[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jadomycin production is under complex regulation in Streptomyces venezuelae. Here, another cluster-situated regulator, JadR*, was shown to negatively regulate jadomycin biosynthesis by binding to four upstream regions of jadY, jadR1, jadI and jadE in jad gene cluster, respectively. The transcriptional levels of four target genes of JadR* increased significantly in ΔjadR*, confirming that these genes were directly repressed by JadR*. Jadomycin B (JdB) and its biosynthetic intermediates 2,3-dehydro-UWM6 (DHU), dehydrorabelomycin (DHR) and jadomycin A (JdA) modulated the DNA-binding activities of JadR* on the jadY promoter, with DHR giving the strongest dissociation effects. Direct interactions between JadR* and these ligands were further demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance, which showed that DHR has the highest affinity for JadR*. However, only DHU and DHR could induce the expression of jadY and jadR* in vivo. JadY is the FMN/FAD reductase suppling cofactors FMNH2 /FADH2 for JadG, an oxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of DHR to JdA. Therefore, our results revealed that JadR* and early pathway intermediates, particularly DHR, regulate cofactor supply by a convincing case of a feed-forward mechanism. Such delicate regulation of expression of jadY could ensure a timely supply of cofactors FMNH2 /FADH2 for jadomycin biosynthesis, and avoid unnecessary consumption of NAD(P)H.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinosad represents a new class of insecticides produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa. To understand the transcription of the spinosad biosynthetic gene cluster, two promoter detection plasmids based on different reporter genes were constructed and used to detect 9 promoters in the spinosad biosynthetic gene cluster. In addition, the temporal transcriptional profiles of the corresponding genes controlled by the 9 promoters, together with 4 genes outside of the spinosad cluster but are required for the synthesis of sugars in spinosad, were examined by real-time PCR. The results indicate that the 9 spinosad biosynthetic genes were highly expressed at the stationary phase, which coincides with the accumulation of spinosad in the fermentation broth. Of particular note is that the transcription of the 4 sugar synthetic genes showed higher level at the exponential phase, suggesting the expression of sugar synthetic genes is not correlated with the spinosad synthetic genes. The data suggest that spinosad biosynthesis could be improved by engineering the expression pattern of the sugar synthetic genes that lie outside the spinosad gene cluster.
Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 07/2013; 29(7):914-26.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glycerol utilization (gyl) operon is involved in clavulanic acid (CA) production by Streptomyces clavuligerus, and possibly supplies the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) precursor for CA biosynthesis. The gyl operon is regulated by GylR and is induced by glycerol. To enhance CA production in S. clavuligerus, an extra copy of ccaR expressed from Pgyl (the gyl promoter) was integrated into the chromosome of S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585. This construct coordinated the transcription of CA biosynthetic pathway genes with expression of the gyl operon. In the transformants carrying the Pgyl-controlled regulatory gene ccaR, CA production was enhanced 3.19-fold in glycerol-enriched batch cultures, relative to the control strain carrying an extra copy of ccaR controlled by its own promoter (PccaR). Consistent with enhanced CA production, the transcription levels of ccaR, ceas2 and claR were significantly up-regulated in the transformants containing Pgyl-controlled ccaR.
Science China. Life sciences 07/2013; 56(7):591-600. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two functionally distinct homologous flavoprotein hydroxylases, PgaE and JadH, have been identified as branching points in the biosynthesis of the polyketide antibiotics gaudimycin C and jadomycin A, respectively. These evolutionarily related enzymes are both bifunctional and able to catalyze the same initial reaction, C-12 hydroxylation of the common angucyclinone intermediate prejadomycin. The enzymes diverge in their secondary activities, which include hydroxylation at C-12b by PgaE and dehydration at C-4a/C-12b by JadH. A further difference is that the C-12 hydroxylation is subject to substrate inhibition only in PgaE. Here we have identified regions associated with the C-12b hydroxylation in PgaE by extensive chimeragenesis, focusing on regions surrounding the active site. The results highlight the importance of a hairpin-ß-motif near the dimer interface, with two non-conserved residues P78-I79 (corresponding to Q89-F90 in JadH) and the invariant residue H73 playing key roles. Kinetic characterization of PgaE variants demonstrates that the secondary C-12b hydroxylation and substrate inhibition by prejadomycin are likely to be interlinked. Crystal structure of the PgaE P78Q/ I79F variant at 2.4 Å resolution confirms that the changes do not alter the conformation of the β-strand secondary structure and that the side chains of these residues in effect point away from the active site towards the dimer interface. The results support a catalytic model for PgaE containing two binding modes for C-12 and C-12b hydroxylations, where binding of prejadomycin in the orientation for C-12b hydroxylation leads to substrate inhibition. The presence of an allosteric network is evident based on enzyme kinetics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Well-characterized promoters are essential tools for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. In Streptomyces coelicolor, the native kasOp is a temporally expressed promoter strictly controlled by two regulators, ScbR and ScbR2. In this work, kasOp was engineered to first remove a common binding site of ScbR and ScbR2 upstream of its core region, thus generating a stronger promoter, kasOp3. Secondly, another ScbR-binding site internal to kasOp3 core promoter region was abolished by random mutation and screening of the mutant library to obtain the strongest promoter kasOp*. The activities of kasOp* was compared with those of two known strong promoters ermEp* and SF14p in three Streptomyces species. kasOp* showed highest activity at transcription and protein levels in all three hosts. Furthermore, relative to ermEp* and SF14p, kasOp* was shown to confer highest actinorhodin production level when used to drive the expression of actII-ORF4 in S. coelicolor. Therefore, kasOp* is a simple and well-defined strong promoter useful for gene over-expression in streptomycetes.
Applied and environmental microbiology 05/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell growth needs to be monitored in biological studies and bioprocess optimization. In special circumstances, such as microbial fermentations in media containing insoluble particles, accurate cell growth quantification is a challenge with current methods. Only the Burton method is applicable in such circumstances. The original Burton method was previously simplified by adopting a two-step sample pretreatment in perchloric acid procedure to eliminate the need for DNA extraction. Here, we further simplified the Burton method by replacing the previous two-step perchloric acid pretreatment with a new and one-step diphenylamine reagent pretreatment. The reliability and accuracy of this simplified method were assessed by measuring the biomass of four model microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Streptomyces clavuligerus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Trichoderma reesei grown in normal media or those containing solid particles. The results demonstrate that this new simplified method performs comparably to the conventional methods, such as OD600 or the previously modified Burton method, and is much more sensitive than the dry weight method. Overall, the new method is simple, reliable, easy to perform, and generally applicable in most circumstances, and it reduces the operation time from more than 12 h (for the previously simplified Burton method) to about 2 h.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 04/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jadomycin B is a member of atypical angucycline antibiotics whose biosynthesis involves a unique ring opening C-C bond cleavage reaction. Here, we firmly identified JadG as the enzyme responsible for the B ring opening reaction in jadomycin biosynthesis. In vitro analysis of the JadG catalyzed reaction revealed that it requires FMNH(2) or FADH(2) as cofactors in the conversion of dehydrorabelomycin to jadomycin A. The cofactors could be supplied by either a cluster-situated flavin reductase JadY or the Escherichia coli Fre. JadY was characterized as a NAD(P)H-dependent FMN/FAD reductase, with FMN as the preferred substrate. Disruption mutant of jadY still produced jadomycin, indicating that the function of JadY could be substituted by other enzymes in the host. JadG represents the biochemically verified member of an enzyme class catalyzing an unprecedented C-C bond cleavage reaction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An iterative combinatorial mutagenesis (ICM) strategy was used to engineer deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase of Streptomyces clavuligerus (scDAOCS) for improved activity toward penicillin G. Seven mutational sites were repeatedly combined onto a starter mutant (C155Y Y184H V275I C281Y) of scDAOCS. Eleven improved combinatorial mutants were identified from 24 mutants in four rounds of ICM.
Applied and environmental microbiology 08/2012; 78(21):7809-12. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JadH is a bifunctional hydoxylase/dehydrase involved in jadomycin biosynthesis; it catalyzes a post-PKS modification reaction to convert 2,3-dehydro-UWM6 to dehydrorabelomycin. To identify the key residues involved in substrate-binding and catalysis, structural modeling and multiple sequence alignments of JadH homologs were performed to predict nine residues at the proximity of substrate. Site-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residues and in vitro evaluation of the activities of the mutant enzymes, indicate these mutations severely reduced JadH activity. Our results indicate these residues are specifically involved in substrate-binding or catalysis in JadH.
Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 08/2012; 28(8):950-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The jadomycins are a unique family of angucycline-derived antibiotics with interesting cytotoxic activities. In this work, six new jadomycin derivatives were produced in vivo by providing non-natural amino acids in fermentation media. They were further purified and identified by MS and NMR analyses. The cytotoxicities of these derivatives were evaluated against tumor cell lines MCF-7 and HCT116, as well as the normal human microvascular epithelial cells. The derivatives with alkyl side chains showed similar levels of cytotoxicity as jadomycin B and other known derivatives with nonpolar side chains, with IC(50) ranging from 1.3 to 10 μM; but the activities are not selective as these compounds also showed similar levels of cytotoxicity toward the normal human microvascular epithelial cells in the same concentration range. For the first time, derivatives with amino side chains (jadomycin Orn and K) were prepared and evaluated. Significantly, jadomycin Orn showed differential activity against normal and tumor cell lines. This result points to a new direction to modify jadomycin structure. The insights on the structure-activity relationship of jadomycins will guide further efforts to generate new and improved jadomycin derivatives against tumor cells.
The Journal of Antibiotics 06/2012; 65(9):449-52. · 2.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparison of homologous angucycline modification enzymes from five closely related Streptomyces pathways (pga, cab, jad, urd, lan) allowed us to deduce the biosynthetic steps responsible for the three alternative outcomes: gaudimycin C, dehydrorabelomycin, and 11-deoxylandomycinone. The C-12b-hydroxylated urdamycin and gaudimycin metabolites appear to be the ancestral representatives from which landomycins and jadomysins have evolved as a result of functional divergence of the ketoreductase LanV and hydroxylase JadH, respectively. Specifically, LanV has acquired affinity for an earlier biosynthetic intermediate resulting in a switch in biosynthetic order and lack of hydroxyls at C-4a and C-12b, whereas in JadH, C-4a/C-12b dehydration has evolved into an independent secondary function replacing C-12b hydroxylation. Importantly, the study reveals that many of the modification enzymes carry several alternative, hidden, or ancestral catalytic functions, which are strictly dependent on the biosynthetic context.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two component system is a signal transduction system. It typically consists of a sensor histitine kinase and a cognate response regulator (RR) component. The activity of RR is regulated by a phosphorylation dependent mechanism. In recent years, the existence of atypical response regulators (ARRs), which rely on a phosphorylation independent mechanism to regulate their activity, have been recognized. ARRs are involved in the regulation of bacterial growth and development, antibiotic biosynthesis, iron transport, among others. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of the structure and function of atypical response regulators, by using JadR1, a regulator in jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces, as an example to elucidate the novel mechanism used by ARR to fine-tune its activity.
Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 05/2012; 28(5):531-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, has the unusual capacity to convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol and hydrogen. In this work, the cell wall proteome of C. thermocellum was investigated. The proteins in the cell wall fraction of C. thermocellum prepared by the boiling SDS method were released by mutanolysin digestion and resolved on two-dimensional (2D) gel. One hundred and thirty-two proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, among which the extracellular solute-binding protein (CbpB/cthe_1020), enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and translation elongation factor EF-Tu were detected as highly abundant proteins. Besides the known surface localized proteins, including FtsZ, MinD, GroEL, DnaK, many enzymes involved in bioenergetics, such as alcohol dehydrogenases and hydrogenases were also detected. By glycan stain and MS analysis of glycopeptides, we identified CbpB as a glycoprotein, which is the second glycoprotein from C. thermocellum characterized. The fact that CbpB was highly abundant in the cell wall region and glycosylated, reflects its importance in substrate assimilation. Our results indicate cell wall proteins constitute a significant portion of cellular proteins and may play important physiological roles (i.e. bioenergetics) in this bacterium. The insights described are relevant for the development of C. thermocellum as a biofuel producer.
Microbiological Research 04/2012; 167(6):364-71. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In bacteria, arginine biosynthesis is tightly regulated by a universally conserved regulator, ArgR, which regulates the expression of arginine biosynthetic genes, as well as other important genes. Disruption of argR in Streptomyces clavuligerus NP1 resulted in complex phenotypic changes in growth and antibiotic production levels. To understand the metabolic changes underlying the phenotypes, comparative proteomic studies were carried out between NP1 and its argR disruption mutant (designated CZR). In CZR, enzymes involved in holomycin biosynthesis were overexpressed; this is consistent with its holomycin overproduction phenotype. The effects on clavulanic acid (CA) biosynthesis are more complex. Several proteins from the CA cluster were moderately overexpressed, whereas several proteins from the 5S clavam biosynthetic cluster and from the paralog cluster of CA and 5S clavam biosynthesis were severely downregulated. Obvious changes were also detected in primary metabolism, which are mainly reflected in the altered expression levels of proteins involved in acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and cysteine biosynthesis. Since acetyl-CoA and cysteine are precursors for holomycin synthesis, overexpression of these proteins is consistent with the holomycin overproduction phenotype. The complex interplay between primary and secondary metabolism and between secondary metabolic pathways were revealed by these analyses, and the insights will guide further efforts to improve production levels of CA and holomycin in S. clavuligerus.
Applied and environmental microbiology 02/2012; 78(9):3431-41. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a colorimetric assay to quantify clavulanic acid (CA) in culture broth of Streptomyces clavuligerus, to facilitate screening of a large number of S. clavuligerus mutants. The assay is based on a β-lactamase-catalyzed reaction, in which the yellow substrate nitrocefin (λ (max)=390 nm) is converted to a red product (λ (max)=486 nm). Since CA can irreversibly inhibit β-lactamase activity, the level of CA in a sample can be measured as a function of the A (390)/A (486) ratio in the assay mixture. The sensitivity and detection window of the assay were determined to be 50 μg L(-1) and 50 μg L(-1) to 10 mg L(-1), respectively. The reliability of the assay was confirmed by comparing assay results with those obtained by HPLC. The assay was used to screen a pool of 65 S. clavuligerus mutants and was reliable for identifying CA over-producing mutants. Therefore, the assay saves time and labor in large-scale mutant screening and evaluation tasks. The detection window and the reliability of this assay are markedly better than those of previously reported CA assays. This assay method is suitable for high throughput screening of microbial samples and allows direct visual observation of CA levels on agar plates.
Science China. Life sciences 02/2012; 55(2):158-63. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on multiple sequence alignment of different deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCSs) and the crystal structure of Streptomyces clavuligerus DAOCS, 2-oxoglutarate, and penicillin G triple complex, ten residues (Y184, V245, S261, C37, T42, V51, S59, A61, Q126, and T213) not directly involved in substrate recognition were selected as mutational targets. Twenty one mutants were generated and characterized, and five (Q126M, T213V, S261M, S261A, and Y184A) showed improved activity toward penicillin G, with 1.45- to 4.50-fold increment in the k (cat)/K (m). Q126, T213, and S261 are identified for the first time, as sites with significant effect on enzyme activity.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2011; 93(6):2395-401. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In streptomycetes, a quorum-sensing mechanism mediated by γ-butyrolactones (GBLs) and their cognate receptors was known to trigger secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. However, many aspects on the control of GBL signal production are not understood. In this work, we report that ScbR2, the pseudo GBL receptor in Streptomyces coelicolor, negatively controls the biosynthesis of γ-butyrolactone (SCB1) by directly repressing the transcription of scbA, which encodes the key enzyme for SCB1 biosynthesis. Similarly, the pseudo GBL receptor JadR2 in Streptomyces venezuelae was shown to repress the expression of jadW1, which also encodes the putative GBL synthase. These regulatory relationships were verified in Escherichia coli using lux-based reporter constructs. Additionally, the temporal expression profiles of scbA, scbR2 and scbR (receptor gene for SCB1) were examined in Streptomyces coelicolor, which showed the sequential expression of ScbR/R2 regulators in the control of SCB1 production. Overall, our results clearly demonstrated that pseudo GBL receptors play a novel role in controlling GBL biosynthesis in streptomycetes. As ScbR/R2 homologues and their binding sites upstream of GBL synthase genes are commonly found in Streptomyces species, and ScbR2 homologues cross-recognize each other's target promoters, the ScbA/R/R2 quorum-sensing regulatory system appears to represent an evolutionarily conserved signal control mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium with the unusual capacity to convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol and hydrogen. Identification and characterization of protein complexes in C. thermocellum are important toward understanding its metabolism and physiology.
A two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE procedure was developed to separate membrane protein complexes of C. thermocellum. Proteins spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass spectrometry. 24 proteins were identified representing 13 distinct protein complexes, including several putative intact complexes. Interestingly, subunits of both the F1-F0-ATP synthase and the V1-V0-ATP synthase were detected in the membrane sample, indicating C. thermocellum may use alternative mechanisms for ATP generation.
Two dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE was used to detect membrane protein complexes in C. thermocellum. More than a dozen putative protein complexes were identified, revealing the simultaneous expression of two sets of ATP synthase. The protocol developed in this work paves the way for further functional characterization of these protein complexes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid identification of glycosylation sites of glycoproteins is urgently needed in glycoproteomics study. In the present work, a rapid and simple method based on non-specific digestion of gel-separated glycoproteins and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry was described, which can efficiently identify the N-linked glycosylation sites. One-step in-gel digestion of Ribonuclease B (RNase B) by proteinase K was employed to generate glycopeptides with short and discrepant peptide composition. When compared with glycopeptides prepared by two-step in gel-digestion using trypsin-proteinase K or trypsin-pronase, the direct proteinase K treatment showed obvious superiority in both glycopeptide recovery and preparation simplicity. Most importantly, it helps to generate greater variety of glycopeptide series with rich information for glycosylation site identification. In addition, binary matrices 5-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (CMBT) /2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) were found to form homogeneous microcrystal on the target with the purified glycopeptides, leading to improved detection sensitivity. Thus, the present work provides an optimized solution to speed up the characterization of N-linked glycosylation sites in glycoproteins.
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry 01/2011; 17(6):573-9. · 1.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In actinomycetes, the onset of secondary metabolite biosynthesis is often triggered by the quorum-sensing signal gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) via specific binding to their cognate receptors. However, the presence of multiple putative GBL receptor homologues in the genome suggests the existence of an alternative regulatory mechanism. Here, in the model streptomycete Streptomyces coelicolor, ScbR2 (SCO6286, a homologue of GBL receptor) is shown not to bind the endogenous GBL molecule SCB1, hence designated "pseudo" GBL receptor. Intriguingly, it could bind the endogenous antibiotics actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin as ligands, leading to the derepression of KasO, an activator of a cryptic type I polyketide synthase gene cluster. Likewise, JadR2 is also a putative GBL receptor homologue in Streptomyces venezuelae, the producer of chloramphenicol and cryptic antibiotic jadomycin. It is shown to coordinate their biosynthesis via direct repression of JadR1, which activates jadomycin biosynthesis while repressing chloramphenicol biosynthesis directly. Like ScbR2, JadR2 could also bind these two disparate antibiotics, and the interactions lead to the derepression of jadR1. The antibiotic responding activities of these pseudo GBL receptors were further demonstrated in vivo using the lux reporter system. Overall, these results suggest that pseudo GBL receptors play a novel role to coordinate antibiotic biosynthesis by binding and responding to antibiotics signals. Such an antibiotic-mediated regulatory mechanism could be a general strategy to coordinate antibiotic biosynthesis in the producing bacteria.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(35):27440-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor