K. Matsuoka

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (17)56.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In order to understand nature of building blocks of galaxies in the early universe, we investigate "genuine irregular galaxies (GIGs)" in the nearby universe. Here, GIGs are defined as isolated galaxies without regular structures (spheroid, bulge, disk, bar, spiral arm, and nucleus). Using the results of two excellent studies on galaxy morphology based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we obtain a sample of 66 irregular galaxies. We carry out new classification of them into GIGs and non-GIGs which have regular structure or show evidence for galaxy interaction, by using the SDSS Data Release 10 images. We then find that a half of these irregular galaxies (33/66) are GIGs and obtain an unambiguous sample of 33 GIGs for the first time. We discuss their observational properties by comparing them with those of elliptical, S0, spiral galaxies, and irregular galaxies without the GIGs. We find that our GIGs have smaller sizes, lower optical luminosities, bluer rest-frame optical colors, lower surface stellar mass densities, and lower gas metallicity than normal galaxies. All these properties suggest that they are in chemically and dynamically younger phases even in the nearby universe.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present an investigation into how well the properties of the accretion flow onto a supermassive black hole may be coupled to those of the overlying hot corona. To do so, we specifically measure the characteristic spectral index, Gamma, of a power-law energy distribution, over an energy range of 2 to 10 keV, for X-ray selected, broad-lined radio-quiet AGN up to z~2 in COSMOS and E-CDF-S. We test the previously reported dependence between Gamma and black hole mass, FWHM and Eddington ratio using a sample of AGN covering a broad range in these parameters based on both the Mg ii and H-alpha emission lines with the later afforded by recent near infrared spectroscopic observations using Subaru/FMOS. We calculate the Eddington ratios, lambda_Edd, for sources where a bolometric luminosity (L_Bol) has been presented in the literature, based on SED fitting, or, for sources where these data do not exist, we calculate L_Bol using a bolometric correction to the LX, derived from a relationship between the bolometric correction, and LX/L3000. From a sample of 69 X-ray bright sources (>250 counts), where Gamma can be measured with greatest precision, with an estimate of L_Bol, we find a statistically significant correlation between Gamma and lambda_Edd, which is highly significant with a chance probability of 6.59x10^-8. A statistically significant correlation between Gamma and the FWHM of the optical lines is confirmed, but at lower significance than with lambda_Edd indicating that lambda_Edd is the key parameter driving conditions in the corona. Linear regression analysis reveals that Gamma=(0.32+/-0.05)log10 lambda_Edd+(2.27+/-0.06) and Gamma=(-0.69+/-0.11)log10(FWHM/km/s)+(4.44+/-0.42). Our results on Gamma-lambda_Edd are in very good agreement with previous results. (ABRIDGED)
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The connection between the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity is one of the most important issues in understanding the coevolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies. In our recent study, by using SDSS quasar spectra we found that the emission-line flux rations involving a nitrogen line correlate with the Eddington ratio. This correlation suggests that the mass accretion in quasars is associated with a post-starburst phase, when AGB stars enrich the interstellar medium with the nitrogen. Moreover, we focused on nitrogen-loud quasars, that have prominent emission lines of the nitrogen, to investigate whether this argument is correct. In this symposium, we present our results regarding the relation between the star formation and feeding to SMBHs traced by the nitrogen abundance.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 02/2013; 8(S290):273-274.
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of broad emission lines observed in moderate-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), typical of those found in X-ray surveys of deep fields, with the aim to test the validity of single-epoch virial black hole mass estimates. We have acquired near-infrared (NIR) spectra of AGNs up to z ~ 1.8 in the COSMOS and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey, with the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope. These low-resolution NIR spectra provide a significant detection of the broad Halpha line that has been shown to be a reliable probe of black hole mass at low redshift. Our sample has existing optical spectroscopy which provides a detection of MgII, a broad emission line typically used for black hole mass estimation at z > 1. We carry out a spectral-line fitting procedure using both Halpha and MgII to determine the virial velocity of gas in the broad line region, the monochromatic continuum luminosity at 3000 A, and the total Halpha line luminosity. With a sample of 43 AGNs spanning a range of two decades in luminosity (i.e., L ~ 10^44-46 ergs/s), we find a tight correlation between the continuum and line luminosity with a distribution characterized by <log(L_3000/L_Halpha)> = 1.52 and a dispersion sigma = 0.16. There is also a close one-to-one relationship between the FWHM of Halpha and of MgII up to 10000 km/s with a dispersion of 0.14 in the distribution of the logarithm of their ratios. Both of these then lead to there being very good agreement between Halpha- and MgII-based masses over a wide range in black hole mass (i.e., M_BH ~ 10^7-9 M_sun). We do find a small offset in MgII-based masses, relative to those based on Halpha, of +0.17 dex and a dispersion sigma = 0.32. In general, these results demonstrate that local scaling relations, using MgII or Halpha, are applicable for AGN at moderate luminosities and up to z ~ 2.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 771(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the result of our low-luminosity quasar survey in the redshift range of 4.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 5.5 in the COSMOS field. Using the COSMOS photometric catalog, we selected 15 quasar candidates with 22 < i' < 24 at z {approx} 5 that are {approx}3 mag fainter than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars in the same redshift range. We obtained optical spectra for 14 of the 15 candidates using FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope and did not identify any low-luminosity type-1 quasars at z {approx} 5, while a low-luminosity type-2 quasar at z {approx} 5.07 was discovered. In order to constrain the faint end of the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 5, we calculated the 1{sigma} confidence upper limits of the space density of type-1 quasars. As a result, the 1{sigma} confidence upper limits on the quasar space density are {Phi} < 1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1} for -24.52 < M{sub 1450} < -23.52 and {Phi} < 2.88 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1} for -23.52 < M{sub 1450} < -22.52. The inferred 1{sigma} confidence upper limits of the space density are then used to provide constraints on the faint-end slope and the break absolute magnitude of the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 5. We find that the quasar space density decreases gradually as a function of redshift at low luminosity (M{sub 1450} {approx} -23), being similar to the trend found for quasars with high luminosity (M{sub 1450} < -26). This result is consistent with the so-called downsizing evolution of quasars seen at lower redshifts.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2012; 756(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared spectroscopy of the z=3.2 quasar SDSS J1707+6443, obtained with MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. This quasar is classified as a "nitrogen-loud" quasar because of the fairly strong NIII] and NIV] semi-forbidden emission lines from the broad-line region (BLR) observed in its rest-frame UV spectrum. However, our rest-frame optical spectrum from MOIRCS shows strong [OIII] emission from the narrow-line region (NLR) suggesting that, at variance with the BLR, NLR gas is not metal-rich. In order to reconcile these contradictory results, there may be two alternative possibilities; (1) the strong nitrogen lines from the BLR are simply due to a very high relative abundance of nitrogen rather than to a very high BLR metallicity, or (2) the BLR metallicity is not representative of the metallicity of the host galaxy, better traced by the NLR. In either case, the strong broad nitrogen lines in the UV spectrum are not indication of a chemically enriched host galaxy. We estimated the black hole mass and Eddington ratio of this quasar from the velocity width of both CIV and H_beta, that results in log(M_BH/M_sun) = 9.50 and log(L_bol/L_Edd) = -0.34. The relatively high Eddington ratio is consistent with our earlier result that strong nitrogen emission from BLRs is associated with high Eddington ratios. Finally, we detected significant [NeIII] emission from the NLR, implying a quite high gas density of n~10^6 cm^-3 and suggesting a strong coupling between quasar activity and dense interstellar clouds in the host galaxy.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a deep optical spectrum of TN J0924-2201, the most distant radio galaxy at z = 5.19, obtained with FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope. We successfully detect, for the first time, the CIV1549 emission line from the narrow-line region (NLR). In addition to the emission-line fluxes of Ly alpha and CIV, we set upper limits on the NV and HeII emissions. We use these line detections and upper limits to constrain the chemical properties of TN J0924-2201. By comparing the observed emission-line flux ratios with photoionization models, we infer that the carbon-to-oxygen relative abundance is already [C/O] > -0.5 at a cosmic age of ~ 1.1 Gyr. This lower limit on [C/O] is higher than the ratio expected at the earliest phases of the galaxy chemical evolution, indicating that TN J0924-2201 has already experienced significant chemical evolution at z = 5.19.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2011; 532. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present J-band long-slit spectroscopic observation of NGC 1068 classified as a Seyfert 2 galaxy. J-band observations with OAO/ISLE provide clear detection of spatially extended [Fe II]1.257µm and [P II]1.188µm lines. We found that [Fe II]1.257µm/[P II]1.188µm increases with distance from a central continuum peak. Observed line ratios around the nucleus (continuum peak) are consistent with a typical value expected from photoionization models, while the ratios at 3 ′′ − 4 ′′ (210 − 280 pc) east and west of the nucleus are slightly higher than this. In the off nucleus region of NGC 1068 we also found a possible association between [Fe II]1.257µm/[P II]1.188µm and the radio continuum. This suggests a mild contribution of shock ionization induced by a radio jet outside nucleus while photoionization by the central energy source is dominant near the nucleus.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 01/2011; 25. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by a clear correlation between luminosity and metallicity (L_AGN-Z_AGN relation). The origin of this correlation is not clear. It may result from a relation between the black hole mass (M_BH) and metallicity, or from a relation between the accretion rate (L/L_Edd) and metallicity. To investigate the origin of the L_AGN-Z_AGN relation, we use optical spectra of 2383 quasars at 2.3 < z < 3.0 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By using this data set, we have constructed composite spectra of 33 subsamples in intervals of both M_BH and L/L_Edd. From these composite spectra we measure emission-line flux ratios that are sensitive to the metallicity of the broad line region (BLR); specifically, NV/CIV, NV/HeII, (SiIV+OIV])/CIV, and AlIII/CIV. We find that there is a significant correlation between M_BH and Z_BLR as inferred from all four metallicity-sensitive emission-line flux ratios. This result strongly suggests that the observed L_AGN-Z_AGN relation is mostly a consequence of the M_BH-Z_AGN relation. The relation between M_BH and Z_BLR is likely a consequence of both the M_BH-M_bul relation and of the mass-metallicity relation in the host galaxy. We also find that L/L_Edd correlates with the emission line flux ratios involving NV (more specifically, NV/CIV and NV/HeII), while it does not correlate with the other two metallicity sensitive emission line flux ratios, i.e., (SiIV+OIV])/CIV and AlIII/CIV. These correlations indicate that the emission-line flux ratios involving NV depend on both metallicity and relative abundance of nitrogen. We suggest that the relation between L/L_Edd and those line ratios involving nitrogen, is caused by a delay of the black hole accretion rate relative to the onset of nuclear star formation of about 10^8 years, which is the timescale required for the nitrogen enrichment. Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A, 16 pages, 6 figures
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2010; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We searched for quasars that are ~ 3 mag fainter than the SDSS quasars in the redshift range 3.7 < z < 4.7 in the COSMOS field to constrain the faint end of the quasar luminosity function. Using optical photometric data, we selected 31 quasar candidates with 22 < i' < 24 at z ~ 4. We obtained optical spectra for most of these candidates using FOCAS on the Subaru telescope, and identified 8 low-luminosity quasars at z ~ 4. In order to derive the quasar luminosity function (QLF) based on our spectroscopic follow-up campaign, we estimated the photometric completeness of our quasar survey through detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Our QLF at z ~ 4 has a much shallower faint-end slope beta = -1.67^{+0.11}_{-0.17} than that obtained by other recent surveys in the same redshift. Our result is consistent with the scenario of downsizing evolution of active galactic nuclei inferred by recent optical and X-ray quasar surveys at lower redshifts. Comment: 13 pages, 4 figure, Accepted for publication in ApJL
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 11/2010; · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical properties of AGNs and their redshift evolution are of interest to understand the star-formation history of AGN host galaxies and the co-evolution between galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). One important observational clue on this issue is a tight correlation between the AGN luminosity and the metallicity of the broad-line region. Surprisingly this relation shows no redshift evolution, even up to z ~ 6. This correlation is attributable mainly to the positive correlation between metallicity and SMBH mass, rather than to the relation between metallicity and Eddington ratio. A significant positive correlation between the metallicity and the AGN luminosity is also seen in narrow-line regions, not only in broad-line regions. Possible implications of these results on the galaxy-SMBH co-evolution are briefly mentioned.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2010; 267:73-79.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the metallicity of the narrow line regions (NLRs) of high-z radio galaxies (HzRGs), using new deep optical spectra of 9 HzRGs obtained with FORS2 on VLT and data from the literature. To estimate the metallicity of NLRs we focus on the Civ/Heii and Ciii]/Civ flux ratios. Based on comparison between the observed emission-line flux ratios and the prediction of our photoionization model calculations, we find no significant metallicity evolution in NLRs of HzRGs, up to z ~ 4. We discuss the possibility that massive galaxies had almost completed the major epoch of the star formation in the very high-z universe (z > 5). Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Keywords (in text query field) Abstract Text Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2010; 265:179-180.
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    ABSTRACT: We present detailed morphological properties of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z 5.7 in the COSMOS field based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The ACS imaging in the F814W filter covered 85 LAEs of the 119 LAEs identified in the full two square degree field, and 47 LAEs of them are detected in the ACS images. Nearly half of them are spatially extended with a size larger than 0.15 arcsec (~0.88 kpc at z = 5.7) and up to 0.4 arcsec (~2.5 kpc at z = 5.7). The others are nearly unresolved compact objects. Two LAEs show double-component structures indicating interaction or merging of building components to form more massive galaxies. By stacking the ACS images of all the detected sources, we obtain a Sersic parameter of n ~ 0.7 with a half-light radius of 0.13 arcsec (0.76 kpc), suggesting that the majority of ACS detected LAEs have not spheroidal-like but disk-like or irregular light profiles. Comparing ACS F814W magnitudes (I 814) with Subaru/Suprime-Cam magnitudes in the NB816, i', and z' bands, we find that the ACS imaging in the F814W band mainly probes UV continuum rather than Lyα line emission. UV continuum sizes tend to be larger for LAEs with larger Lyα emission regions as traced by the NB816 imaging. The nondetection of 38 LAEs in the ACS images is likely due to the fact that their surface brightness is too low both in the UV continuum and Lyα emission. Estimating I 814 for the ACS-undetected LAEs from the z' and NB816 magnitudes, we find that 16 of these are probably LAEs with a size larger than 0.15 arcsec in UV continuum. All these results suggest that our LAE sample contains systematically larger LAEs in UV continuum size than those previously studied at z ~ 6.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2009; 701(2):915. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2009; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present detailed morphological properties of Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs) at z~ 5.7 in the COSMOS field, based on {\it Hubble Space Telescope} Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The ACS imaging in the F814W filter covered 85 LAEs of the 119 LAEs identified in the full two square degree field, and 47 LAEs of them are detected in the ACS images. Nearly half of them are spatially extended with a size larger than 0.15 arcsec (~0.88 kpc at z=5.7) up to 0.4 arcsec (~2.5 kpc at z=5.7). The others are nearly unresolved compact objects. Two LAEs show double-component structures, indicating interaction or merging of building components to form more massive galaxies. By stacking the ACS images of all the detected sources, we obtain a Sersic parameter of n~0.7 with a half-light radius of 0.13 arcsec (0.76 kpc), suggesting that the majority of ACS detected LAEs have not spheroidal-like but disk-like or irregular light profiles. Comparing ACS F814W magnitudes (I_814) with Subaru/Suprime-Cam magnitudes in the NB816, i', and z' bands, we find that the ACS imaging in the F814W band mainly probes UV continuum rather than Lyman alpha line emission. UV continuum sizes tend to be larger for LAEs with larger Ly\alpha emission regions as traced by the NB816 imaging. The non-detection of 38 LAEs in the ACS images is likely due to the fact that their surface brightness is even too low both in the UV continuum and Lyalpha emission. Estimating I_814 for the LAEs with ACS non-detection from the z' and NB816 magnitudes, we find that 16 of these are probably LAEs with a size larger than 0.15 arcsec in UV continuum. All these results suggest that our LAE sample contains systematically larger LAEs in UV continuum size than those previously studied at z~6. Comment: 71 pages, 18 figures. Accepted for pulication in ApJ. High resolution paper: http://cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp/~murayama/COSMOS/cosmos-lae57-acs.pdf
    06/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new deep optical spectra of 9 high-z radio galaxies (HzRGs) at z > 2.7 obtained with FORS2 on VLT. These rest-frame ultraviolet spectra are used to infer the metallicity of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) in order to investigate the chemical evolution of galaxies in high-z universe. We focus mainly on the CIV/HeII and CIII]/CIV flux ratios that are sensitive to gas metallicity and ionization parameter. Although the NV emission has been widely used to infer the gas metallicity, it is often too weak to be measured accurately for NLRs. By combining our new spectra with data from the literature, we examine the possible redshift evolution of the NLR metallicity for 57 HzRGs at 1 < z < 4. Based on the comparison between the observed emission-line flux ratios and the results of our photoionization model calculations, we find no significant metallicity evolution in NLRs of HzRGs, up to z ~ 4. Our results imply that massive galaxies had almost completed their chemical evolution at much higher redshift (z > 5). Finally, although we detect strong NV emission lines in 5 HzRGs at z > 2.7, we point out that high NV/HeII ratios are not indicative of high metallicities but correspond to high ionization parameters of gas clouds in NLRs. Comment: 11 pages, 12 figures, to appear in Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2009; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present detailed morphological properties of Lyalpha emitters (LAEs) at z ≈ 5.7 in the COSMOS field based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The ACS imaging in the F814W filter covered 85 LAEs of the 119 LAEs identified in the full two square degree field, and 47 LAEs of them are detected in the ACS images. Nearly half of them are spatially extended with a size larger than 0.15 arcsec (~0.88 kpc at z = 5.7) and up to 0.4 arcsec (~2.5 kpc at z = 5.7). The others are nearly unresolved compact objects. Two LAEs show double-component structures indicating interaction or merging of building components to form more massive galaxies. By stacking the ACS images of all the detected sources, we obtain a Sersic parameter of n ~ 0.7 with a half-light radius of 0.13 arcsec (0.76 kpc), suggesting that the majority of ACS detected LAEs have not spheroidal-like but disk-like or irregular light profiles. Comparing ACS F814W magnitudes (I 814) with Subaru/Suprime-Cam magnitudes in the NB816, i', and z' bands, we find that the ACS imaging in the F814W band mainly probes
    The Astrophysical Journal, v.701, 915-944 (2009).

Publication Stats

1 Citation
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56.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2013
    • Ehime University
      • Department of Physics
      Matuyama, Ehime, Japan
  • 2012
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan