[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of methamphetamine use in adolescents at a juvenile classification home. The present subjects were 1362 adolescents (1172 male and 190 female) who had been admitted to the Nagoya Juvenile Classification Home. The participants were divided into two groups, a methamphetamine user group and a control group, based on history of methamphetamine use. The presence of methamphetamine use was analyzed in terms of gender, age, number of admissions, violence (types of crime), history of psychiatric treatment, family history (crime, drug misuse and/or alcohol-related disorder), and experience of being abused by their parents or by the persons who were responsible for raising them. The prevalence of methamphetamine use was 6.8% (93/1362). Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender (female; odds ratio [OR]: 8.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.6-14.3), age (OR: 1.8, 95%CI: 1.5-2.1), number of admissions (>2, OR: 2.9, 95%CI: 1.8-4.8), violence (OR: 0.4, 95%CI: 0.2-0.7), history of psychiatric treatment (OR: 8.7, 95%CI: 4.0-19.0), and family history of drug misuse (OR: 4.0, 95%CI: 1.6-9.6) were all significantly associated with methamphetamine use. Approximately 7% of participants used methamphetamine. Female gender was a risk factor. Higher age and multiple admissions suggest the persistency and repetition of delinquency. Methamphetamine users were less violent than control subjects. Psychosocial environment (family history of drug misuse) and psychiatric problems (history of psychiatric treatment) were also related to methamphetamine use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile delinquents often show poor impulse control and cognitive abnormalities, which may be related to disturbances in brain development due to head trauma and/or epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of head trauma and/or epilepsy on delinquent behavior. We examined 1,336 juvenile delinquents (1,151 males and 185 females) who had been admitted to the Nagoya Juvenile Classification Home, Aichi, Japan. Among them, 52 subjects with a history of epilepsy, convulsion or loss of consciousness, head injury requiring neurological assessment and/or treatment, or neurosurgical operation (head trauma/epilepsy group), were examined by electroencephalography and compared to subjects without these histories (control group) with respect to types of crime, history of amphetamine use, psychiatric treatment, child abuse, and family history. Among the 52 subjects, 43 (82.7%) showed abnormal findings. The head trauma/epilepsy group had significantly higher rates of psychiatric treatment (P<0.0001, OR=16.852, 95% CI=8.068-35.199) and family history of drug abuse (P<0.05, OR=2.303, 95% CI=1.003-5.290). Furthermore, the percentage of members who were sent to juvenile training school by the family court was significantly higher in the head trauma/epilepsy group (72.5%) than in the control group (38.9%, P<0.0001). The juvenile delinquents who had a history of head trauma and/or epilepsy showed a high prevalence of electroencephalograph abnormality, and higher rates of psychiatric treatment and family history of drug abuse, and were more likely to be sent to juvenile training school by the family court.