ABSTRACT: Workplace bullying is increasingly being recognized as a serious problem within the work environment. Previous studies in European countries have reported the prevalence of workplace bullying and its association with poor mental health, using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R: Einarsen & Hoel, 2001), but there have been very few studies in Japan. The authors translated the 22-item NAQ-R into the Japanese language and examined the internal consistency reliability and concurrent and construct validity, including factor-based validity, of this scale in a sample of Japanese civil servants.
A total of 830 males and 796 females were surveyed, using anonymous questionnaires including the NAQ-R, Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror (LIPT), and scales for interpersonal relations at work and psychological distress (response rate, 46.7%).
Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the internal consistency reliability of the NAQ-R were high (0.91-0.95) for males and females. Workplace bullying measured by the NAQ-R was strongly associated with that measured by the LIPT and other scales on workplace bullying. The NAQ-R was associated with high psychological distress, high intragroup and intergroup conflict, low supervisor and coworker support, and low interactional justice, as expected. Although three factors were extracted, this findings differed slightly from the factor structure previously reported (Einarsen et al., 2009). However, Factor 1 explained most of the variance, indicating that a one factor structure fitted the data better.
The present study showed acceptable levels of reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the NAQ-R among Japanese civil servants.
Journal of Occupational Health 01/2010; 52(4):216-26. · 1.55 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The color of hypoallergenic rice grains, produced by an enzymatic process was improved by treatment with diluted hydrochloric acid and washing with water. The acid-treated grains were steamed at the surface layer to prevent breakage. Textural evaluation showed the cooked hypoallergenic rice grains had a favorable stickiness/hardness ratio.
Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 55(4):1105 - 1107. · 1.66 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Workplace bullying interferes with provision of optimal care to patients and contributes to decreased job satisfaction and withdrawal of nurses from the workforce. Little is known about bullying (ijime) or its measurement among Japanese hospital nurses.
The objectives of this study were to describe responses and explore dimensionality of a Japanese translation of the 23-item revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R), a frequently used measure of bullying.
Responses of 881 registered nurses working in hospitals in Japan who answered all 23 NAQ-R items were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize item responses, the principal components analysis approaches used by other international investigators were replicated, and five exploratory maximum likelihood factor analysis models were estimated.
Responses to the 5-point (1 = never to 5 = daily) NAQ-R items were skewed, and 19% of the nurses replied never to all 23 items. The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues greater than 1, and all five maximum likelihood exploratory factor analytic models were rejected using the chi-square test statistic. Model comparison based on the Akaike Information Criterion identified the five-factor maximum likelihood model as the best approximating structure.
Dimensionality of the NAQ-R item set included verbal bullying, physical bullying, exploitation, undervaluation, and isolation. The solution reflected experiences of bullying reported in international studies, unique characteristics of Japanese bullying, and skewness in the data. Item response theory is recommended as an alternative way to gain insight into item functioning when the NAQ or its translations are used to measure nursing workplace bullying.
Nursing research 59(2):110-8. · 1.80 Impact Factor