Kate Miller

University of Queensland , Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Publications (6)5.7 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective pain management remains a challenge for adolescents during conscious burn wound care procedures. Virtual reality (VR) shows promise as a non-pharmacological adjunct in reducing pain. This study assessed off-the-shelf VR for (1) its effect on reducing acute pain intensity during adolescent burn wound care, and (2) its clinical utility in a busy hospital setting. Forty-one adolescents (11-17 years) participated in this prospective randomized controlled trial. Acute pain outcomes including adolescent self-report, nursing staff behavioral observation, caregiver observation and physiological measures were collected. Length of procedure times and adolescent reactions were also recorded to inform clinical utility. Nursing staff reported a statistically significant reduction in pain scores during dressing removal, and significantly less rescue doses of Entonox given to those receiving VR, compared to those receiving standard distraction. For all other pain outcomes and length of treatment, there was a trend for lower pain scores and treatment times for those receiving VR, but these differences were not statistically significant. Despite only minimal pain reduction achieved using off-the-shelf VR, other results from this trial and previous research on younger children with burns suggest a customized, adolescent and hospital friendly device may be more effective in pain reduction.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 02/2012; 38(5):650-7. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of non-pharmacological pain management remains adhoc within acute paediatric burns pain management protocols despite ongoing acknowledgement of its role. Advancements in adult based pain services including the integration of virtual reality has been adapted to meet the needs of children in pain, as exemplified by the development of multi-modal distraction (MMD). This easy to use, hand held interactive device uses customized programs designed to inform the child about the procedure he/she is about to experience and to distract the child during dressing changes. (1) To investigate if either MMD procedural preparation (MMD-PP) or distraction (MMD-D) has a greater impact on child pain reduction compared to standard distraction (SD) or hand held video game distraction (VG), (2) to understand the impact of MMD-PP and MMD-D on clinic efficiency by measuring length of treatment across groups, and lastly, (3) to assess the efficacy of distraction techniques over three dressing change procedures. A prospective randomised control trial was completed in a paediatric tertiary hospital Burns Outpatient Clinic. Eighty participants were recruited and studied over their first three dressing changes. Pain was assessed using validated child report, caregiver report, nursing observation and physiological measures. MMD-D and MMD-PP were both shown to significantly relieve reported pain (p<or=0.05) and reduce the time taken for dressings (p<or=0.05) compared to SD and VG. The positive effects of both MMD-D and MMD-PP were sustained with subsequent dressing changes. The use of MMD as a preparatory or a distraction tool in an outpatient burns clinic offered superior pain reduction across three dressing changes to children when compared to standard practices or hand held video games. This device has the potential to improve clinic efficiency with reductions in treatment lengths.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 11/2009; 36(5):647-58. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-pharmacological approaches to pain management have been used by therapists for decades to reduce the anxiety and pain experienced by children during burn care procedures. With a greater understanding of pain and the principles behind what causes a child to be distracted, combined with access to state of the art technology, we have developed an easy to use, hand held multimodal distraction device (MMD). MMD is an interactive device that prepares the child for a procedure and uses developmentally appropriate distraction stories and games during the procedures to alleviate anxiety and pain. This paper summarizes the results of three randomized control trials. The trials aimed to understand the effectiveness of MMD as a distraction and preparation tool in reducing anxiety and pain in children undergoing burns and non-burns medical procedures compared to pure pharmacological approaches Standard Distraction (SD) and off the shelf video games (VG). Three separate prospective randomized control trials involving 182 children having 354 dressing changes were conducted in the burns and orthopedic departments at Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, to address the above aims. Pain and anxiety scores were completed for the child, caregiver and nursing staff according to the Modified Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Scale, Faces Pain Scale-Revised, Visual Analogue Scale and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Procedural length was recorded. MMD as a preparation and distraction tool were shown to have a significant impact on child, parent and nursing staff reported anxiety and pain during procedures compared to standard care and video games (P < 0.01). The MMD had a positive effect on clinical time and was shown to sustain its impact on pain and time with further dressing changes. MMD is more effective in reducing the pain and anxiety experienced by children in acute medical procedures as compared with SD and VG. MMD is continuing to be trialed and is continuing to show positive clinical outcomes.
    Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns 10/2009; 25(5):352-6.
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    ABSTRACT: In children, the pain and anxiety associated with acute burn dressing changes can be severe, with drug treatment alone frequently proving to be inadequate. Virtual reality (VR) systems have been successfully trialled in limited numbers of adult and paediatric burn patients. Augmented reality (AR) differs from VR in that it overlays virtual images onto the physical world, instead of creating a complete virtual world. This prospective randomised controlled trial investigated the use of AR as an adjunct to analgesia and sedation in children with acute burns. Forty-two children (30 male and 12 female), with an age range of 3-14 years (median age 9 years) and a total burn surface area ranging from 1 to 16% were randomised into a treatment (AR) arm and a control (basic cognitive therapy) arm after administration of analgesia and/or sedation. Pain scores, pulse rates (PR), respiratory rates (RR) and oxygen saturations (SaO2) were recorded pre-procedurally, at 10 min intervals and post-procedurally. Parents were also asked to grade their child's overall pain score for the dressing change. Mean pain scores were significantly lower (p=0.0060) in the AR group compared to the control group, as were parental pain assessment scores (p=0.015). Respiratory and pulse rates showed significant changes over time within groups, however, these were not significantly different between the two study groups. Oxygen saturation did not differ significantly over time or between the two study groups. This trial shows that augmented reality is a useful adjunct to pharmacological analgesia.
    Burns 04/2008; 34(6):803-8. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of Multi Modal Distraction (MMD) has occurred following appraisal of the developmental and clinical concerns surrounding Virtual Reality's (VR) applicability to pediatric pain management. MMD was developed to expand current distraction tools and technology available for pain management in the pediatric population. This paper will examine how the challenges faced by VR have motivated the collaborative design and development process of MMD. It will then outline the continuous clinical trialling being undertaken to ensure its efficacy in managing childhood procedural anxiety and pain.
    Studies in health technology and informatics 02/2008; 132:287-92.
  • 01/2008;

Publication Stats

54 Citations
5.70 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2012
    • University of Queensland 
      • • Burns Trauma and Critical Care Research Centre
      • • Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • The Royal Children's Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2009
    • Royal Children's Hospital Brisbane
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia