[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Real-time, convex probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is used for the staging of malignant mediastinal lymph nodes. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy and safety of EBUS-TBNA when used as an initial diagnostic tool.
We retrospectively studied 56 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA as an initial diagnostic tool between August 2010 and December 2011. Procedure purpose were classified into four categories: 1) intrathoracic masses adjacent to the central airway; 2) enlarged lymph nodes for concurrent diagnosis and staging in suspected malignancy; 3) enlarged lymph nodes in suspected malignancy cases with inability to perform percutaneous core needle biopsy (PCNB); and 4) solely mediastinal masses/lymph nodes in lieu of mediastinoscopy.
The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA regardless of procedure purpose was calculated to be 83.9%. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy of malignant disease was significantly higher than benign disease (93.9% vs. 70.6%, p < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for each disease is as follows: tuberculosis, 50%; sarcoidosis, 60%; aspergillosis, 100%; lung abscess, 100%; lung cancer, 93%; and lymphoma, 100%. There were minor complications in seven patients during the EBUS-TBNA procedure. The complications included mild hypoxia and bleeding.
In conclusion, EBUS-TBNA is a useful initial diagnostic tool for both benign and malignant diseases. EBUS-TBAN is also a very safe procedure and less invasive compared to mediastinoscopy or PCNB.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 11/2013; 28(6):660-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the extract from cuttlebone (CB) has wound healing effect in burned lesion of rat. In present study, the main component of CB extract was analyzed and its wound healing activity was evaluated by using in vitro acute inflammation model. The extract of CB stimulated macrophages to increase the production of TNF-α. The extract also enhanced the production of TGF-β and VEGF, which were involved in angiogenesis and fibroblast activation. The treatment with CB extract enhanced proliferation of murine fibroblast. CB extract also induced the activation of fibroblast to increase the secretion of matrix metalloproteases 1 (MMP1). The constituent of CB extract which has wound healing activity was identified as chitin by HPLC analysis. The mechanism that the CB extract helps to promote healing of burned lesion is associated with that chitin in CB extracts stimulated wound skins to induce acute inflammation and to promoted cell proliferation and MMP expression in fibroblast. Our results suggest that CB or chitin can be a new candidate material for the treatment of skin wound such as ulcer and burn.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics 05/2013; 21(3):246-250. · 0.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Few studies have investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM), a globally increasing metabolic disease, on treatment outcomes and long-term survival in patients with multidrug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Objectives: We analyzed outcomes in a large cohort to assess the impact of DM on treatment outcomes of patients with MDR-TB. Methods: MDR-TB patients newly diagnosed or retreated between 2000 and 2002 and followed for 8-11 years were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the effect of DM as a comorbidity on their treatment outcome and long-term survival. Results: Of 1,407 patients with MDR-TB, 239 (17.0%) had coexisting DM. The mean age and body mass index were higher in MDR-TB patients with DM [MDR-TBDM(+)] than in those without DM [MDR-TBDM(-)]. Patients with MDR-TB and a comorbidity of DM had a significantly lower treatment success rate than those without a history of DM (36.0 vs. 47.2%, p = 0.002). In addition, DM was the negative predictor for MDR-TB treatment success in multivariate analyses [odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.99]. Mean survival times were also lower in MDR-TBDM(+) than in MDR-TBDM(-) patients (102 vs. 114 months, p = 0.001), with DM as a significant predictor of poor long-term survival in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.01-2.50). Conclusions: Among MDR-TB patients, DM was a relatively common comorbidity. In patients undergoing treatment for MDR-TB and followed for 8-11 years, it was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of both treatment failure and death.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucormycosis is a fatal opportunistic fungal infection that typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. The classical manifestation of mucormycosis is a rhinocerebral infection, and although primary gastrointestinal infection is uncommon, it has an extremely high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, cases of gastrointestinal mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host are rarely reported. Here, we describe our experience of a male patient, with no underlying disease, who succumbed to a bowel infarction caused by intestinal mucormycosis during mechanical ventilatory care for severe pneumonia and septic shock.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society. 11/2012; 83(5):325-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reported actual compliance for severe sepsis bundles was very low, suggesting the presence of barriers to their implementation. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of full-time intensivist and nurse-to-patient ratio in Korean intensive care units (ICUs) on the implementation of the severe sepsis bundles and clinical outcome.
A total of 251 patients with severe sepsis were enrolled from 28 adult ICUs during the July, 2009. We recorded the organizational characteristics of ICUs, patients' characteristics and clinical outcomes, and the compliance for severe sepsis bundles.
Complete compliance with the resuscitation bundle and totally complete compliance with all element targets for resuscitation and management bundles were significantly higher in the ICU with full-time intensivist and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 (P < .05). The hazard ratio (HR) for hospital mortality was independently reduced by the presence of full-time intensivist (HR, 0.456; 95% confidence interval, 0.223-0.932), and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 was independently associated with a lower 28-day mortality (HR, 0.459; 95% confidence interval, 0.211-0.998).
The full-time intensivist and the nurse-to-patient ratio had a substantial influence on the implementation of severe sepsis bundles and the mortalities of patients with severe sepsis.
Journal of critical care 05/2012; 27(4):414.e11-21. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has emerged as a severe infection in patients with immunocompromised hosts. However, recently, several IPA cases, without an apparent predisposition to immunodeficiency, has been reported. A 72-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of general weakness and poor oral intake. She reported no medical history, except for intraarticular injection of a corticosteroid for joint pain for the duration of two months. A chest radiography revealed multiple cavitary nodules in both lungs. Examination of specimens, obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy, led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Brain magnetic resonance imagining revealed numerous peripheral thin enhancing cystic nodules in both cerebral hemispheres. We initiated intravenous administration of amphotercin B. However, the patient died after nine days. Here, we report an invasive aspergillosis case, which involves the lungs and brain after a short period of steroid injection.
Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 05/2012; 72(5):448-51.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in lung adenocarcinoma specimens with different proportions of tumor cells using two methods with different sensitivities.
EGFR mutation status was determined by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamping and direct sequencing. The samples consisted of 41 cell blocks of malignant pleural effusions with various proportions of tumor cells, as well as 23 lung biopsy specimens containing more than 20% tumor cells and the corresponding surgically resected tumors.
In the analysis of malignant pleural effusions, EGFR mutations were detected only by PNA clamping in four of nine patients who exhibited partial response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors; all the cell blocks of these four patients contained less than 20% tumor cells. Direct sequencing revealed wild-type EGFR, whereas PNA clamping revealed mutant EGFR, in one of five patients who exhibited progressive disease in response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor; the cell block of this patient contained a high proportion of tumor cells. A comparison of biopsy specimens containing sufficient tumor cells and the corresponding surgically resected tumors revealed discordance in the EGFR mutation status in four patients based on PNA clamping, whereas no discrepancies were observed by direct sequencing.
Highly sensitive methods, such as PNA clamping, may be superior to direct sequencing for the detection of EGFR mutations in diagnostic specimens with a low proportion of tumor cells. Direct sequencing may be more representative when diagnostic specimens with a high proportion of tumor cells are available.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 12/2011; 7(2):355-64. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated EGFR and KRAS mutations between 37 paired primary tumors and corresponding metastases in lung adenocarcinoma. A substantial discordance was found in EGFR mutation status between primary tumors and corresponding metastases including pleural metastases. Moreover, the responsiveness to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors tend to be correlated with EGFR mutation status in metastatic lesions than in primary tumors.
The aim of this study was to compare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations between primary tumors and corresponding metastases including pleural metastases in lung adenocarcinoma.
Thirty-seven paired primary lung adenocarcinomas and corresponding metastatic tumors were analyzed for EGFR and KRAS mutations. In addition, 21 pleural metastases including malignant pleural effusion or pleural biopsy were used in performing these mutation analyses.
EGFR mutations were detected in 18 primary lung adenocarcinomas (48.6%) and in 16 corresponding metastases (43.2%). EGFR mutations showed a discordance rate of 16.2% (6 of 37 patients) between primary lung adenocarcinomas and corresponding metastases. Among 21 pleural metastases, 3 patients (14.3%) showed that the EGFR mutation was discordant. KRAS mutations were detected in one primary tumor and in two metastatic tumors. Eighteen patients were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. One of seven patients who experienced partial response had EGFR mutations only in the metastasis, and two of seven patients who experienced progressive disease carried wild-type EGFR only in the metastasis.
EGFR mutations were discordant between primary tumors and corresponding metastases in a significant portion of lung adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, these discordance was also observed in metastases to the pleura, the nearest metastatic site.
Clinical Lung Cancer 05/2011; 12(6):380-6. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm arising from the antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. This disease usually involves the lymph nodes, and rarely, extranodal sites may be affected. The authors report a case of extranodal IDCS presenting in the pleura. A 32-yr-old man presented with progressive chest pain. Imaging studies showed diffuse pleural thickening with pleural effusion. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of an incisional biopsy of the pleura were consistent with a diagnosis of IDCS; tumor cells were positive for S100 and CD45, but negative for CD1a, CD21, CD35, B cell and T cell markers. The patient was administered chemotherapy, but died of progressive disease. Although its incidence is extremely rare, this case suggests that extranodal IDCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated neoplasms and that immunohistochemical staining be performed using appropriate markers.
Journal of Korean medical science 02/2011; 26(2):304-7. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few large-scale studies have investigated multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment outcomes relative to drug-resistance patterns.
To assess the impact of additional drug resistances on treatment outcomes and long-term survival in a large HIV-negative MDR-TB cohort.
Treatment outcomes and long-term survival of patients with MDR-TB newly diagnosed or retreated in 2000 to 2002 were retrospectively analyzed based on drug-resistance patterns after 5-8 years of follow-up.
Of 1,407 patients with MDR-TB, 75 (5.3%) had extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB(re)) by the revised definition; 159 (11.3%) had ofloxacin-resistant pre-XDR-TB (pre-XDR-TB(o)); and 117 (8.3%) had second-line injectable drug (SLID)-resistant pre-XDR-TB (pre-XDR-TB(s)). Patients with XDR-TB(re) showed the lowest treatment success rate (29.3%) and the poorest long-term survival, and XDR-TB(re) was more strongly associated with long-term mortality than XDR-TB as originally defined (hazards ratio [HR], 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.06-4.83; P < 0.001 vs. HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.49-3.09; P < 0.001). Patients with either form of pre-XDR-TB showed poorer cumulative survival than those with ofloxacin-susceptible/SLID-susceptible MDR-TB (P < 0.05 for each comparison). Although streptomycin susceptibility did not affect the treatment outcomes of patients with pre-XDR-TB, streptomycin-resistant pre-XDR-TB was more strongly associated with long-term mortality than ofloxacin-susceptible/SLID-susceptible MDR-TB (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.22-3.84; P < 0.008 for pre-XDR-TB(o); and HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.40-5.16; P = 0.003 for pre-XDR-TB(s)).
The revised XDR-TB definition is appropriate for defining patients with MDR-TB with the poorest outcomes. Both pre-XDR-TB(o) and pre-XDR-TB(s) were independently associated with poor long-term survival in patients with MDR-TB. SM susceptibility was linked to better survival in patients with pre-XDR-TB.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2010; 182(1):113-9. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background : Assessment of body fluid cytology is a useful means of evaluating a metastatic tumor. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as a replacement for the convention-al Papanicolaou (CP) test. This study was performed to compare CellprepPlus � LBC with CP in cytologic diagnosis. Methods : Body fluid samples (n=188, including 72 peritoneal fluid and 116 pleural fluid samples) were divided equally and analyzed by both CellprepPlus � and CP. Results : CellprepPlus � revealed distributed thin layers of non-overlapping cells. All Cellprep-Plus � preparations were adequate, while 18 (9.57%) CP preparations were inadequate. The respective diagnostic rates of CellprepPlus � and CP were 75.0% and 76.1% negative, 10.6% and 6.38% atypical, 5.85% and 2.66% suspicious, and 8.51% and 5.32% malignant. Of the 58 confirmed cases, the sensitivity of CellprepPlus � and CP was 94.4% and 73.3%, respective-ly, and the negative predictive value was 97.2% and 87.9%, respectively. Conclusions : CellprepPlus � LBC has better sensitivity and negative predictive value, and produces higher quality slide preparations than than CP, making it suitable as in screening of body fluid as a cytologic diagnostic tool.
The Korean Journal of Pathology 01/2009; 4343:448-52448. · 0.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing worldwide incidence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as a threat to public health and tuberculosis (TB) control. Treatment outcomes have varied among studies, and data on long-term survival are still scarce.
To retrospectively assess the burden, clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and long-term survival rate of patients with XDR-TB in a cohort of patients with HIV-negative multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Korea.
Medical records were reviewed of patients newly diagnosed with or retreated for MDR-TB from 2000 to 2002. The cohort was monitored for 3 to 7 years after the initiation of treatment. Initial treatment outcomes and cumulative survival rates were analyzed, and predictors of treatment success and survival were defined.
Of 1,407 patients with MDR-TB 75 (5.3%) had XDR-TB at treatment initiation. The default rate was high (453/1,407; 32%), and patients with XDR-TB had lower treatment success (29.3 vs. 46.2%; P = 0.004) and higher all-cause (49.3 vs. 19.4%; P < 0.001) and TB-related disease mortality (41.3 vs. 11.8%; P < 0.001) than other patients with MDR-TB. The presence of XDR-TB significantly affected treatment success (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.64; P = 0.005), all-cause mortality (hazards ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.91-5.53; P < 0.001), and TB-related mortality (hazards ratio, 4.45; 95% CI, 2.48-8.00; P < 0.001) on multivariate analyses.
XDR-TB occurred in a substantial proportion of patients with MDR-TB in South Korea, and was the strongest predictor of treatment outcomes and long-term survival in patients with MDR-TB. Adequate TB control policies should be implemented to prevent the further development and spread of drug resistance.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2008; 178(10):1075-82. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [corrected] The radiographic characteristics of tuberculous pneumonia in adults are similar to primary tuberculosis that occurs in childhood, and upper lobe cavitary tuberculosis is the hallmark of postprimary tuberculosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with tuberculous pneumonia by making comparison with cavitary tuberculosis.
The medical records and radiographic findings of patients with cavitary tuberculosis and tuberculous pneumonia, and who were diagnosed between March 2003 and February 2006, were analyzed retrospectively.
Forty patients had cavitary tuberculosis and sixteen patients had tuberculous pneumonia. Fever was more frequent for tuberculous pneumonia, whereas hemoptysis was more frequent for cavitary tuberculosis. The duration of symptoms before visiting the hospital was shorter, but the diagnosis after admission was more delayed for tuberculous pneumonia patients than for cavitary tuberculosis patients. The prevalence of underlying comorbidities such cancer, diabetes, alcoholism and long-term steroid use was not different between the two groups. The patients with tuberculous pneumonia were older and they had lower levels of serum albumin and hemoglobin than those with cavitary tuberculosis. The patients with tuberculous pneumonia showed a tendency to have more frequent endobronchial lesion. Tuberculous pneumonia occurred in any lobe, whereas the majority of cavitary tuberculosis patients had upper lung lesion, but the prevalence of lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion and previous tuberculosis scar was not different between the two groups.
Older age, a lower level of serum albumin and hemoglobin and a random distribution of lesion were associated with tuberculosis pneumonia as compared with cavitary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of tuberculous pneumonia might be different from that of cavitary tuberculosis.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2007; 21(4):230-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many individual cases of toxic hepatitis have been reported in Korea, there are few comprehensive systematic studies on acute toxic hepatitis. The first aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and clinical characteristics of acute toxic hepatitis patients. The second aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of steroid therapy for immunoallergic idiosyncrasy.
Between March 1998 and March 2004 forty eight patients were included in this study. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Acute toxic hepatitis was diagnosed by score of more than 3 in RUCAM criteria. All the patients were tested for hepatitis A, B and C. Other tests included antibodies to CMV and EBV, ANA, AMA and SMA.
Seventy-three percent of the patients were female and the mean age of the patients was 47. Twenty cases of acute toxic hepatitis (42%) were related to prescribed medications. The other causes were herbs (35%) and traditional therapeutic preparations (23%). Common symptoms were jaundice (35%), fatigue (10%), fever (9%) and abdominal pain (9%). The biochemical pattern of hepatotoxicity was divided into three groups: hepatocellular (81%), mixed (13%), and cholestatic types (6%). Three patients who have prolonged and severe jaundice were classified into immunoallergic idiosyncrasy based upon clinical and histologic findings. Prednisolone was prescribed in all three cases whose bilirubin levels had been higher than 15 mg/dL for at least 7 days. Jaundice and the laboratory findings rapidly improved within 8 days since the treatment began.
In a demographic point of view, most patients of acute toxic hepatitis were middle aged women. Jaundice was the most commonly observed symptom. Prescribed drugs were the most common cause of acute toxic hepatitis. Although most cases of toxic hepatitis will recover with supportive care after cessation of the causative agent, steroid treatment may be helpful for the patients with severe jaundice patients who have immunoallergic idiosyncrasy.
The Korean Journal of Hepatology 04/2006; 12(1):74-81.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with dyslipidemia, obesity, and insulin resistance, which are the main features of metabolic syndrome. First, we examined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with NAFLD. We then compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in simple steatosis with that in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Finally, we sought to identify clinical factors associated with the stage of liver fibrosis.
From November 2002 to March 2004, we enrolled consecutive 25 patients with NAFLD from patients visiting outpatient clinic. The 17 controls were healthy persons who visited our health promotion center. We compared the clinical and biochemical data of the NAFLD group with those of the control group. Using histologic findings, we divided NAFLD into simple steatosis and NASH. We then compared the clinical and biochemical data of the simple steatosis group with those of the NASH group.
Fourteen patients (14/25, 56%) had metabolic syndrome in the NAFLD group. There was no difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between the simple steatosis (5/10, 50%) and the NASH group (9/15, 60%). We found significant differences in cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups, but homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance was the only significantly different factor between the simple steatosis group and the NASH group. In addition, no difference in histological features was found between NASH with metabolic syndrome and without metabolic syndrome.
A considerable number of patients with NAFLD had metabolic syndrome. There was a close correlation between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. We could not find any cardiovascular risk factors that could predict a severe fibrosis.
The Korean Journal of Hepatology 10/2004; 10(3):197-206.