA). This case report is a representative example of the good correlation between the change of the number of circulating tumor cells in the blood and the state of an urothelial cancer after therapies. Detection of circulating tumor cells might be a valuable serum marker for urothelial cancer patients with distant metastasis.
    Southern medical journal 05/2008; 101(4):439-41. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many mechanisms involving TNF-alpha, Th1 responses, and Th17 responses are implicated in chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Recently, the clinical impact of anti-TNF therapy on disease progression has resulted in re-evaluation of the central role of this cytokine and engendered novel concept of TNF-dependent immunity. However, the overall relationship of TNF-alpha to pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate a TNF-dependent differentiation pathway of dendritic cells (DC) evoking Th1 and Th17 responses. CD14(+) monocytes cultured in the presence of TNF-alpha and GM-CSF converted to CD14(+) CD1a(low) adherent cells with little capacity to stimulate T cells. On stimulation by LPS, however, they produced high levels of TNF-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and IL-23 and differentiated either into mature DC or activated macrophages (M phi). The mature DC (CD83(+) CD70(+) HLA-DR (high) CD14(low)) expressed high levels of mRNA for IL-6, IL-15, and IL-23, induced naive CD4 T cells to produce IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and stimulated resting CD4 T cells to secret IL-17. Intriguingly, TNF-alpha added to the monocyte culture medium determined the magnitude of LPS-induced maturation and the functions of the derived DC. In contrast, the M phi (CD14(high)CD70(+)CD83(-)HLA-DR(-)) produced large amounts of MMP-9 and TNF-alpha without exogenous TNF stimulation. These results suggest that the TNF priming of monocytes controls Th1 and Th17 responses induced by mature DC, but not inflammation induced by activated M phi. Therefore, additional stimulation of monocytes with TNF-alpha may facilitate TNF-dependent adaptive immunity together with GM-CSF-stimulated M phi-mediated innate immunity.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2007; 179(3):1449-57. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for bladder cancer is successful, although the precise mechanism is unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells are a candidate for BCG-activated killer cells, but the roles of other T lymphocytes, such as NKT cells and gammadeltaT cells, are not fully understood. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a potent activator of both NKT cells and gammadeltaT cells. However, it is known that the patient's prognosis is good if there are increased numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) in the urine after BCG therapy. Therefore, we investigated whether DCs are matured by BCG and whether BCG-pulsed DCs stimulate NKT cells and gammadeltaT cells. Naïve Pan T cells were isolated form peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and DCs were obtained by culturing CD14(+) monocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The DCs were pulsed with BCG and their maturation was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis using the CD86 antibody. Naïve T lymphocytes were stimulated by coculture with BCG-pulsed DCs in vitro, followed by FACS analysis to estimate the ratio and activation of NKT cells and the ratio of gammadeltaT cells. The (51)Cr (chromium) release assay was used to estimate the cytotoxic activity of the stimulated T cells. Cytolytic proteins in the patient's PBMCs were measured during BCG therapy using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The DCs were matured by BCG stimulation and the number of NKT cells and gammadeltaT cells increased after culturing with BCG-pulsed DCs. The BCG-pulsed DCs also activated the NKT cells and gammadeltaT cells. Also, the lymphocytes that were cocultured with the BCG-pulsed DCs showed unspecific cytotoxic activity against a bladder cancer cell line. Sensitization of NKT cells and gammadeltaT cells by BCG-pulsed DCs might be one of the mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy.
    International Journal of Urology 07/2007; 14(6):532-8; discussion 538. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND.Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been shown to aid in the therapeutic management of patients. But, only a few attempts have been made at the detection of urothelial cancer cells in the blood. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that CTCs are detected in patients with urothelial cancers using newly developed CellSearch Assay.METHODS.Firstly, the bladder cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the reagents for immunocytochemical detection. After, mixed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers, bladder cancer cells were stained with antibodies then multiparameter flow cytometric analysis was performed for the identification of bladder cancer cells in the PBMCs. Secondary, recovery of known numbers of spiked bladder cancer cells from whole blood was examined using CellSearch Assay. Finally, blood samples from nonmetastatic and metastatic urothelial cancer patients were investigated for CTC detection using CellSearch Assay.RESULTS.1: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that it is possible to identify bladder cancer cells in PBMCs. 2: Sensitivity examination for detection of urothelial cancer cells with CellSearch Assay: Single regression analysis of the spiked number of cells vs. the recovered number of cells yielded a good correlation in this experiment. 3: Urothelial cancer cells were detected in 8 of fourteen patients (57.1%) with distant metastasis. Despite, no patient with nonmetastatic urothelial cancers showed positive result for this assay.CONCLUSION.This is the first report of attempt to detect circulating urothelial cancer cells in the peripheral blood of the patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic urothelial cancers by CellSearch Assay. Cancer 2007. © 2007 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 03/2007; 109(7):1439 - 1445. · 5.20 Impact Factor