ABSTRACT: Nonylphenols are very important environmentally relevant substances in the focus of the world-wide endocrine disrupter research for over 25 years. Thus, they are among the 10 priority hazardous substances of the new European Union Water Framework Directive. They consist of a very complex mixture of isomers representing therefore a multi-component problem like dioxins or PCBs. As estrogenic effect and degradation behavior in the environment of individual 4-nonylphenols are heavily dependent on the structure and bulkiness of the side chain, it is absolutely necessary to consider the nonylphenol problem from an isomer-specific viewpoint. Therefore a range of 28 differently branched nonylphenol isomers were synthesized for biological and environmental studies. Nonylphenols with a quaternary alpha-carbon, like 4-(1,1,3,4-tetramethylpentyl)phenol (4-NP(95)) and 4-(1-ethyl-1,3,3-trimethylbutyl)phenol (4-NP(170)), were obtained by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of anisole with tertiary nonyl bromides and demethylation with BI(3). Nonylphenols with a tertiary alpha-carbon, such as 4-(1,2-dimethylheptyl)phenol (4-NP(10)) and 4-(1,2,4-trimethylhexyl)phenol (4-NP(41)), were accessible via coupling of p-methoxyphenylmagnesium bromide with ketones. Nonylphenols bearing a quaternary beta-carbon, like 4-(2,2-dimethylheptyl)phenol (4-NP(15)) and 4-(1,2,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol (4-NP(39)), were synthesized starting from 4'-methoxyisobutyrophenone. The compounds were characterized by GC-MS and NMR-spectroscopy. The individual isomers were designated according to the Juelich Nomenclature.
Chemosphere 05/2010; 80(7):813-21. · 3.21 Impact Factor