Kim Newton

Genentech, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (25)481.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells that produce the cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. The differentiation of TH17 cells is regulated by transcription factors such as RORγt, but post-translational mechanisms preventing the rampant production of pro-inflammatory IL-17A have received less attention. Here we show that the deubiquitylating enzyme DUBA is a negative regulator of IL-17A production in T cells. Mice with DUBA-deficient T cells developed exacerbated inflammation in the small intestine after challenge with anti-CD3 antibodies. DUBA interacted with the ubiquitin ligase UBR5, which suppressed DUBA abundance in naive T cells. DUBA accumulated in activated T cells and stabilized UBR5, which then ubiquitylated RORγt in response to TGF-β signalling. Our data identify DUBA as a cell-intrinsic suppressor of IL-17 production.
    Nature 12/2014; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    Nature 02/2014; 506(7489):E4-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 trigger pro-inflammatory cell death termed necroptosis. Studies with RIPK3-deficient mice or the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 suggest that necroptosis exacerbates pathology in many disease models. We engineered mice expressing catalytically inactive RIPK3 D161N or RIPK1 D138N to determine the need for the active kinase in the whole animal. Unexpectedly, RIPK3 D161N promoted lethal RIPK1- and caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, mice expressing RIPK1 D138N were viable and, like RIPK3-deficient mice, resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced hypothermia. Cells expressing RIPK1 D138N were resistant to TNF-induced necroptosis, whereas TNF-induced signaling pathways promoting gene transcription were unperturbed. Our data indicate that the kinase activity of RIPK3 is essential for necroptosis, but also governs whether a cell activates caspase-8 and dies by apoptosis.
    Science 02/2014; · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurons are highly polarized cells that often project axons a considerable distance. To respond to axonal damage, neurons must transmit a retrograde signal to the nucleus to enable a transcriptional stress response. Here we describe a mechanism by which this signal is propagated through injury-induced stabilization of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK/MAP3K12). After neuronal insult, specific sites throughout the length of DLK underwent phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), which have been shown to be downstream targets of DLK pathway activity. These phosphorylation events resulted in increased DLK abundance via reduction of DLK ubiquitination, which was mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase PHR1 and the de-ubiquitinating enzyme USP9X. Abundance of DLK in turn controlled the levels of downstream JNK signaling and apoptosis. Through this feedback mechanism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system is able to provide an additional layer of regulation of retrograde stress signaling to generate a global cellular response to localized external insults.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 08/2013; · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is required for epidermal differentiation and is mutated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome. RIPK4 binds to protein kinase C, but its signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. Ectopic RIPK4, but not catalytically inactive or Bartsocas-Papas RIPK4 mutants, induced accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin and a transcriptional program similar to that caused by Wnt3a. In Xenopus embryos, Ripk4 synergized with coexpressed Xwnt8, whereas Ripk4 morpholinos or catalytic inactive Ripk4 antagonized Wnt signaling. RIPK4 interacted constitutively with the adaptor protein DVL2 and, after Wnt3a stimulation, with the coreceptor LRP6. Phosphorylation of DVL2 by RIPK4 favored canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt-dependent growth of xenografted human tumor cells was suppressed by RIPK4 knockdown, suggesting that RIPK4 overexpression may contribute to the growth of certain tumor types.
    Science 01/2013; · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NLRC4 is a cytosolic member of the NOD-like receptor family that is expressed in innate immune cells. It senses indirectly bacterial flagellin and type III secretion systems, and responds by assembling an inflammasome complex that promotes caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis. Here we use knock-in mice expressing NLRC4 with a carboxy-terminal 3×Flag tag to identify phosphorylation of NLRC4 on a single, evolutionarily conserved residue, Ser 533, following infection of macrophages with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (also known as Salmonella typhimurium). Western blotting with a NLRC4 phospho-Ser 533 antibody confirmed that this post-translational modification occurs only in the presence of stimuli known to engage NLRC4 and not the related protein NLRP3 or AIM2. Nlrc4(-/-) macrophages reconstituted with NLRC4 mutant S533A, unlike those reconstituted with wild-type NLRC4, did not activate caspase-1 and pyroptosis in response to S. typhimurium, indicating that S533 phosphorylation is critical for NLRC4 inflammasome function. Conversely, phosphomimetic NLRC4 S533D caused rapid macrophage pyroptosis without infection. Biochemical purification of the NLRC4-phosphorylating activity and a screen of kinase inhibitors identified PRKCD (PKCδ) as a candidate NLRC4 kinase. Recombinant PKCδ phosphorylated NLRC4 S533 in vitro, immunodepletion of PKCδ from macrophage lysates blocked NLRC4 S533 phosphorylation in vitro, and Prkcd(-/-) macrophages exhibited greatly attenuated caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion specifically in response to S. typhimurium. Phosphorylation-defective NLRC4 S533A failed to recruit procaspase-1 and did not assemble inflammasome specks during S. typhimurium infection, so phosphorylation of NLRC4 S533 probably drives conformational changes necessary for NLRC4 inflammasome activity and host innate immunity.
    Nature 08/2012; 490(7421):539-42. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: De-ubiquitinating enzyme BAP1 is mutated in a hereditary cancer syndrome with increased risk of mesothelioma and uveal melanoma. Somatic BAP1 mutations occur in various malignancies. We show that mouse Bap1 gene deletion is lethal during embryogenesis, but systemic or hematopoietic-restricted deletion in adults recapitulates features of human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Knockin mice expressing BAP1 with a 3xFlag tag revealed that BAP1 interacts with host cell factor-1 (HCF-1), O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), and the polycomb group proteins ASXL1 and ASXL2 in vivo. OGT and HCF-1 levels were decreased by Bap1 deletion, indicating a critical role for BAP1 in stabilizing these epigenetic regulators. Human ASXL1 is mutated frequently in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) so an ASXL/BAP1 complex may suppress CMML. A BAP1 catalytic mutation found in a MDS patient implies that BAP1 loss of function has similar consequences in mice and humans.
    Science 08/2012; 337(6101):1541-6. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ML-IAP [melanoma IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis)] is an anti-apoptotic protein that is expressed highly in melanomas where it contributes to resistance to apoptotic stimuli. The anti-apoptotic activity and elevated expression of IAP family proteins in many human cancers makes IAP proteins attractive targets for inhibition by cancer therapeutics. Small-molecule IAP antagonists that bind with high affinities to select BIR (baculovirus IAP repeat) domains have been shown to stimulate auto-ubiquitination and rapid proteasomal degradation of c-IAP1 (cellular IAP1) and c-IAP2 (cellular IAP2). In the present paper, we report ML-IAP proteasomal degradation in response to bivalent, but not monovalent, IAP antagonists. This degradation required ML-IAP ubiquitin ligase activity and was independent of c-IAP1 or c-IAP2. Although ML-IAP is best characterized in melanoma cells, we show that ML-IAP expression in normal mammalian tissues is restricted largely to the eye, being most abundant in ciliary body epithelium and retinal pigment epithelium. Surprisingly, given this pattern of expression, gene-targeted mice lacking ML-IAP exhibited normal intraocular pressure as well as normal retinal structure and function. The results of the present study indicate that ML-IAP is dispensable for both normal mouse development and ocular homoeostasis.
    Biochemical Journal 08/2012; 447(3):427-36. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Kim Newton, Vishva M Dixit
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is triggered when innate immune cells detect infection or tissue injury. Surveillance mechanisms involve pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. Most PRRs respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or host-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by triggering activation of NF-κB, AP1, CREB, c/EBP, and IRF transcription factors. Induction of genes encoding enzymes, chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and regulators of the extracellular matrix promotes the recruitment and activation of leukocytes, which are critical for eliminating foreign particles and host debris. A subset of PRRs activates the protease caspase-1, which causes maturation of the cytokines IL1β and IL18. Cell adhesion molecules and chemokines facilitate leukocyte extravasation from the circulation to the affected site, the chemokines stimulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Binding initiates signals that regulate leukocyte motility and effector functions. Other triggers of inflammation include allergens, which form antibody complexes that stimulate Fc receptors on mast cells. Although the role of inflammation is to resolve infection and injury, increasing evidence indicates that chronic inflammation is a risk factor for cancer.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 01/2012; 4(3). · 9.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibodies that specifically recognize polyubiquitin chains containing ubiquitins linked at a particular lysine residue are powerful tools for interrogating endogenous protein modifications. Here, we describe protocols for revealing K11-, K48-, and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunostaining.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 832:185-96. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Caspase-1 activation by inflammasome scaffolds comprised of intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and the adaptor ASC is believed to be essential for production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 during the innate immune response. Here we show, with C57BL/6 Casp11 gene-targeted mice, that caspase-11 (also known as caspase-4) is critical for caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production in macrophages infected with Escherichia coli, Citrobacter rodentium or Vibrio cholerae. Strain 129 mice, like Casp11(-/-) mice, exhibited defects in IL-1β production and harboured a mutation in the Casp11 locus that attenuated caspase-11 expression. This finding is important because published targeting of the Casp1 gene was done using strain 129 embryonic stem cells. Casp1 and Casp11 are too close in the genome to be segregated by recombination; consequently, the published Casp1(-/-) mice lack both caspase-11 and caspase-1. Interestingly, Casp11(-/-) macrophages secreted IL-1β normally in response to ATP and monosodium urate, indicating that caspase-11 is engaged by a non-canonical inflammasome. Casp1(-/-)Casp11(129mt/129mt) macrophages expressing caspase-11 from a C57BL/6 bacterial artificial chromosome transgene failed to secrete IL-1β regardless of stimulus, confirming an essential role for caspase-1 in IL-1β production. Caspase-11 rather than caspase-1, however, was required for non-canonical inflammasome-triggered macrophage cell death, indicating that caspase-11 orchestrates both caspase-1-dependent and -independent outputs. Caspase-1 activation by non-canonical stimuli required NLRP3 and ASC, but caspase-11 processing and cell death did not, implying that there is a distinct activator of caspase-11. Lastly, loss of caspase-11 rather than caspase-1 protected mice from a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide. These data highlight a unique pro-inflammatory role for caspase-11 in the innate immune response to clinically significant bacterial infections.
    Nature 11/2011; 479(7371):117-21. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proto-oncogenes ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 encode transcription factors in the E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family, which includes the most frequently rearranged and overexpressed genes in prostate cancer. Despite being critical regulators of development, little is known about their post-translational regulation. Here we identify the ubiquitin ligase COP1 (also known as RFWD2) as a tumour suppressor that negatively regulates ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5. ETV1, which is mutated in prostate cancer more often, was degraded after being ubiquitinated by COP1. Truncated ETV1 encoded by prostate cancer translocation TMPRSS2:ETV1 lacks the critical COP1 binding motifs and was 50-fold more stable than wild-type ETV1. Almost all patient translocations render ETV1 insensitive to COP1, implying that this confers a selective advantage to prostate epithelial cells. Indeed, COP1 deficiency in mouse prostate elevated ETV1 and produced increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and early prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Combined loss of COP1 and PTEN enhanced the invasiveness of mouse prostate adenocarcinomas. Finally, rare human prostate cancer samples showed hemizygous loss of the COP1 gene, loss of COP1 protein, and elevated ETV1 protein while lacking a translocation event. These findings identify COP1 as a tumour suppressor whose downregulation promotes prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
    Nature 06/2011; 474(7351):403-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell death is important for embryonic development, immune cell homeostasis, and pathogen elimination. Innate immune cells also undergo a very rapid form of cell death termed pyroptosis after activating the protease caspase-1. The hemichannel pannexin-1 has been implicated in both processes. In this study, we describe the characterization of pannexin-1-deficient mice. LPS-primed bone marrow-derived macrophages lacking pannexin-1 activated caspase-1 and secreted its substrates IL-1β and IL-18 normally after stimulation with ATP, nigericin, alum, silica, flagellin, or cytoplasmic DNA, indicating that pannexin-1 is dispensable for assembly of caspase-1-activating inflammasome complexes. Instead, thymocytes lacking pannexin-1, but not the P2X7R purinergic receptor, were defective in their uptake of the nucleic acid dye YO-PRO-1 during early apoptosis. Cell death was not delayed but, unlike their wild-type counterparts, Panx1(-/-) thymocytes failed to recruit wild-type peritoneal macrophages in a Transwell migration assay. These data are consistent with pannexin-1 liberating ATP and other yet to be defined "find me" signals necessary for macrophage recruitment to apoptotic cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 186(11):6553-61. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracellular pathogens and endogenous danger signals in the cytosol engage NOD-like receptors (NLRs), which assemble inflammasome complexes to activate caspase-1 and promote the release of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. However, the NLRs that respond to microbial pathogens in vivo are poorly defined. We show that the NLRs NLRP3 and NLRC4 both activate caspase-1 in response to Salmonella typhimurium. Responding to distinct bacterial triggers, NLRP3 and NLRC4 recruited ASC and caspase-1 into a single cytoplasmic focus, which served as the site of pro-IL-1beta processing. Consistent with an important role for both NLRP3 and NLRC4 in innate immune defense against S. typhimurium, mice lacking both NLRs were markedly more susceptible to infection. These results reveal unexpected redundancy among NLRs in host defense against intracellular pathogens in vivo.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2010; 207(8):1745-55. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages respond to cytosolic nucleic acids by activating cysteine protease caspase-1 within a complex called the inflammasome. Subsequent cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 are critical for innate immunity. Here, we show that macrophages from mice lacking absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) cannot sense cytosolic double-stranded DNA and fail to trigger inflammasome assembly. Caspase-1 activation in response to intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis also required AIM2. Immunofluorescence microscopy of macrophages infected with F. tularensis revealed striking colocalization of bacterial DNA with endogenous AIM2 and inflammasome adaptor ASC. By contrast, type I IFN (IFN-alpha and -beta) secretion in response to F. tularensis did not require AIM2. IFN-I did, however, boost AIM2-dependent caspase-1 activation by increasing AIM2 protein levels. Thus, inflammasome activation was reduced in infected macrophages lacking either the IFN-I receptor or stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Finally, AIM2-deficient mice displayed increased susceptibility to F. tularensis infection compared with wild-type mice. Their increased bacterial burden in vivo confirmed that AIM2 is essential for an effective innate immune response.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2010; 107(21):9771-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohn's and Colitis Supplements. 01/2010; 4(1):9-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Posttranslational modification of proteins with polyubiquitin occurs in diverse signaling pathways and is tightly regulated to ensure cellular homeostasis. Studies employing ubiquitin mutants suggest that the fate of polyubiquitinated proteins is determined by which lysine within ubiquitin is linked to the C terminus of an adjacent ubiquitin. We have developed linkage-specific antibodies that recognize polyubiquitin chains joined through lysine 63 (K63) or 48 (K48). A cocrystal structure of an anti-K63 linkage Fab bound to K63-linked diubiquitin provides insight into the molecular basis for specificity. We use these antibodies to demonstrate that RIP1, which is essential for tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappaB activation, and IRAK1, which participates in signaling by interleukin-1beta and Toll-like receptors, both undergo polyubiquitin editing in stimulated cells. Both kinase adaptors initially acquire K63-linked polyubiquitin, while at later times K48-linked polyubiquitin targets them for proteasomal degradation. Polyubiquitin editing may therefore be a general mechanism for attenuating innate immune signaling.
    Cell 09/2008; 134(4):668-78. · 31.96 Impact Factor
  • Kim Newton, Domagoj Vucic
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    ABSTRACT: The regulated degradation of cellular proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system impacts a range of vital cellular processes in both normal and cancerous cells. An ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and ubiquitin ligase (E3) catalyzes the conjugation of the protein ubiquitin to a target protein and, thereby, tags that protein for recognition and destruction by the proteasome. Ubiquitin ligases are particularly interesting because they determine substrate selection. This review examines the role of dysregulated ubiquitin ligase activity in the development and progression of various cancers, and highlights why ubiquitin ligases have emerged as extremely attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in a number of human malignancies.
    Cancer Investigation 10/2007; 25(6):502-13. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A crucial part of the innate immune response is the assembly of the inflammasome, a cytosolic complex of proteins that activates caspase-1 to process the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-18. The adaptor protein ASC is essential for inflammasome function, binding directly to caspase-1 (refs 3, 4), but the triggers of this interaction are less clear. ASC also interacts with the adaptor cryopyrin (also known as NALP3 or CIAS1). Activating mutations in cryopyrin are associated with familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease, diseases that are characterized by excessive production of IL-1beta. Here we show that cryopyrin-deficient macrophages cannot activate caspase-1 in response to Toll-like receptor agonists plus ATP, the latter activating the P2X7 receptor to decrease intracellular K+ levels. The release of IL-1beta in response to nigericin, a potassium ionophore, and maitotoxin, a potent marine toxin, was also found to be dependent on cryopyrin. In contrast to Asc-/- macrophages, cells deficient in the gene encoding cryopyrin (Cias1-/-) activated caspase-1 and secreted normal levels of IL-1beta and IL-18 when infected with Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium or Francisella tularensis. Macrophages exposed to Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes, however, required both ASC and cryopyrin to activate caspase-1 and secrete IL-1beta. Therefore, cryopyrin is essential for inflammasome activation in response to signalling pathways triggered specifically by ATP, nigericin, maitotoxin, S. aureus or L. monocytogenes.
    Nature 04/2006; 440(7081):228-32. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in protecting normal cells from undergoing transformation. Thus, it is fitting that cancer cells selectively dampen the p53 response to gain a selective growth advantage. In fact, the p53 gene is the most commonly mutated tumor suppressor gene in human cancers, and if the gene is not mutated, then other components of the p53 pathways are skewed to dampen the p53 response to stress. We recently identified COP1 as a novel and critical negative regulator of p53. COP1 is a RING finger-containing protein that targets p53 for degradation to the proteasome and is necessary for p53 turnover in normal and cancer cells. However, the association between COP1 and cancer remains to be determined. We performed expression analysis of COP1 in ovarian and breast cancer tissue microarrays. COP1 is significantly overexpressed in 81% (25 of 32) of breast and 44% (76 of 171) of ovarian adenocarcinoma as assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of COP1 correlated with a striking decrease in steady state p53 protein levels and attenuation of the downstream target gene, p21, in cancers that retain a wild-type p53 gene status. Overall, these results suggest that overexpression of COP1 contributes to the accelerated degradation of p53 protein in cancers and attenuates the tumor suppressor function of p53.
    Cancer Research 11/2004; 64(20):7226-30. · 8.65 Impact Factor