ABSTRACT: Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors.
Journal of Behavioral Medicine 03/2012; · 3.10 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Childhood diet is hypothesized to influence development of chronic disease in adulthood.
Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of a dietary intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake during childhood and adolescence on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young adult women.
A follow-up study was conducted in 2006-2008, 9 yr after termination of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC).
The study took place at six DISC clinical centers in the United States.
A total of 230 (76%) DISC female participants who were 25-29 yr old and had not been pregnant or breastfeeding in the previous 3 months participated in the follow-up study.
There was no intervention between the end of the DISC trial and the follow-up visit.
Metabolic syndrome was the primary study endpoint planned before data collection and was hypothesized to be less common in the intervention group participants.
Metabolic syndrome was uncommon, and its prevalence did not differ by treatment group. However, after adjustment for nondietary variables, mean systolic blood pressures of intervention and control group participants were 107.7 and 110.0 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.03), whereas mean fasting plasma glucose levels were 87.0 and 89.1 mg/dl, respectively (P = 0.01). Intervention group participants also had lower concentrations of large very-low-density lipoprotein particles, a marker of hepatic insulin resistance, compared with control group participants. Adjustment for current diet did not materially alter results.
Consumption of a diet lower in fat and higher in fiber during childhood and adolescence may benefit glycemic control and blood pressure long term.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 12/2011; 96(12):E1999-2008. · 6.50 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Adolescent diet is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of an intervention to lower fat intake among adolescent girls on biomarkers that are related to breast cancer risk in adults.
A follow-up study was conducted on 230 girls who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC), in which healthy, prepubertal, 8 to 10 year olds were randomly assigned to usual care or to a behavioral intervention that promoted a reduced fat diet. Participants were 25 to 29 years old at follow-up visits. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided.
In analyses that did not take account of diet at the time of the follow-up visit, the only statistically significant treatment group difference was higher bone mineral content in intervention group participants compared with usual care group participants; their mean bone mineral contents were 2,444 and 2,377 g, respectively. After adjustment for current diet, the intervention group also had statistically significantly higher bone mineral density and luteal phase serum estradiol concentrations. Serum progesterone concentrations and breast density did not differ by treatment group in unadjusted or adjusted analyses.
Results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of a lower fat diet during adolescence reduces breast cancer risk via effects on subsequent serum estradiol and progesterone levels, breast density, or bone mineral density. It remains unclear, however, if the results are specific to the DISC intervention or are more broadly applicable.
Modest reductions in fat intake during adolescence are unlikely to lower later breast cancer risk via long-term effects on the biomarkers measured.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 06/2010; 19(6):1545-56. · 4.12 Impact Factor