Kevin J Gibbons

State University of New York, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (9)26.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present an overview of multiple infections in relation to acute ischemic stroke and the therapeutic options available. Conditions that are a direct cause of stroke (infectious endocarditis, meningoencephalitides, and human immunodeficiency virus infection), the pathophysiologic mechanism responsible for stroke, and treatment dilemmas are presented. Independently or in conjunction with conventional risk factors, chronic and acute infections can trigger an acute ischemic stroke through an accelerated process of atherosclerosis and immunohematologic alterations. Acute ischemic stroke has a negative impact on the antibacterial immune response, leading to stroke-induced immunodepression and infections, the most common poststroke medical complications. Poststroke infections are independent predictors of poor outcome. Antibiotic trials for poststroke infection prevention are reviewed. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is not the standard of care in acute stroke, current guidelines support prompt treatment of stroke-related infections.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 01/2011; 20(1):1-9.
  • Archives of neurology 01/2010; 67(1):112-3. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging is a technique for the measurement of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and time-to-peak or mean transit time. The technique involves the administration of a single-bolus dose of iodinated contrast material, followed by spiral CT imaging during the passage of the contrast bolus through the cerebral vasculature. CT perfusion is a fast and inexpensive brain imaging modality for use in the management of patients with various neurological disorders, ranging from acute stroke to subarachnoid hemorrhage. This article reviews the technique of CT perfusion and presents several illustrative cases in which this imaging modality was used effectively in the critical care of patients with neurological disorders.
    Neurocritical Care 02/2005; 2(3):352-66. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe medically refractory intracranial stenosis portends a grave prognosis. Recent advances in stent technology have enabled clinicians to treat these lesions. Evidence in the coronary literature suggests that stenting without predilation angioplasty is as safe and effective as stenting immediately preceded by predilation angioplasty for the treatment of severely stenotic lesions. Because of marked differences in vessel histology and differences in the sensitivity of the cerebral and coronary vascular beds to embolic insult, direct stenting of severe intracranial stenoses may be more prone to neurological complications than a conventional or staged stenting procedure. We reviewed our clinical experience with conventional, direct, and staged stenting for high-grade stenoses involving the posterior intracranial circulation. We also reviewed the literature and experimental data supporting the rationale for staged stenting. In our experience, no permanent neurological morbidity was identified in four patients treated with a staged approach. In contrast, one of three patients with conventional stenting of the basilar artery and two of four patients treated with direct basilar stenting had permanent neurological sequelae. For patients with high-grade posterior circulation intracranial stenoses involving the perforator-rich zones of the basilar artery, staged stenting may reduce procedure-related morbidity. A staged approach allows for plaque stabilization resulting from post-angioplasty fibrosis, which may protect patients from "snow-plowing," embolic shower of debris, or dissection. Further clinical, in vivo, and histological investigation is warranted.
    Neurocritical Care 02/2005; 2(2):189-97. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Severe medically refractory intracranial stenosis portends a grave prognosis. Recent advances in stent technology have enabled clinicians to treat these lesions. Evidence in the coronary literature suggests that stenting without predilation angioplasty is as safe and effective as stenting immediately preceded by predilation angioplasty for the treatment of severely stenotic lesions. Because of marked differences in vessel histology and differences in the sensitivity of the cerebral and coronary vascular beds to embolic insult, direct stenting of severe intracranial stenoses may be more prone to neurological complications than a conventional or staged stenting procedure. Methods: We reviewed our clinical experience with conventional, direct, and staged stenting for high-grade stenoses involving the posterior intracranial circulation. We also reviewed the literature and experimental data supporting the rationale for staged stenting. Results: In our experience, no permanent neurological morbidity was identified in four patients treated with a staged approach. In contrast, one of three patients with conventional stenting of the basilar artery and two of four patients treated with direct basilar stenting had permanent neurological sequelae. Conclusion: For patients with high-grade posterior circulation intracranial stenoses involving the perforator-rich zones of the basilar artery, staged stenting may reduce procedure-related morbidity. A staged approach allows for plaque stabilization resulting from postangioplasty fibrosis, which may protect patients from “snowplowing,” embolic shower of debris, or dissection. Further clinical, in vivo, and histological investigation is warranted.
    Neurocritical Care 01/2005; 2(2):189-197. · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Kevin J Gibbons, Amos O Dare
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    ABSTRACT: The recent advances in neurosurgery, applied to the growing field of skull base surgery, provide surgeons with new techniques to avoid the devastating complication of CSF leak, to improve patient selection by reducing the risk of stroke while expanding the operative options available to patients with head and neck malignancies, and to aid operative care through improved surgical planning and intraoperative localization.
    Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 02/2004; 13(1):231-9. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medically refractory, symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the basilar artery (BA) portends a poor prognosis. Studies have shown morbidity rates following placement of stents in these lesions to be quite variable, ranging from 0 to 30%. The authors review their experience with BA stent placement for severe atherosclerotic disease to determine whether an increase in neurological morbidity is associated with direct stent placement (that performed without predilation angioplasty) compared with conventional stent placement (that performed immediately after predilation angioplasty) or staged stent placement (angioplasty followed > or = 1 month later by stent placement with or without repeated angioplasty). The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records from a consecutive series of 10 patients who underwent stent placement for medically refractory, symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the BA between February 1999 and November 2002. Patient records were analyzed for symptoms at presentation, percentage of angiographically visible stenosis, devices used, procedure-related morbidity, and clinical and radiographic outcomes. Patients with symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery stenosis but without concomitant severe (> 50%) BA stenosis were excluded from the study. Four patients were treated with direct stent placement, three with a staged procedure (these were included in a previous publication), and three with conventional stent placement. In the group treated with direct stent placement, a dense quadriparesis developed in two patients after the procedure. Computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarction of the ventral pons in these patients. In the staged stent placement group, no permanent neurological complications occurred after the procedure and, in the conventional stent placement group, one of three patients experienced a neurological complication involving homonymous hemianopsia. Direct stent placement in the BA is associated with a relatively high complication rate, compared with a staged procedure. Complications may result from an embolic shower following disruption of atheromatous plaque debris attained using high-profile devices such as stents, as demonstrated by the postoperative imaging appearance of acute pontine infarctions. Additionally, displacement of debris by the stent into the ostia (snowplowing) of small brainstem perforating vessels may be responsible for the complications noted. Although direct stent placement in peripheral and coronary vessels has been shown to be safe, the authors suggest that direct stent placement in the BA should be avoided to minimize the risk of periprocedure morbidity.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2003; 99(4):653-60. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experience with the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) by gamma knife radiosurgery is limited. We report control of the disease in two patients with advanced-stage JNA treated with primary resection followed by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery of residual disease. An 18-year-old man presented with chronic sinusitis, worsening headaches, diplopia, and left-sided facial numbness. A second patient, a 19-year-old man, presented with recurrent epistaxis and nasal congestion. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and endoscopic evaluation in each patient were consistent with advanced-stage JNA. One patient underwent craniofacial resection with approximately 3.0 cm(3) of residual tumor in the region of the cavernous sinus. The other patient underwent preoperative embolization followed by a lateral rhinotomy for tumor resection with approximately 4.7 cm(3) of residual tumor in the right infratemporal fossa. In an attempt to limit radiation to surrounding normal brain, residual tumor in both patients was treated with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery. Control of disease was documented by magnetic resonance imaging more than 24 months after treatment. Short-term control of late-stage JNA was achieved by use of a strategy of primary surgical resection followed by gamma knife radiosurgery of residual tumor in two patients. Establishing the effectiveness and safety of this strategy over conventional methods of managing advanced JNA will require future prospective studies.
    Neurosurgery 06/2003; 52(5):1207-11; discussion 1211. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the reliability of balloon test occlusion with hypotensive challenge (BTO and HC) as a predictor of neurological complications before internal carotid artery (ICA) sacrifice in patients with advanced head and neck cancer, the authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients presenting to their institutions between 1992 and 1997 in whom this preoperative assessment was performed. Eleven patents who were candidates for extended comprehensive neck dissection (ECND) and potential ICA sacrifice were included in the study. Eight patients tolerated the test and underwent endovascular occlusion or surgical ligation of the ICA before ECND (four patients), preservation of the ICA at the time of surgery (three patients), or palliative therapy (one patient). Of three patients in whom BTO and HC failed, one patient received palliative treatment only; the other two underwent ECND with preservation of the ICA. In the group of patients who passed the test and underwent ICA occlusion or ligation before ECND, fatal thromboembolic stroke occurred within 24 hours of permanent balloon occlusion in one patient, resulting in a combined neurological morbidity/mortality rate of 25% in this subset of patients and an overall complication rate of 9% in this series. The authors found that BTO and HC offers a simple and reliable method of preoperative risk assessment when ICA resection is planned for regional control of disease in advanced head and neck cancer. This management option, however, is associated with a potential for neurological complication that must be weighed against the natural course of the disease and the risks and benefits of other treatment modalities.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 04/2003; 14(3):e5. · 2.49 Impact Factor