Keith G Mansfield

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (163)832.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The paucity of animal models exhibiting full pathology of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has impeded understanding of the pathogenesis of DR and the development of therapeutic interventions. Here we investigated if hyperhexosemic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) develop characteristic retinal vascular lesions including macular edema (ME), a leading cause of vision loss in DR. Marmosets maintained on 30% galactose (gal)-rich diet for two years were monitored for retinal vascular permeability, development of ME, and morphological characteristics including acellular capillaries (AC) and pericyte loss (PL), vessel tortuosity, and capillary basement membrane (BM) thickness. Excess vascular permeability, increased number of AC and PL, vascular BM thickening, and increased vessel tortuosity were observed in the retinas of gal-fed marmosets. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images revealed significant thickening of the retinal foveal and the juxtafoveal area, and histological analysis showed incipient microaneurysms in retinas of gal-fed marmosets. Findings from this study indicate that hyperhexosemia can trigger retinal vascular changes similar to those seen in human DR including ME and microaneurysms. The striking similarities between the marmoset retina and the human retina, and the exceptionally small size of the monkey, offer significant advantages to this primate model of DR. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 03/2015; 64(7). DOI:10.2337/db14-0866 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gut microbiome is widely studied by fecal sampling, but the extent to which stool reflects the commensal composition at intestinal sites is poorly understood. We investigated this relationship in rhesus macaques by 16S sequencing feces and paired lumenal and mucosal samples from ten sites distal to the jejunum. Stool composition correlated highly with the colonic lumen and mucosa and moderately with the distal small intestine. The mucosal microbiota varied most based on location and was enriched in oxygen-tolerant taxa (e.g., Helicobacter and Treponema), while the lumenal microbiota showed inter-individual variation and obligate anaerobe enrichment (e.g., Firmicutes). This mucosal and lumenal community variability corresponded to functional differences, such as nutrient availability. Additionally, Helicobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus levels in stool were highly predictive of their abundance at most other gut sites. These results quantify the composition and biogeographic relationships between gut microbial communities in macaques and support fecal sampling for translational studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the whole-genome sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The 2.26-Gb genome of a female marmoset was assembled using Sanger read data (6x) and a whole-genome shotgun strategy. A first analysis has permitted comparison with the genomes of apes and Old World monkeys and the identification of specific features that might contribute to the unique biology of this diminutive primate, including genetic changes that may influence body size, frequent twinning and chimerism. We observed positive selection in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor genes (growth pathways), respiratory complex I genes (metabolic pathways), and genes encoding immunobiological factors and proteases (reproductive and immunity pathways). In addition, both protein-coding and microRNA genes related to reproduction exhibited evidence of rapid sequence evolution. This genome sequence for a New World monkey enables increased power for comparative analyses among available primate genomes and facilitates biomedical research application.
    Nature Genetics 07/2014; Nat Genet. 2014 Aug;46(8):850-7.(46):850–857. DOI:10.1038/ng.3042. · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The more clinically concerning form of the disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is characterized by steatosis, lobular inflammation, and ballooning degeneration. Here we describe a naturally occurring syndrome in the common marmoset that recapitulates the pathologic findings associated with NAFLD/NASH in humans. Hepatomegaly determined to result from NAFLD was observed in 33 of 183 marmosets. A comprehensive histopathologic assessment performed in 31 marmosets demonstrated that NAFLD was characterized by variably sized, Oil Red O staining cytoplasmic vacuoles and observed primarily in animals with evidence of obesity and insulin resistance. A subset of marmosets (16 of 31) also demonstrated evidence of NASH characterized by multifocal inflammation combined with ballooning hepatocellular degeneration. Marmosets with NASH demonstrated an increase in immunostaining with an antibody targeted against the human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR compared with marmosets without NASH (38.89 cells/10× field vs 12.05 cells/10× field, P = .05). In addition, marmosets with NASH demonstrated increased Ki-67 immunopositive cellular proliferation compared with those without (5.95 cells/10× field vs 1.53 cells/10× field, P = .0002). Finally, animals with NASH demonstrated significantly increased mean circulating serum iron levels (160.47 μg/dl, P = .008) and an increase in numbers of Prussian blue-positive Kupffer cells (9.28 cells/40× field, P = .005) relative to marmosets without NASH (97.75 μg/dl and 1.87 cells/40×, respectively). This study further characterizes the histopathology of NAFLD/NASH and suggests that the marmoset may be a valuable animal model with which to investigate the host and environmental factors contributing to the progression of NAFLD/ NASH.
    Veterinary Pathology 06/2014; 52(2). DOI:10.1177/0300985814537839 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The UL128 complex of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major determinant of viral entry into epithelial and endothelial cells and a target for vaccine development. The UL/b' region of rhesus CMV contains several open reading frames including orthologs of the UL128 complex. We recently showed that the coding content of the rhesus CMV UL/b' region predicts acute endothelial tropism and long-term shedding in vivo in the rhesus macaque model of CMV infection. The laboratory-passaged RhCMV 180.92 strain has a truncated UL/b' region but an intact UL128 complex. To investigate whether the presence of the UL128 complex alone was sufficient to confer endothelial and epithelial tropism in vivo, we investigated tissue dissemination and viral excretion following experimental RhCMV 180.92 inoculation of RhCMV-seronegative rhesus macaques. We show the presence of at least two virus variants in the RhCMV 180.92 infectious virus stock. A rare variant noted for a non-truncated wild-type virus like UL/b' region, rapidly emerged during in vivo replication and showed high-level replication in blood and tissues, and excretion in urine and saliva, features similar to those previously reported in naturally occurring wild-type RhCMV infection. In contrast, the predominant truncated version of RhCMV 180.92 showed significantly lower plasma DNAemia, and limited tissue dissemination and viral shedding. These data demonstrate that the truncated RhCMV 180.92 variant is attenuated in vivo and suggest that additional UL/b' genes, besides the UL128 complex, are required for optimal in vivo CMV replication and dissemination.
    Journal of Virology 06/2014; 88(16). DOI:10.1128/JVI.00162-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of rhesus macaques infected with a vpx deletion mutant virus of simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVΔvpx) demonstrates that Vpx is essential for efficient monocyte/macrophage infection in vivo but is not necessary for development of AIDS. To compare myeloid-lineage cell infection in monkeys infected with SIVΔvpx compared to SIVmac239, we analyzed lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues from SIVΔvpx-infected rhesus (n = 5), SIVmac239-infected rhesus with SIV encephalitis (7 SIV239E), those without encephalitis (4 SIV239noE), and other SIV mutant viruses with low viral loads (4 SIVΔnef, 2 SIVΔ3). SIV+ macrophages and the percentage of total SIV+ cells that were macrophages in spleen and lymph nodes were significantly lower in rhesus infected with SIVΔvpx (2.2%) compared to those infected with SIV239E (22.7%), SIV239noE (8.2%), and SIV mutant viruses (10.1%). In colon, SIVΔvpx monkeys had fewer SIV+ cells, no SIV+ macrophages, and lower percentage of SIV+ cells that were macrophages than the other 3 groups. Only 2 SIVΔvpx monkeys exhibited detectable virus in the colon. We demonstrate that Vpx is essential for efficient macrophage infection in vivo and that simian AIDS and death can occur in the absence of detectable macrophage infection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84463. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084463 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a diverse class of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide, killing approximately 300,000 people annually. Enzymatic hydrolysis of OPs is a potential therapy for acute poisoning. OpdA, an OP hydrolase isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter, has been shown to decrease lethality in rodent models of OP poisoning. This study investigated the effects of OpdA on AChE activity, plasma concentrations of OP, and signs of toxicity after administration of dichlorvos to nonhuman primates. A dose of 75mg/kg dichlorvos given orally caused apnea within 10minutes with a progressive decrease in heart rate. Blood AChE activity decreased to zero within ten minutes. Respirations and AChE activity did not recover. The mean dichlorvos concentration rose to a peak of 0.66μg/ml. Treated monkeys received 1.2mg/kg OpdA iv immediately after poisoning with dichlorvos. In Opda-treated animals, heart and respiratory rates were unchanged from baseline over a 240-minute observation period. AChE activity slowly declined, but remained above 25% of baseline for the entire duration. Dichlorvos concentrations reached a mean peak of 0.19μg/ml at 40minutes after poisoning and decreased to a mean of 0.05μg/ml at 240minutes. These results show that OpdA hydrolyzes dichlorvos in an African Green Monkey model of lethal poisoning, delays AChE inhibition, and prevents lethality.
    Toxicology 01/2014; 317(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2014.01.003 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • K G Mansfield · V G Sasseville · S V Westmoreland
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular localization techniques remain important diagnostic and research tools for the pathologist evaluating nonhuman primate tissues. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry protocols have been developed for many important pathogens of nonhuman primates, including RNA and DNA viruses, prions, and bacterial, protozoal, and fungal pathogens. Such techniques will remain critical in defining the impact and relevance of novel agents on animal health and disease. A comparative pathology perspective often provides valuable insight to the best strategy for reagent development and can also facilitate interpretation of molecular localization patterns. Such a perspective is grounded in a firm understanding of microbe-host pathobiology. This review summarizes current molecular localization protocols used in the diagnosis of selected primate infectious diseases.
    Veterinary Pathology 10/2013; 51(1). DOI:10.1177/0300985813509386 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • V G Sasseville · K G Mansfield · D J Brees
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    ABSTRACT: The identification, application, and qualification of safety biomarkers are becoming increasingly critical to successful drug discovery and development as companies are striving to develop drugs for difficult targets and for novel disease indications in a risk-adverse environment. Translational safety biomarkers that are minimally invasive and monitor drug-induced toxicity during human clinical trials are urgently needed to assess whether toxicities observed in preclinical toxicology studies are relevant to humans at therapeutic doses. The interpretation of data during the biomarker qualification phase should include careful consideration of the analytic method used, the biology, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the biomarker, and the pathophysiology of the process studied. The purpose of this review is to summarize commonly employed technologies in the development of fluid- and tissue-based safety biomarkers in drug discovery and development and to highlight areas of ongoing novel assay development.
    Veterinary Pathology 10/2013; DOI:10.1177/0300985813505117 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simian virus 40 (SV40), family Polyomaviridae, in immunocompromised macaques can cause fatal demyelinating central nervous system disease analogous to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy caused by John Cunningham (JC) virus in immunocompromised humans. Recently, we have demonstrated that JC virus can infect cerebellar granule cell neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons in immunosuppressed people. To examine whether SV40 neuronal infection occurs spontaneously in immunosuppressed macaques, we analyzed archival brain specimens from 20 simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus with AIDS and 1 cynomolgus post-transplant selected with SV40 brain infection from archival records from 1991 to 2012. In addition to white matter SV40 distribution in classic demyelinating progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, some of the 21 monkeys exhibited meningeal, subpial neocortical, and periventricular virus. This distribution pattern corresponded to broader viral tropism with neuronal infection in 14 (66.7%) of 21 cases. In all 14 cases, identified neurons were positive for early SV40 transcript large T antigen, but only 4 of the 14 cases exhibited late viral transcript viral protein 1-positive neurons. SV40-infected neurons were detected in frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem. These observations confirm that spontaneous SV40 neuronal infection occurs in immunosuppressed macaques, which parallels JC virus-neuronal infection in immunosuppressed patients. Neuronal infection may be an important aspect of both SV40 and JC virus neuropathogenesis in their respective hosts.
    American Journal Of Pathology 10/2013; 183(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.08.007 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccine/challenge experiments that utilize live attenuated strains of SIV in monkeys may be useful for elucidating what is needed from a vaccine in order to achieve protective immunity. Derivatives of SIVmac239 and SIVmac239Δnef were constructed in which env sequences were replaced with those of the heterologous strain E543; these were then used in vaccine/challenge experiments. When challenge occurred at 22 weeks, 10 of 12 monkeys exhibited apparent sterilizing immunity despite a mismatch of Env sequences, compared to 12 of 12 monkeys with apparent sterilizing immunity when challenge virus was matched in its Env sequence. However, when challenge occurred at 6 weeks, 6 of 6 SIV239Δnef-immunized monkeys became superinfected by challenge virus mismatched in its Env sequence (SIV239/EnvE543). These results contrast markedly not only with the results of the week 22 challenge, but also with the sterilizing immunity observed in 5 of 5 SIV239Δnef-immunized rhesus monkeys challenged at 5 weeks with SIV239, i.e. with no mismatch of Env sequences. We conclude from these studies that a mismatch of Env sequences in the challenge virus can have a dramatic effect on the extent of apparent sterilizing immunity when challenge occurs relatively early, 5-6 weeks after the nef-deleted SIV administration. However, by 22 weeks, mismatch of Env sequences has little or no influence on the degree of protection against challenge virus. Our findings suggest that anti-Env immune responses are a key component of the protective immunity elicited by live attenuated, nef-deleted SIV.
    Journal of Virology 05/2013; 87(13). DOI:10.1128/JVI.00798-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In particular, for safety/biomedical studies, a broader understanding and documentation of lesions would help clarify background from drug-related findings. A workshop and a minisymposium on spontaneous lesions and diseases in nonhuman primates were sponsored by the concurrent Annual Meetings of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology held December 3-4, 2011, in Nashville, Tennessee. The first session had presentations from Drs Lowenstine and Montali, pathologists with extensive experience in wild and zoo populations of nonhuman primates, which was followed by presentations of 20 unique case reports of rare or newly observed spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates (see online files for access to digital whole-slide images corresponding to each case report at The minisymposium was composed of 5 nonhuman-primate researchers (Drs Bradley, Cline, Sasseville, Miller, Hutto) who concentrated on background and spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates used in drug safety studies. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were emphasized, with some material presented on common marmosets. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and neoplastic changes were highlighed with a focus on clinical, macroscopic, and histopathologic findings that could confound the interpretation of drug safety studies.
    Veterinary Pathology 11/2012; 49(6):1057-69. DOI:10.1177/0300985812461655 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy, which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next-generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence by using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis.
    Cell 10/2012; 151(2):253-66. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.024 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development of antibodies that are functional against neutralization-resistant SIV challenge strains, and tested the hypothesis that these antibodies are associated with protection. In the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) emerged by three weeks after inoculation with SIVΔnef, increased progressively over time, and was proportional to SIVΔnef replication. Persistent infection with SIVΔnef elicited significantly higher ADCC titers than immunization with a non-persistent SIV strain that is limited to a single cycle of infection. ADCC titers were higher against viruses matched to the vaccine strain in Env, but were measurable against viruses expressing heterologous Env proteins. In two separate experiments, which took advantage of either the strain-specificity or the time-dependent maturation of immunity to overcome complete protection against SIV(mac)251 challenge, measures of ADCC activity were higher among the SIVΔnef-inoculated macaques that remained uninfected than among those that became infected. These observations show that features of the antibody response elicited by SIVΔnef are consistent with hallmarks of protection by live-attenuated SIV, and reveal an association between Env-specific antibodies that direct ADCC and apparent sterilizing protection by SIVΔnef.
    PLoS Pathogens 08/2012; 8(8):e1002890. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002890 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Newborns have frequent infections and manifest impaired vaccine responses, motivating a search for neonatal vaccine adjuvants. Alum is a neonatal adjuvant but might confer a T(H)2 bias. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are candidate adjuvants, but human neonatal cord blood monocytes demonstrate impaired T(H)1-polarizing responses to many TLR agonists caused by plasma adenosine acting through cyclic AMP. TLR8 agonists, including imidazoquinolines (IMQs), such as the small synthetic 3M-002, induce adult-level TNF from neonatal monocytes, but the scope and mechanisms of IMQ-induced activation of neonatal monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) have not been reported. We sought to characterize IMQ-induced activation of neonatal monocytes and MoDCs. Neonatal cord and adult peripheral blood monocytes and MoDCs were cultured in autologous plasma; levels of alum- and TLR agonist-induced cytokines and costimulatory molecules were measured. TLR8 and inflammasome function were assayed by using small interfering RNA and Western blotting/caspase-1 inhibitory peptide, respectively. The ontogeny of TLR8 agonist-induced cytokine responses was defined in rhesus macaque whole blood ex vivo. IMQs were more potent and effective than alum at inducing TNF and IL-1β from monocytes. 3M-002 induced robust TLR pathway transcriptome activation and T(H)1-polarizing cytokine production in neonatal and adult monocytes and MoDCs, signaling through TLR8 in an adenosine/cyclic AMP-refractory manner. Newborn MoDCs displayed impaired LPS/ATP-induced caspase-1-mediated IL-1β production but robust 3M-002-induced caspase-1-mediated inflammasome activation independent of exogenous ATP. TLR8 IMQs induced robust TNF and IL-1β in whole blood of rhesus macaques at birth and infancy. IMQ TLR8 agonists engage adenosine-refractory TLR8 and inflammasome pathways to induce robust monocyte and MoDC activation and represent promising neonatal adjuvants.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2012; 130(1):195-204.e9. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.042 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asplenic individuals are compromised not only in their ability to destroy infectious agents, but are at increased risk for death from autoimmune disease, certain tumors, and ischemic heart disease. Enhanced mortality is attributed to lack of phagocytes sequestered in spleen that efficiently engulf and destroy appropriate targets, although related cells are found elsewhere. To determine whether a unique population regulates RBC-pathogen clearance and filtration of altered self, we reviewed the anatomic literature and analyzed in situ by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence the expression patterns of a little-characterized cell that dominates the splenic red pulp of humans and closely related primates: the venous sinus-lining or littoral cell (LC). High expression of the formin homology domain protein 1 outlines the LC population. Although LCs are endothelial-like in distribution, they express several macrophage-directed proteins, the RBC Duffy Ag receptor for chemokines and T cell coreceptor CD8α/α, yet they lack lineage-associated markers CD34 and CD45. Strikingly, SIRPα (CD172a) expression in human spleen concentrates on LCs, consistent with recent demonstration of a key role in RBC turnover and elimination versus release of infected or altered self. Our results indicate human LCs (SIRPα(+), formin homology domain protein 1(+), CD8α/α(+), CD34(-), CD45(-)) comprise a highly plastic barrier cell population that emerged late in primate evolution coordinate with CD8 expression. Unique to Hominidae, LCs may be the ultimate determinant of which cells recirculate after passage through human spleen.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(9):4496-505. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1103086 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that long-term rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) excretion in infected macaques was related to UL/b' coding content. Acute biopsy specimens of the inoculation sites from the previous study have now been analyzed to determine whether there were acute phenotypic predictors of long-term RhCMV infection. Only in animals displaying acute endothelial tropism and neutrophilic inflammation was RhCMV excretion detected. The results imply that vaccinating against these early viral determinants would significantly impede long-term RhCMV infection.
    Journal of Virology 04/2012; 86(11):6354-7. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00607-12 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marmosets are playing an increasingly large and important role in biomedical research. They share genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities with humans and other primate model species, but their smaller sizes, reproductive efficiency, and amenability to genetic manipulation offer an added practicality. While their unique biology can be exploited to provide insights into disease and function, it is also important that researchers are aware of the differences that exist between marmosets and other species. The New World monkey family Callitrichidae, containing both marmoset and tamarin species, typically produces dizygotic twins that show chimerism in the blood and other cells from the hematopoietic lineage. Recently, a study extended these findings to identify chimerism in many tissues, including somatic tissues from other lineages and germ cells. This has raised the intriguing possibility that chimerism may play an increasingly pervasive role in marmoset biology, ranging from natural behavioral implications to increased variability and complexity in biomedical studies. Using a quantitative PCR based methodology, Y-chromosomes can be reliably detected in the females with male fraternal twins allowing for a relative quantification of chimerism levels between individuals and tissues. With this approach in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), chimerism was detected across a broad array of tissues. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in tissues primarily derived from the hematopoietic lineage, while they were lower, though still detectable, in tissues with other origins. Interestingly, animals with a characteristic marmoset wasting disease show higher levels of chimerism in those tissues affected. Fibroblast cell lines from chimeric individuals, however, are not found to be chimeric themselves. Taken together, the levels of chimerism in tissues of different origins coupled with other lines of evidence suggest that indeed only hematopoietic cell lineages are chimeric in callitrichids. The chimerism detected in other tissues is likely the result of blood or lymphocytic infiltration. Using molecular methods to detect chimerism in a tissue sample seems to have allowed a substantial increase in the ability to detect these minor cell populations.
    BMC Genomics 03/2012; 13(1):98. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-13-98 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV) GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt) vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 03/2012; 6(3):e1567. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001567 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-performance metabolic profiling (HPMP) by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography gives relative quantification of thousands of chemicals in biologic samples but has had little development for use in toxicology research. In principle, the approach could be useful to detect complex metabolic response patterns to toxicologic exposures and to detect unusual abundances or patterns of potentially toxic chemicals. As an initial study to develop these possible uses, we applied HPMP and bioinformatics analysis to plasma of humans, rhesus macaques, marmosets, pigs, sheep, rats and mice to determine: (1) whether more chemicals are detected in humans living in a less controlled environment than captive species and (2) whether a subset of plasma chemicals with similar inter-species and intra-species variation could be identified for use in comparative toxicology. Results show that the number of chemicals detected was similar in humans (3221) and other species (range 2537-3373). Metabolite patterns were most similar within species and separated samples according to family and order. A total of 1485 chemicals were common to all species; 37% of these matched chemicals in human metabolomic databases and included chemicals in 137 out of 146 human metabolic pathways. Probability-based modularity clustering separated 644 chemicals, including many endogenous metabolites, with inter-species variation similar to intra-species variation. The remaining chemicals had greater inter-species variation and included environmental chemicals as well as GSH and methionine. Together, the data suggest that HPMP provides a platform that can be useful within human populations and controlled animal studies to simultaneously evaluate environmental exposures and biological responses to such exposures.
    Toxicology 02/2012; 295(1-3):47-55. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2012.02.007 · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
832.57 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2015
    • Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Division of Viral Pathogenesis
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2010
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2009
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb
      • Department of Discovery Toxicology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2008
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science
      Storrs, CT, United States
  • 2004
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Clinical Sciences
      Итак, New York, United States