[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The actin-binding protein p57/coronin-1, a member of the coronin protein family, is selectively expressed in immune cells, and has been implicated in leucocyte migration and phagocytosis by virtue of its interaction with F-actin (filamentous actin). We previously identified two sites in the N-terminal region of p57/coronin-1 by which it binds actin, and in the present study we examine the role of the leucine zipper motif located in the C-terminal coiled-coil domain in mediating the homotypic association of p57/coronin-1. Recombinant p57/coronin-1 protein in solution formed a homodimer, as analysed by Superose 12 column chromatography and by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. In vivo, a truncated form consisting of the C-terminal coiled-coil domain co-precipitated with full-length p57/coronin-1 when both were co-expressed in COS-1 cells. A chimaeric construct composed of the C-terminal domain of p57/coronin-1 (which lacks the actin-binding sites) fused with green fluorescent protein co-localized with cortical F-actin-rich regions in COS-1 cells only when full-length p57/coronin-1 was expressed simultaneously in the cells, suggesting that the C-terminal region is required for the homotypic association of p57/coronin-1. Furthermore, p57LZ, a polypeptide consisting of the C-terminal 90 amino acid residues of p57/coronin-1, was sufficient for dimerization. When two leucine residues out of the four that constitute the leucine zipper structure in p57LZ or full-length p57 were replaced with alanine residues, the mutants failed to form homodimers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that p57/coronin-1 forms homodimers, that the association is mediated by the leucine zipper structure in the C-terminal region, and that it plays a role in the cross-linking of F-actin in the cell.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The actin-binding protein p57, a member of the coronin protein family, is expressed in a variety of immune cells. It has five WD repeats and a coiled-coil motif containing a leucine zipper, both of which are known to mediate protein-protein interactions. In order to identify the precise actin-binding regions in p57, and to assess the contribution of these structural motifs, we prepared various truncated p57 as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and examined their actin-binding activity. A co-sedimentation assay demonstrated that p57(1-371) (C-terminal truncated p57) had the ability to bind F-actin, but p57(372-461) (a fragment containing the coiled-coil motif) did not. A segment consisting of the N-terminal 34 amino acids of p57 (p57(1-34)) was found to bind to F-actin in the co-sedimentation assay. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopic observation showed that p57(1-34) was co-localized with F-actin in COS-1 cells after the transfection with the p57(1-34) construct. Deletion of (10)KFRHVF(15), a sequence conserved among coronin-related proteins, from p57(1-34) abolished its actin-binding activity, suggesting that this sequence with basic and hydrophobic amino acids is crucial for p57 to bind to F-actin. However, the N-terminal deletion mutant p57(63-461) retained the binding ability to F-actin. This result suggests the presence of a second actin-binding region. Further deletion analysis revealed that p57(111-204), which includes the second and third WD repeats, also exhibited weak actin-binding activity in the co-sedimentation assay. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that at least two regions within Met-1 to Asp-34 and Ile-111 to Glu-204 of p57 are responsible for its binding to the actin cytoskeleton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan (OpZ) particles by differentiated cells of the human leukemic cell line HL-60 induced transient periphagosomal association of p57, a coronin family actin-binding protein, and F-actin with dissociation from the phagosomes after ingestion was completed. Coincident with OpZ ingestion, p57 phosphorylation increased transiently and peaked with its dissociation from phagosomes. Since p57 contains several putative sites for protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, we examined the effect of PKC on p57 phosphorylation and association with the phagosome. Purified p57 was phosphorylated in vitro by PKC isoforms alpha and delta, and PMA, an activator of PKC, induced p57 phosphorylation in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, chelerythrine, a specific PKC inhibitor, blocked p57 phosphorylation and the dissociation of p57 and F-actin from phagosomes, whereas wortmannin, genistein, and H-89 did not. Chelerythrine also inhibited the translocation of LAMP-1, a marker protein of lysosomes, to the OpZ-containing phagosomes, indicating that PKC-mediated phosphorylation is required for phagosome-lysosome fusion. Taken together, these data suggest that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of p57 triggers its dissociation from phagosomes, an event that may be necessary for the fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 57 kDa protein (p57) was obtained during the study on phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Its cDNA was isolated from calf spleen and human leukemia cell line HL60 libraries and cloned. In the primary structures of p57, they have two unique amino acid sequence motifs, a WD repeat and a leucine zipper motif. Furthermore, p57 shared sequence similarity (40%) with coronin, an actin-binding protein responsible for chemotaxis, cell motility, and cytokinesis of Dictyostelium discoideum, which has only the WD repeat. p57 also showed an actin-binding activity and was mainly expressed in immune tissues. From these results, we conclude that p57 is a coronin-like novel actin-binding protein in mammalian cells but may also have a different function from coronin.