Keith G Mansfield

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (126)642.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The more clinically concerning form of the disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is characterized by steatosis, lobular inflammation, and ballooning degeneration. Here we describe a naturally occurring syndrome in the common marmoset that recapitulates the pathologic findings associated with NAFLD/NASH in humans. Hepatomegaly determined to result from NAFLD was observed in 33 of 183 marmosets. A comprehensive histopathologic assessment performed in 31 marmosets demonstrated that NAFLD was characterized by variably sized, Oil Red O staining cytoplasmic vacuoles and observed primarily in animals with evidence of obesity and insulin resistance. A subset of marmosets (16 of 31) also demonstrated evidence of NASH characterized by multifocal inflammation combined with ballooning hepatocellular degeneration. Marmosets with NASH demonstrated an increase in immunostaining with an antibody targeted against the human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR compared with marmosets without NASH (38.89 cells/10× field vs 12.05 cells/10× field, P = .05). In addition, marmosets with NASH demonstrated increased Ki-67 immunopositive cellular proliferation compared with those without (5.95 cells/10× field vs 1.53 cells/10× field, P = .0002). Finally, animals with NASH demonstrated significantly increased mean circulating serum iron levels (160.47 μg/dl, P = .008) and an increase in numbers of Prussian blue-positive Kupffer cells (9.28 cells/40× field, P = .005) relative to marmosets without NASH (97.75 μg/dl and 1.87 cells/40×, respectively). This study further characterizes the histopathology of NAFLD/NASH and suggests that the marmoset may be a valuable animal model with which to investigate the host and environmental factors contributing to the progression of NAFLD/ NASH.
    Veterinary pathology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The UL128 complex of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major determinant of viral entry into epithelial and endothelial cells and a target for vaccine development. The UL/b' region of rhesus CMV contains several open reading frames including orthologs of the UL128 complex. We recently showed that the coding content of the rhesus CMV UL/b' region predicts acute endothelial tropism and long-term shedding in vivo in the rhesus macaque model of CMV infection. The laboratory-passaged RhCMV 180.92 strain has a truncated UL/b' region but an intact UL128 complex. To investigate whether the presence of the UL128 complex alone was sufficient to confer endothelial and epithelial tropism in vivo, we investigated tissue dissemination and viral excretion following experimental RhCMV 180.92 inoculation of RhCMV-seronegative rhesus macaques. We show the presence of at least two virus variants in the RhCMV 180.92 infectious virus stock. A rare variant noted for a non-truncated wild-type virus like UL/b' region, rapidly emerged during in vivo replication and showed high-level replication in blood and tissues, and excretion in urine and saliva, features similar to those previously reported in naturally occurring wild-type RhCMV infection. In contrast, the predominant truncated version of RhCMV 180.92 showed significantly lower plasma DNAemia, and limited tissue dissemination and viral shedding. These data demonstrate that the truncated RhCMV 180.92 variant is attenuated in vivo and suggest that additional UL/b' genes, besides the UL128 complex, are required for optimal in vivo CMV replication and dissemination.
    Journal of virology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of rhesus macaques infected with a vpx deletion mutant virus of simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVΔvpx) demonstrates that Vpx is essential for efficient monocyte/macrophage infection in vivo but is not necessary for development of AIDS. To compare myeloid-lineage cell infection in monkeys infected with SIVΔvpx compared to SIVmac239, we analyzed lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues from SIVΔvpx-infected rhesus (n = 5), SIVmac239-infected rhesus with SIV encephalitis (7 SIV239E), those without encephalitis (4 SIV239noE), and other SIV mutant viruses with low viral loads (4 SIVΔnef, 2 SIVΔ3). SIV+ macrophages and the percentage of total SIV+ cells that were macrophages in spleen and lymph nodes were significantly lower in rhesus infected with SIVΔvpx (2.2%) compared to those infected with SIV239E (22.7%), SIV239noE (8.2%), and SIV mutant viruses (10.1%). In colon, SIVΔvpx monkeys had fewer SIV+ cells, no SIV+ macrophages, and lower percentage of SIV+ cells that were macrophages than the other 3 groups. Only 2 SIVΔvpx monkeys exhibited detectable virus in the colon. We demonstrate that Vpx is essential for efficient macrophage infection in vivo and that simian AIDS and death can occur in the absence of detectable macrophage infection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84463. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular localization techniques remain important diagnostic and research tools for the pathologist evaluating nonhuman primate tissues. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry protocols have been developed for many important pathogens of nonhuman primates, including RNA and DNA viruses, prions, and bacterial, protozoal, and fungal pathogens. Such techniques will remain critical in defining the impact and relevance of novel agents on animal health and disease. A comparative pathology perspective often provides valuable insight to the best strategy for reagent development and can also facilitate interpretation of molecular localization patterns. Such a perspective is grounded in a firm understanding of microbe-host pathobiology. This review summarizes current molecular localization protocols used in the diagnosis of selected primate infectious diseases.
    Veterinary Pathology 10/2013; · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • V G Sasseville, K G Mansfield, D J Brees
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    ABSTRACT: The identification, application, and qualification of safety biomarkers are becoming increasingly critical to successful drug discovery and development as companies are striving to develop drugs for difficult targets and for novel disease indications in a risk-adverse environment. Translational safety biomarkers that are minimally invasive and monitor drug-induced toxicity during human clinical trials are urgently needed to assess whether toxicities observed in preclinical toxicology studies are relevant to humans at therapeutic doses. The interpretation of data during the biomarker qualification phase should include careful consideration of the analytic method used, the biology, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the biomarker, and the pathophysiology of the process studied. The purpose of this review is to summarize commonly employed technologies in the development of fluid- and tissue-based safety biomarkers in drug discovery and development and to highlight areas of ongoing novel assay development.
    Veterinary Pathology 10/2013; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simian virus 40 (SV40), family Polyomaviridae, in immunocompromised macaques can cause fatal demyelinating central nervous system disease analogous to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by John Cunningham (JC) virus in immunocompromised humans. Recently, we have demonstrated that JC virus can infect cerebellar granule cell neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons in immunosuppressed people. To examine whether SV40 neuronal infection occurs spontaneously in immunosuppressed macaques, we analyzed archival brain specimens from 20 simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus with AIDS and 1 cynomolgus post-transplant selected with SV40 brain infection from archival records from 1991 to 2012. In addition to white matter SV40 distribution in classic demyelinating progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, some of the 21 monkeys exhibited meningeal, subpial neocortical, and periventricular virus. This distribution pattern corresponded to broader viral tropism with neuronal infection in 14 (66.7%) of 21 cases. In all 14 cases, identified neurons were positive for early SV40 transcript large T antigen, but only 4 of the 14 cases exhibited late viral transcript viral protein 1-positive neurons. SV40-infected neurons were detected in frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem. These observations confirm that spontaneous SV40 neuronal infection occurs in immunosuppressed macaques, which parallels JC virus-neuronal infection in immunosuppressed patients. Neuronal infection may be an important aspect of both SV40 and JC virus neuropathogenesis in their respective hosts.
    American Journal Of Pathology 10/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In particular, for safety/biomedical studies, a broader understanding and documentation of lesions would help clarify background from drug-related findings. A workshop and a minisymposium on spontaneous lesions and diseases in nonhuman primates were sponsored by the concurrent Annual Meetings of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology held December 3-4, 2011, in Nashville, Tennessee. The first session had presentations from Drs Lowenstine and Montali, pathologists with extensive experience in wild and zoo populations of nonhuman primates, which was followed by presentations of 20 unique case reports of rare or newly observed spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates (see online files for access to digital whole-slide images corresponding to each case report at http://www.scanscope.com/ACVP%20Slide%20Seminars/2011/Primate%20Pathology/view.apml). The minisymposium was composed of 5 nonhuman-primate researchers (Drs Bradley, Cline, Sasseville, Miller, Hutto) who concentrated on background and spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates used in drug safety studies. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were emphasized, with some material presented on common marmosets. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and neoplastic changes were highlighed with a focus on clinical, macroscopic, and histopathologic findings that could confound the interpretation of drug safety studies.
    Veterinary Pathology 11/2012; 49(6):1057-69. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development of antibodies that are functional against neutralization-resistant SIV challenge strains, and tested the hypothesis that these antibodies are associated with protection. In the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) emerged by three weeks after inoculation with SIVΔnef, increased progressively over time, and was proportional to SIVΔnef replication. Persistent infection with SIVΔnef elicited significantly higher ADCC titers than immunization with a non-persistent SIV strain that is limited to a single cycle of infection. ADCC titers were higher against viruses matched to the vaccine strain in Env, but were measurable against viruses expressing heterologous Env proteins. In two separate experiments, which took advantage of either the strain-specificity or the time-dependent maturation of immunity to overcome complete protection against SIV(mac)251 challenge, measures of ADCC activity were higher among the SIVΔnef-inoculated macaques that remained uninfected than among those that became infected. These observations show that features of the antibody response elicited by SIVΔnef are consistent with hallmarks of protection by live-attenuated SIV, and reveal an association between Env-specific antibodies that direct ADCC and apparent sterilizing protection by SIVΔnef.
    PLoS Pathogens 08/2012; 8(8):e1002890. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that long-term rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) excretion in infected macaques was related to UL/b' coding content. Acute biopsy specimens of the inoculation sites from the previous study have now been analyzed to determine whether there were acute phenotypic predictors of long-term RhCMV infection. Only in animals displaying acute endothelial tropism and neutrophilic inflammation was RhCMV excretion detected. The results imply that vaccinating against these early viral determinants would significantly impede long-term RhCMV infection.
    Journal of Virology 04/2012; 86(11):6354-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asplenic individuals are compromised not only in their ability to destroy infectious agents, but are at increased risk for death from autoimmune disease, certain tumors, and ischemic heart disease. Enhanced mortality is attributed to lack of phagocytes sequestered in spleen that efficiently engulf and destroy appropriate targets, although related cells are found elsewhere. To determine whether a unique population regulates RBC-pathogen clearance and filtration of altered self, we reviewed the anatomic literature and analyzed in situ by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence the expression patterns of a little-characterized cell that dominates the splenic red pulp of humans and closely related primates: the venous sinus-lining or littoral cell (LC). High expression of the formin homology domain protein 1 outlines the LC population. Although LCs are endothelial-like in distribution, they express several macrophage-directed proteins, the RBC Duffy Ag receptor for chemokines and T cell coreceptor CD8α/α, yet they lack lineage-associated markers CD34 and CD45. Strikingly, SIRPα (CD172a) expression in human spleen concentrates on LCs, consistent with recent demonstration of a key role in RBC turnover and elimination versus release of infected or altered self. Our results indicate human LCs (SIRPα(+), formin homology domain protein 1(+), CD8α/α(+), CD34(-), CD45(-)) comprise a highly plastic barrier cell population that emerged late in primate evolution coordinate with CD8 expression. Unique to Hominidae, LCs may be the ultimate determinant of which cells recirculate after passage through human spleen.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(9):4496-505. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marmosets are playing an increasingly large and important role in biomedical research. They share genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities with humans and other primate model species, but their smaller sizes, reproductive efficiency, and amenability to genetic manipulation offer an added practicality. While their unique biology can be exploited to provide insights into disease and function, it is also important that researchers are aware of the differences that exist between marmosets and other species. The New World monkey family Callitrichidae, containing both marmoset and tamarin species, typically produces dizygotic twins that show chimerism in the blood and other cells from the hematopoietic lineage. Recently, a study extended these findings to identify chimerism in many tissues, including somatic tissues from other lineages and germ cells. This has raised the intriguing possibility that chimerism may play an increasingly pervasive role in marmoset biology, ranging from natural behavioral implications to increased variability and complexity in biomedical studies. Using a quantitative PCR based methodology, Y-chromosomes can be reliably detected in the females with male fraternal twins allowing for a relative quantification of chimerism levels between individuals and tissues. With this approach in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), chimerism was detected across a broad array of tissues. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in tissues primarily derived from the hematopoietic lineage, while they were lower, though still detectable, in tissues with other origins. Interestingly, animals with a characteristic marmoset wasting disease show higher levels of chimerism in those tissues affected. Fibroblast cell lines from chimeric individuals, however, are not found to be chimeric themselves. Taken together, the levels of chimerism in tissues of different origins coupled with other lines of evidence suggest that indeed only hematopoietic cell lineages are chimeric in callitrichids. The chimerism detected in other tissues is likely the result of blood or lymphocytic infiltration. Using molecular methods to detect chimerism in a tissue sample seems to have allowed a substantial increase in the ability to detect these minor cell populations.
    BMC Genomics 03/2012; 13:98. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV) GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt) vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 03/2012; 6(3):e1567. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-performance metabolic profiling (HPMP) by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography gives relative quantification of thousands of chemicals in biologic samples but has had little development for use in toxicology research. In principle, the approach could be useful to detect complex metabolic response patterns to toxicologic exposures and to detect unusual abundances or patterns of potentially toxic chemicals. As an initial study to develop these possible uses, we applied HPMP and bioinformatics analysis to plasma of humans, rhesus macaques, marmosets, pigs, sheep, rats and mice to determine: (1) whether more chemicals are detected in humans living in a less controlled environment than captive species and (2) whether a subset of plasma chemicals with similar inter-species and intra-species variation could be identified for use in comparative toxicology. Results show that the number of chemicals detected was similar in humans (3221) and other species (range 2537-3373). Metabolite patterns were most similar within species and separated samples according to family and order. A total of 1485 chemicals were common to all species; 37% of these matched chemicals in human metabolomic databases and included chemicals in 137 out of 146 human metabolic pathways. Probability-based modularity clustering separated 644 chemicals, including many endogenous metabolites, with inter-species variation similar to intra-species variation. The remaining chemicals had greater inter-species variation and included environmental chemicals as well as GSH and methionine. Together, the data suggest that HPMP provides a platform that can be useful within human populations and controlled animal studies to simultaneously evaluate environmental exposures and biological responses to such exposures.
    Toxicology 02/2012; 295(1-3):47-55. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is used extensively in translational biomedical research and drug development studies and is an important model of aging. Macaques often develop myocardial fibrosis with age, which can result in the loss of normal cardiac architecture with the expansion of the extracellular matrix and deposition of collagen. The etiology and pathogenesis of this pernicious process is poorly understood. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed using histologic and immunohistochemical techniques in cardiac tissue sections from 34 rhesus macaques. Overall left ventricular and left ventricular mid-myocardial interstitial/perivascular fibrosis were positively correlated with age (r = .6522, p < .0001 and r = .4704, p = .005, respectively). When divided into young (mean = 2.8 years), middle-aged (mean = 17.5 years), and advanced age (mean = 29.2 years) groups, immunophenotypic characterization of antigen presenting cells revealed differential expression of CD163 and DC-SIGN between the young and middle-aged groups compared to the advanced age group (p < .0001). HAM-56 expression decreased significantly in the advanced age cohort (p = .0021). The expression of CD8, CD163, and DC-SIGN correlated positively with age (r = .3999, p = .0191; r = .5676, p = .0005; r = .5245, p = .0014, respectively). These results show the importance of myocardial fibrosis as a common age-related pathology and additionally, alterations in T cell, macrophage, and dendritic cell phenotype in rhesus macaque myocardium are associated with age but unassociated with the fibrosis.
    Toxicologic Pathology 02/2012; 40(4):637-46. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates have typically shown post-infection virological control, but protection against acquisition of infection has previously only been reported against neutralization-sensitive virus challenges. Here we demonstrate vaccine protection against acquisition of fully heterologous, neutralization-resistant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges in rhesus monkeys. Adenovirus/poxvirus and adenovirus/adenovirus-vector-based vaccines expressing SIV(SME543) Gag, Pol and Env antigens resulted in an 80% or greater reduction in the per-exposure probability of infection against repetitive, intrarectal SIV(MAC251) challenges in rhesus monkeys. Protection against acquisition of infection showed distinct immunological correlates compared with post-infection virological control and required the inclusion of Env in the vaccine regimen. These data demonstrate the proof-of-concept that optimized HIV-1 vaccine candidates can block acquisition of stringent, heterologous, neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys.
    Nature 01/2012; 482(7383):89-93. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The induction of potent and durable cellular immune responses in both peripheral and mucosal tissues may be important for the development of effective vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens. In particular, effector responses at mucosal surfaces may be critical to respond rapidly to incoming mucosal pathogens. Here we report that intramuscular injection of nonreplicating recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors into rhesus monkeys induced remarkably durable simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific T lymphocyte responses that persisted for over 2 years in both peripheral blood and multiple mucosal tissues, including colorectal, duodenal, and vaginal biopsy specimens, as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In peripheral blood, SIV-specific T lymphocytes underwent the expected phenotypic evolution from effector memory T cells (T(EM)) to central memory T cells (TCM) following vaccination. In contrast, mucosal SIV-specific T lymphocytes exhibited a persistent and durable T(EM) phenotype that did not evolve over time. These data demonstrate that nonreplicating rAd vectors induce durable and widely distributed effector memory mucosal T lymphocyte responses that are phenotypically distinct from peripheral T lymphocyte responses. Vaccine-elicited T(EM) responses at mucosal surfaces may prove critical for affording protection against invading pathogens at the mucosal portals of entry.
    Journal of Virology 09/2011; 85(21):11007-15. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant strains of replication-competent rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) were constructed in which strong promoter/enhancer elements were used to drive expression of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env or Gag or a Rev-Tat-Nef fusion protein. Cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts infected with each recombinant strain were shown to express the expected protein. Three RRV-negative and two RRV-positive rhesus monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a mixture of these three recombinant RRVs. Expression of SIV Gag was readily detected in lymph node biopsy specimens taken at 3 weeks postimmunization. Impressive anti-SIV cellular immune responses were elicited on the basis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramer staining and gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. Responses were much greater in magnitude in the monkeys that were initially RRV negative but were still readily detected in the two monkeys that were naturally infected with RRV at the time of immunization. By 3 weeks postimmunization, responses measured by MHC tetramer staining in the two Mamu-A*01(+) RRV-negative monkeys reached 9.3% and 13.1% of all CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood to the Gag CM9 epitope and 2.3% and 7.3% of all CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood to the Tat SL8 epitope. Virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses persisted at high levels up to the time of challenge at 18 weeks postimmunization, and responding cells maintained an effector memory phenotype. Despite the ability of the RRVenv recombinant to express high levels of Env in cultured cells, and despite the appearance of strong anti-RRV antibody responses in immunized monkeys, anti-Env antibody responses were below our ability to detect them. Immunized monkeys, together with three unimmunized controls, were challenged intravenously with 10 monkey infectious doses of SIVmac239. All five immunized monkeys and all three controls became infected with SIV, but peak viral loads were 1.2 to 3.0 log(10) units lower and chronic-phase viral loads were 1.0 to 3.0 log(10) units lower in immunized animals than the geometric mean of unimmunized controls. These differences were statistically significant. Anti-Env antibody responses following challenge indicated an anamnestic response in the vaccinated monkeys. These findings further demonstrate the potential of recombinant herpesviruses as preventive vaccines for AIDS. We hypothesize that this live, replication-competent, persistent herpesvirus vector could match, or come close to matching, live attenuated strains of SIV in the degree of protection if the difficulty with elicitation of anti-Env antibody responses can be overcome.
    Journal of Virology 09/2011; 85(23):12708-20. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously described the development of a live, fully attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) vaccine candidate strain with two independent attenuating auxotrophic mutations in leucine and pantothenate biosynthesis. In the present work, those studies have been extended to include testing for protective efficacy in a long-term guinea pig survival model and safety testing in the highly tuberculosis susceptible Rhesus macaque. To model the safety of the ΔleuD ΔpanCD strain in HIV-infected human populations, a Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Rhesus macaque group was included. Immunization with the non-replicating ΔleuD ΔpanCD conferred long-term protection against challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis equivalent to that afforded by BCG as measured by guinea pig survival. In safety studies, clinical, hematological and bacteriological monitoring of both SIV-positive and SIV-negative Rhesus macaques immunized with ΔleuD ΔpanCD, revealed no vaccine-associated adverse effects. The results support the further development of the ΔleuD ΔpanCD strain as a viable tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidate.
    Vaccine 06/2011; 29(29-30):4839-47. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Six cases of fatal myocarditis associated with encephalomyocarditis virus occurred over a 14-month period in a group of outdoor-housed juvenile rhesus macaques. All animals were younger than 3 years of age and died or were euthanized following acute onset of dyspnea or pulmonary effusion (3 of 6) or were found dead without premonitory signs (3 of 6). Gross findings included pulmonary congestion (6 of 6), variable degrees of pleural effusion (4 of 6), multifocal pale tan foci throughout the myocardium (3 of 6), hepatomegaly and hepatic congestion (3 of 6), and pericardial effusion (1 of 6). Histologically, affected myocardium was infiltrated multifocally by lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic inflammation admixed with necrotic and degenerate myofibers and infrequent mineralization (6 of 6). Pulmonary edema was present in all animals. Encephalomyocarditis virus was confirmed in 6 of 6 hearts by immunohistochemistry, and virus was isolated from one case by polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing of virus isolated from 1 affected animal indicated infection with a novel encephalomyocarditis virus. Encephalomyocarditis virus should be considered as a differential etiology in outbreaks of myocarditis and pulmonary edema in juvenile primates.
    Veterinary Pathology 06/2011; 49(2):386-92. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vaccine vectors for HIV-1 and other pathogens have been shown to be limited by high titers of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in the developing world. Alternative serotype rAd vectors have therefore been constructed. Here we report Ad5, Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 NAb titers in 4381 individuals from North America, South America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia. As expected, Ad5 NAb titers were both frequent and high magnitude in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. In contrast, Ad35 NAb titers proved infrequent and low in all regions studied, and Ad48 NAbs were rare in all regions except East Africa. Ad26 NAbs were moderately common in adults in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, but Ad26 NAb titers proved markedly lower than Ad5 NAb titers in all regions, and these relatively low Ad26 NAb titers did not detectably suppress the immunogenicity of 4×10(10)vp of a rAd26-Gag/Pol/Env/Nef vaccine in rhesus monkeys. These data inform the clinical development of alternative serotype rAd vaccine vectors in the developing world.
    Vaccine 05/2011; 29(32):5203-9. · 3.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
642.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Southern Research Institute
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995–2011
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Division of Immunology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2004–2010
    • Tufts University
      • • Lipid Metabolism Research Laboratory
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      Boston, GA, United States
    • Cornell University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Division of Viral Pathogenesis
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2009
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb
      • Department of Discovery Toxicology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2008
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science
      Storrs, CT, United States