[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a genetically mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. B cells have recently emerged as major contributors to disease pathogenesis, but the mechanisms responsible for the loss of B cell tolerance in patients with MS are largely unknown. In healthy individuals, developing autoreactive B cells are removed from the repertoire at 2 tolerance checkpoints during early B cell development. Both of these central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints are defective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we found that only the peripheral, but not the central, B cell tolerance checkpoint is defective in patients with MS. We show that this specific defect is accompanied by increased activation and homeostatic proliferation of mature naive B cells. Interestingly, all of these MS features parallel defects observed in FOXP3-deficient IPEX patients, who harbor nonfunctional Tregs. We demonstrate that in contrast to patients with RA or T1D, bone marrow central B cell selection in MS appears normal in most patients. In contrast, patients with MS suffer from a specific peripheral B cell tolerance defect that is potentially attributable to impaired Treg function and that leads to the accumulation of autoreactive B cell clones in their blood.
The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) share overlapping clinical, radiologic and laboratory features at onset. Because autoantibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of both diseases, we sought to identify autoantibody biomarkers that are capable of distinguishing them. METHODS: We used custom antigen arrays to profile anti-myelin-peptide autoantibodies in sera derived from individuals with pediatric ADEM (n = 15), pediatric multiple sclerosis (Ped MS; n = 11) and adult MS (n = 15). Using isotype-specific secondary antibodies, we profiled both IgG and IgM reactivities. We used Statistical Analysis of Microarrays software to confirm the differences in autoantibody reactivity profiles between ADEM and MS samples. We used Prediction Analysis of Microarrays software to generate and validate prediction algorithms, based on the autoantibody reactivity profiles. RESULTS: ADEM was characterized by IgG autoantibodies targeting epitopes derived from myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, myelin-associated oligodendrocyte basic glycoprotein, and alpha-B-crystallin. In contrast, MS was characterized by IgM autoantibodies targeting myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, myelin-associated oligodendrocyte basic glycoprotein and oligodendrocyte-specific protein. We generated and validated prediction algorithms that distinguish ADEM serum (sensitivity 62-86%; specificity 56-79%) from MS serum (sensitivity 40-87%; specificity 62-86%) on the basis of combined IgG and IgM anti-myelin autoantibody reactivity to a small number of myelin peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Combined profiles of serum IgG and IgM autoantibodies identified myelin antigens that may be useful for distinguishing MS from ADEM. Further studies are required to establish clinical utility. Further biological assays are required to delineate the pathogenic potential of these antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune disease results from a loss of tolerance to self-antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. Completely understanding this process requires that targeted antigens be identified, and so a number of techniques have been developed to determine immune receptor specificities. We previously reported the construction of a phage-displayed synthetic human peptidome and a proof-of-principle analysis of antibodies from three patients with neurological autoimmunity. Here we present data from a large-scale screen of 298 independent antibody repertoires, including those from 73 healthy sera, using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing. The resulting database of peptide-antibody interactions characterizes each individual's unique autoantibody fingerprint, and includes specificities found to occur frequently in the general population as well as those associated with disease. Screening type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients revealed a prematurely polyautoreactive phenotype compared with their matched controls. A collection of cerebrospinal fluids and sera from 63 multiple sclerosis patients uncovered novel, as well as previously reported antibody-peptide interactions. Finally, a screen of synovial fluids and sera from 64 rheumatoid arthritis patients revealed novel disease-associated antibody specificities that were independent of seropositivity status. This work demonstrates the utility of performing PhIP-Seq screens on large numbers of individuals and is another step toward defining the full complement of autoimmunoreactivities in health and disease.
Journal of Autoimmunity 03/2013; · 8.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inclusion body myositis (IBM) belongs to a group of muscle diseases known as the inflammatory myopathies. The presence of antibody-secreting plasma cells in IBM muscle implicates the humoral immune response in this disease. However, whether the humoral immune response actively contributes to IBM pathology has not been established. We sought to investigate whether the humoral immune response in IBM both in the periphery and at the site of tissue damage was directed towards self-antigens. Peripheral autoantibodies present in IBM serum but not control serum recognized self-antigens in both muscle tissue and human-derived cell lines. To study the humoral immune response at the site of tissue damage in IBM patients, we isolated single plasma cells directly from IBM-derived muscle tissue sections and from these cells, reconstructed a series of recombinant immunoglobulins (rIgG). These rIgG, each representing a single muscle-associated plasma cell, were examined for reactivity to self-antigens. Both, flow cytometry and immunoblotting revealed that these rIgG recognized antigens expressed by cell lines and in muscle tissue homogenates. Using a mass spectrometry-based approach, Desmin, a major intermediate filament protein, expressed abundantly in muscle tissue, was identified as the target of one IBM muscle-derived rIgG. Collectively, these data support the view that IBM includes a humoral immune response in both the periphery and at the site of tissue damage that is directed towards self-antigens.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e46709. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis, B cell aggregates populate the meninges, raising the central question as to whether these structures relate to the B cell infiltrates found in parenchymal lesions or instead, represent a separate central nervous system immune compartment. We characterized the repertoires derived from meningeal B cell aggregates and the corresponding parenchymal infiltrates from brain tissue derived primarily from patients with progressive multiple sclerosis. The majority of expanded antigen-experienced B cell clones derived from meningeal aggregates were also present in the parenchyma. We extended this investigation to include 20 grey matter specimens containing meninges, 26 inflammatory plaques, 19 areas of normal appearing white matter and cerebral spinal fluid. Analysis of 1833 B cell receptor heavy chain variable region sequences demonstrated that antigen-experienced clones were consistently shared among these distinct compartments. This study establishes a relationship between extraparenchymal lymphoid tissue and parenchymal infiltrates and defines the arrangement of B cell clones that populate the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the overlap shared between the immunoglobulin (Ig) proteome of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the B cell Ig-transcriptome of CSF and the central nervous system (CNS) tissue of three patients with multiple sclerosis. We determined the IgG-proteomes of CSF by mass spectrometry, and compared them to the IgG-transcriptomes from CSF and brain lesions, which were analyzed by cDNA cloning. Characteristic peptides that were identified in the CSF-proteome could also be detected in the transcriptomes of both, brain lesions and CSF, providing evidence for a strong overlap of the IgG repertoires in brain lesions and in the CSF.
Journal of neuroimmunology 02/2011; 233(1-2):245-8. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B cells isolated from the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a unique accumulation of somatic hypermutation within the B cell receptor, termed the antibody gene signature (AGS). The focus of this study was to investigate whether the AGS could also be detected in MS brain tissue. Genetic analysis of B cells isolated from post-mortem CNS tissue samples from four MS brains demonstrated that signature enriched B cells are present at the site of tissue injury as well as in the circulating CSF.
Journal of neuroimmunology 09/2010; 226(1-2):192-3. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and control individuals.
Prospective case-control series.
Academic referral center.
Twenty-six controls with noninflammatory neurologic disease and 35 patients with MS donated serum and CSF for recombinant MOG (rMOG) antibody determination.
Serum and CSF rMOG antibody and albumin levels were used to calculate an rMOG index. Clinical disability, CSF markers, and magnetic resonance metrics were correlated with the rMOG index.
The rMOG index was elevated in MS patients compared with controls (P = .01). Patients with progressive MS exhibited elevated rMOG indexes compared with patients with relapsing-remitting MS (P = .04). The rMOG index was inferior to the IgG index in differentiating MS patients from controls. However, 7 of 16 patients with MS who had normal immunoglobulin G indexes had an elevated rMOG index. The rMOG index did not correlate with clinical disability, other CSF markers, or radiographic outcome measures.
The rMOG index, a marker of intrathecal MOG antibody production, may provide complementary information to routine CSF testing in the diagnosis of MS. Furthermore, intrathecal anti-MOG antibody production may be more pronounced in progressive than in relapsing forms of MS.
Archives of neurology 09/2010; 67(9):1102-8. · 7.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibodies in pediatric-onset MS and controls were characterized. Serum samples were obtained from 94 children with MS and 106 controls. Paired CSF and serum were obtained from 25 children with MS at time of their initial episode of acute demyelinating syndrome (ADS). Complementary assays were applied across samples to evaluate the presence, and the physical binding properties, of anti-MBP antibodies. While the prevalence and titers of serum anti-MBP antibodies against both immature and mature forms of MBP were similar in children with MS and in controls, binding characteristics and formal Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) studies indicated surprisingly high binding affinities of all pediatric anti-MBP antibodies. Serum levels of anti-MBP antibodies correlated significantly with their CSF levels, and their presence in children with MS was associated with significantly increased risk of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like initial clinical presentation. While antibodies to both immature and mature forms of MBP can be present as part of the normal pediatric humoral repertoire, these anti-myelin antibodies are of surprisingly high affinity, can access the CNS during inflammation, and have the capacity to modulate disease expression. Our findings identify an immune mechanism that could contribute to the observed heterogeneity in spectrum of clinical presentations in early-onset MS.
Journal of neuroimmunology 04/2010; 223(1-2):92-9. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) typically manifests in early to mid adulthood, but there is increasing recognition of pediatric-onset MS, aided by improvements in imaging techniques. The immunological mechanisms of disease are largely unexplored in pediatric-onset MS, in part because studies have historically focused on adult-onset disease. We investigated autoantibodies to myelin surface Ags in a large cohort of pediatric MS cases by flow cytometric labeling of transfectants that expressed different myelin proteins. Although Abs to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) were uncommon among adult-onset patients, a subset of pediatric patients had serum Abs that brightly labeled the MOG transfectant. Abs to two other myelin surface Ags were largely absent. Affinity purification of MOG Abs as well as competition of binding with soluble MOG documented their binding specificity. Such affinity purified Abs labeled myelin and glial cells in human CNS white matter as well as myelinated axons in gray matter. The prevalence of such autoantibodies was highest among patients with a very early onset of MS: 38.7% of patients less than 10 years of age at disease onset had MOG Abs, compared with 14.7% of patients in the 10- to 18-year age group. B cell autoimmunity to this myelin surface Ag is therefore most common in patients with a very early onset of MS.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 183(6):4067-76. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. To date, considerable evidence has associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with disease development. However, it remains controversial whether EBV infects multiple sclerosis brain and contributes directly to CNS immunopathology. To assess whether EBV infection is a characteristic feature of multiple sclerosis brain, a large cohort of multiple sclerosis specimens containing white matter lesions (nine adult and three paediatric cases) with a heterogeneous B cell infiltrate and a second cohort of multiple sclerosis specimens (12 cases) that included B cell infiltration within the meninges and parenchymal B cell aggregates, were examined for EBV infection using multiple methodologies including in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and two independent real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodologies that detect genomic EBV or the abundant EBV encoded RNA (EBER) 1, respectively. We report that EBV could not be detected in any of the multiple sclerosis specimens containing white matter lesions by any of the methods employed, yet EBV was readily detectable in multiple Epstein-Barr virus-positive control tissues including several CNS lymphomas. Furthermore, EBV was not detected in our second cohort of multiple sclerosis specimens by in situ hybridization. However, our real-time PCR methodologies, which were capable of detecting very few EBV infected cells, detected EBV at low levels in only 2 of the 12 multiple sclerosis meningeal specimens examined. Our finding that CNS EBV infection was rare in multiple sclerosis brain indicates that EBV infection is unlikely to contribute directly to multiple sclerosis brain pathology in the vast majority of cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intrathecal IgG synthesis, persistence of bands of oligoclonal IgG, and memory B-cell clonal expansion are well-characterized features of the humoral response in multiple sclerosis (MS). Nevertheless, the target antigen of this response remains enigmatic.
We produced 53 different human IgG1 monoclonal recombinant antibodies (rAbs) by coexpressing paired heavy- and light-chain variable region sequences of 51 plasma cell clones and 2 B-lymphocyte clones from MS cerebrospinal fluid in human tissue culture cells. Chimeric control rAbs were generated from anti-myelin hybridomas in which murine variable region sequences were fused to human constant region sequences. Purified rAbs were exhaustively assayed for reactivity against myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein by immunostaining of transfected cells expressing individual myelin proteins, by protein immunoblotting, and by immunostaining of human brain tissue sections.
Whereas humanized control rAbs derived from anti-myelin hybridomas and anti-myelin monoclonal antibodies readily detected myelin antigens in multiple immunoassays, none of the rAbs derived from MS cerebrospinal fluid displayed immunoreactivity to the three myelin antigens tested. Immunocytochemical analysis of tissue sections from MS and control brain demonstrated only weak staining with a few rAbs against nuclei or cytoplasmic granules in neurons, glia, and inflammatory cells.
The oligoclonal B-cell response in MS cerebrospinal fluid is not targeted to the well-characterized myelin antigens myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein.
Annals of Neurology 04/2009; 65(6):639-49. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms derived from residual primordial tissue. These tumors are commonly found in the brain, testes, or ovaries, where they are termed germinomas, seminomas, or dysgerminomas, respectively. Like several other tumor types, germ cell tumors often harbor an immune cell infiltrate that can include substantial numbers of B cells. Yet little is known about whether the humoral immune response affects germ cell tumor biology. To gain a deeper understanding of the role B cells play in this tumor family, we characterized the immune cell infiltrate of all three germ cell tumor subtypes and defined the molecular characteristics of the B cell Ag receptor expressed by tumor-associated B cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent B cell infiltrate in the microenvironment of all tumors examined and clear evidence of extranodal lymphoid follicles with germinal center-like architecture in a subset of specimens. Molecular characterization of the Ig variable region from 320 sequences expressed by germ cell tumor-infiltrating B cells revealed clear evidence of Ag experience, in that the cardinal features of an Ag-driven B cell response were present: significant somatic mutation, isotype switching, and codon insertion/deletion. This characterization also revealed the presence of both B cell clonal expansion and variation, suggesting that local B cell maturation most likely occurs within the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, sequences from control tissues and peripheral blood displayed none of these characteristics. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that an adaptive and specific humoral immune response is occurring within the tumor microenvironment.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2009; 182(5):3310-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurovascular niches have been proposed as critical components of the neural stem cell (NSC) response to acute central nervous system injury; however, it is unclear whether these potential reparative niches remain functional during chronic injury. Here, we asked how central nervous system inflammatory injury regulates the intrinsic properties of NSCs and their niches.
We investigated the sonic hedgehog (Shh)-Gli1 pathway, an important signaling pathway for NSCs, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multiple sclerosis (MS), and its regulation by inflammatory cytokines.
We show that Shh is markedly upregulated by reactive and perivascular astroglia in areas of injury in MS lesions and during EAE. Astroglia outside the subventricular zone niche can support NSC differentiation toward neurons and oligodendrocytes, and Shh is a critical mediator of this effect. Shh induces differential upregulation of the transcription factor Gli1, which mediates Shh-induced NSC differentiation. However, despite the increase in Shh and the fact that Gli1 was initially increased during early inflammation of EAE and active lesions of MS, Gli1 was significantly decreased in spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells after onset of EAE, and in chronic active and inactive lesions from MS brain. The Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma was unique in inducing Shh expression in astroglia and NSCs, while paradoxically suppressing Gli1 expression in NSCs and inhibiting Shh-mediated NSC differentiation.
Our data suggest that endogenous repair potential during chronic injury appears to be limited by inflammation-induced alterations in intrinsic NSC molecular pathways such as Gli1.
Annals of Neurology 11/2008; 64(4):417-27. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: alphaB-crystallin (CRYAB) is the most abundant gene transcript present in early active multiple sclerosis lesions, whereas such transcripts are absent in normal brain tissue. This crystallin has anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective functions. CRYAB is the major target of CD4+ T-cell immunity to the myelin sheath from multiple sclerosis brain. The pathophysiological implications of this immune response were investigated here. We demonstrate that CRYAB is a potent negative regulator acting as a brake on several inflammatory pathways in both the immune system and central nervous system (CNS). Cryab-/- mice showed worse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at the acute and progressive phases, with higher Th1 and Th17 cytokine secretion from T cells and macrophages, and more intense CNS inflammation, compared with their wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, Cryab-/- astrocytes showed more cleaved caspase-3 and more TUNEL staining, indicating an anti-apoptotic function of Cryab. Antibody to CRYAB was detected in cerebrospinal fluid from multiple sclerosis patients and in sera from mice with EAE. Administration of recombinant CRYAB ameliorated EAE. Thus, the immune response against a negative regulator of inflammation, CRYAB, in multiple sclerosis, would exacerbate inflammation and demyelination. This can be countered by giving CRYAB itself for therapy of ongoing disease.