G. Wacker

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

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Publications (29)36.23 Total impact

  • R Billinton, S Ali, G Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: Customer interruption costs are a function of both interruption and user characteristics. The specific customer characteristics at a load point in a distribution network can have a significant effect on the estimated customer outage costs at that load point and for the entire feeder. This paper illustrates the effects on outage cost estimates of using generalized sector customer outage cost estimates and actual customer specific outage cost functions. The data used in these analyses are from customer cost surveys conducted in Canada. A small distribution system is used to illustrate the possible variation in interruption cost estimates due to incorporating specific customer characteristics in the evaluation. The results presented clearly show that different customer compositions can result in significantly different feeder interruption cost estimates. The estimated interruption costs can be used in feeder design to create an optimal configuration based on reliability cost/worth analysis.
    International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems - INT J ELEC POWER ENERG SYST. 01/2004; 26(4):235-240.
  • Article: Front Cover
    R. Billington, S.A. Ali, G. Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: Many countries have conducted studies to determine the monetary impact of power system outages on their customers. These studies have been conducted for different customer classes and have used a wide range of survey or study techniques. The data is being used to examine reliability levels and criteria and to provide input to planning and operating decisions. One issue often raised is the question of comparable reliability criteria in different systems and different countries. The customer interruption costs (CIC) in different countries can be compared by converting the CIC data using purchasing power parity (PPP). A PPP estimate reflects the purchasing power of the inhabitants of a country and depends on market value. The effect of frequent currency fluctuations due to artificial reasons are eliminated in the PPP estimate. In the PPP approach, the prices of goods and services are internationally arbitraged so that the cost of a standard market basket is the same in all countries when measured in terms of a common currency.
    IEEE Power Engineering Review 06/2001; 21(5):c1-c1.
  • R. Billington, S. A. Ali, G. Wacker
    IEEE Power Engineering Review 01/2001; 21(5):3-5.
  • J. Gates, R. Billinton, G. Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of an investigation conducted by the Power Systems Research Group at the University of Saskatchewan to determine the costs of electric service interruptions in the government, institution and office building sector. The methodology used to obtain customer interruption cost information in this sector and to analyze the results is also presented
    IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 03/1999; · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • S.A. Ali, G. Wacker, R. Billinton
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    ABSTRACT: Customer interruption costs are used as surrogates in the assessment of reliability worth in electric power systems. In order to determine an optimal and reliable level of customer service, reliability cost/worth is evaluated by calculating the costs associated with different system configurations and assessing the corresponding reliability worth at the respective system load points. This paper illustrates the utilization of an existing Canadian database in the development of individual sector and customer damage functions. The approach presented is very flexible and permits the existing database to be updated as new information becomes available. A composite customer damage function is created for combinations of customer classes by weighting the individual customer damage functions using the energy consumed by each class
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1999 IEEE Canadian Conference on; 02/1999
  • J. Gates, G. Wacker, R. Billinton
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a methodology to develop survey instruments to evaluate costs and losses incurred by customers during interruptions to the electrical supply system. This work is part of an ongoing research project in the Power Systems Research Group at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. The paper focuses on a procedure to develop and design mail-out survey questionnaire packages, in particular for the Government, Institution and Office Building (GIO) sector of the economy. A brief description of previous results and of the project's current status is provided. The method by which customer information is collected and manipulated to provide a basis for economic reliability management decisions in electric utilities is discussed
    WESCANEX 95. Communications, Power, and Computing. Conference Proceedings. IEEE; 06/1995
  • R. Billinton, E. Chan, G. Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable attention is being devoted to quantitative determination of electric power system reliability worth. A basic approach is to utilise customer interruption costs obtained from postal or in person surveys. The results obtained are transformed into customer damage functions which are applicable to individual customer classes and sectors. Standard customer damage functions utilise average customer costs for selected outage durations. The paper presents a new approach which provides a three-dimensional representation of the probability distributions associated with customer outage costs. The results are utilised in a basic generating capacity adequacy assessment analysis to calculate an interrupted energy assessment rate, which provides an overall average cost per kilowatt-hour of unsupplied energy. This cost value is considerably higher than the value obtained using a conventional customer damage function
    IET Proceedings - Generation Transmission and Distribution 12/1994; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A common approach used in quantifying the worth or benefit of electric service reliability is to estimate the customer costs (monetary losses) associated with power interruptions. Customer surveys are often used to determine interruption costs. The IEEE Power Systems Research Group has conducted surveys of Canadian electric utility customers in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These surveys were sponsored by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and seven participating utilities. This paper presents the overall results of these surveys with emphasis on the cost results
    IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 03/1994; · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • G. Wacker, G. Tollefson
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    ABSTRACT: Considers how a methodological approach is evolving in the electric utility industry to determine users' evaluation of the worth of electric service and as a means to conduct realistic cost/benefit analysis at the planning stage. The essence of the argument is that, only if the worth of our infrastructure is known can defensible decisions be taken with respect to the expenditures to maintain or retrofit the infrastructure. Obtaining meaningful users' worth assessments of the infrastructure is a critical component in evolving definable cost/benefit analysis of major technological infrastructures
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 02/1994; 13(2):10-16. · 0.54 Impact Factor
  • R. Billinton, J. Aweya, G. Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: The authors describe the evaluation of the worth or value of distribution system reliability using quantitative reliability analysis and customer interruption costs. The ability to assess reliability worth makes it possible to optimize the reliability of a system by comparing the reliability worth with the associated system investment costs. The analyses include an evaluation of the reliability of different design/operating configurations of a distribution system and the corresponding reliability worths at the customer level. The reliability of each system configuration is evaluated in terms of the system performance indices and the expected customer outage costs due to power interruptions.
    WESCANEX 93. 'Communications, Computers and Power in the Modern Environment.' Conference Proceedings., IEEE; 02/1993
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    ABSTRACT: The results of an investigation of the direct short-term effects and costs incurred by commercial customers resulting from local random supply interruptions are presented. The results of a commercial survey based on 1001 usable responses are examined. The customer- and interruption-related variables affecting the customer losses are described
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 02/1993; · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive study was performed to identify the customer- and interruption-related variables that affect the customer losses. The major results pertaining to the variation of interruption costs with time of year, week, and day for small industrial electrical consumers have been reported previously by the authors (see IEEE Power App. Syst., vol.PAS-104, p.3209-15, 1985). In this paper the authors attempt to identify and describe additional factors and variables associated with the cost of interruption, such as restart time, ability to make up lost production, effect of advance warning, etc
    IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 02/1993; · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the range of methods used to evaluate worth of reliability and costs of unreliability (outage costs) as reported in the literature, and contrasts the strengths and weakness of various methods. Three broad categories can be identified, namely, analytical methods, case studies, and customer surveys. The customer postal survey method is identified as the preferred method. The Power Systems Research Group of the University of Saskatchewan has conducted consumer surveys in the residential, industrial, commercial and agricultural sectors during the last decade. Major features of the methodology which has evolved are outlined. Typical data analysis procedures and characteristics of results are presented.
    International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 01/1993;
  • P. Kos, R. Billinton, G. Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: The authors describe the methodology and results of statistical analyses of data collected to estimate the losses incurred by the farm sector as a result of electric power system interruptions. The project was sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association and employed a postal survey to estimate the costs to electric customers resulting from electric power outages. The survey included interruption cost estimation questions based on three principles: direct estimate of losses, an economic principle of substitution, and a willingness-to-accept method. The results of these questions together with the others included in the questionnaire were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The analysis presented unexpected challenges due to the peculiarities of the data. The difficulties associated with data analysis, the methodology used, and the results are discussed
    IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 12/1991; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors provide a comprehensive bibliography that relates to the development, results, and continuing research into the theory of the worth of electrical service reliability. The authors cover material that has been published from 1980 to 1990. The primary emphasis is on the theories and methods used in determining the interruption costs experienced by the consumers. Application of interruption cost data in planning of electrical systems is also included
    IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 12/1991; · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • G. Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: First Page of the Article
    Technology and Society, 1991. ISTAS '91: 'Preparing for a Sustainable Society'. Post Conference Edition., Proceedings of the 1991 International Symposium on; 07/1991
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    ABSTRACT: A summary of research conducted to determine the effect of outage costs on commercial consumers having electric standby systems and to identify customer related and interruption related variables that affect the losses is presented. It is shown that consumption and demand normalized outage costs for users having no standby systems are higher typically by three times when compared with users having standby systems. No significant differences were observed between battery and engine-driven standby systems. Variation in outage costs with respondent category was studied. Respondents indicated that they could make significant cost savings arrangements if provided with advance warning or duration information of the interruption. 45% of all respondents having standby systems indicated there were health or safety hazards due to interruptions.< >
    Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 1990., Conference Record of the 1990 IEEE; 11/1990
  • G. Wacker
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    ABSTRACT: First Page of the Article
    Delicate Balance: Technics, Culture and Consequences, 1989; 11/1989
  • G. Wacker, R. Billinton
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    ABSTRACT: An approach often used to estimate power-system reliability worth is to determine consumers' monetary losses resulting from service interruptions, i.e. the cost of unreliability. Previously, studies have been conducted to provide estimates of customer interruption costs, and a wide range of methodologies has evolved. There is no universal agreement on the appropriateness of methodologies to particular situations nor on the interpretation of the results obtained, but some appear to be more acceptable and useful to the industry than others. A survey is presented of the techniques available for estimating customer interruption costs, the rationale of those that are currently popular is discussed, and the application of such cost data in creating a composite customer damage function is explored
    Proceedings of the IEEE 07/1989; · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • G. Wacker, R. Billinton
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    ABSTRACT: A summary of results is presented of a postal survey of Canadian farm operators conducted to evaluate the direct and short-term costs and impacts resulting from local random electrical supply interruptions. Statistics Canada's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) was used to categorize farms into groups and subgroups, and the composition of the survey sample was intended to reflect the relative importance of the various farm categories to the geographical regions across Canada. Most Canadian utilities which serve farm customers participated in the project. The survey was designed to obtain the consumer's valuation of interruption costs using three approaches: an indirect worth evaluation based on the preparatory actions the consumer predicted he would take given a specified (un)reliability, a direct estimate of worst-case costs, and an attempt to indicate expected rate reductions commensurate with a specified reduction in reliability. Principal variations of cost estimates are briefly discussed. Information concerning primary effects of interruptions is presented, and the availability, type, and size of standby equipment are reported
    IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 06/1989; · 2.92 Impact Factor