Jörg Hausleiter

Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (204)1797.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To assess long-term outcome and parameters associated with poor and favorable outcome in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) ≤25% and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (pMVR). There is no data on long-term outcome in this cohort of patients. We analyzed all 34 patients with a LV-EF ≤25% and severe MR treated with pMVR in 2 university hospitals from 2009 to 2012. Mitral regurgitation could be successfully reduced to grade ≤2 in 30 patients (88%). Long-term follow-up (up to 5 years) revealed a steep decline of the survival curve reaching 50% already 8 month after pMVR. In contrast, estimated survival of the remaining patients showed a favorable long-term outcome. Patients deceased during the first year presented with higher right ventricular tricuspid pressure gradient (RVTG) (44.5 ± 8.4 mmHg vs. 35.2 ± 15.4 mmHg, P = 0.035) and worse RV-function (P = 0.014) prior to the procedure. One-year mortality of patients with pulmonary hypertension and depressed RV-function (n = 22) was very high (77%) compared to the remaining patients (n = 12, mortality rate of 0%, P = 0.0001). Although pMVR lead to a successful reduction of MR in patients with a LV-EF ≤25%, 1-year mortality in this cohort was very high. However, a subgroup of patients showed a favorable long-term outcome after pMVR. Especially the right ventricular parameters sustained RV-function and absence of pulmonary hypertension-easily assessed with echocardiography-might be used to identify this subgroup and encourage pMVR in these patients. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 04/2015; 28(2). DOI:10.1111/joic.12193 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a clinical cardiac risk algorithm for stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease based upon angina typicality and coronary artery disease risk factors. Between 2004 and 2011, 14,004 adults with suspected coronary artery disease referred for cardiac imaging were followed: 1) 9,093 patients for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) (CCTA-1) followed for 2.0 years; 2) 2,132 patients for CCTA (CCTA-2) followed for 1·6 years, and 3) 2,779 patients for exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) followed for 5.0 years. A best-fit model from CCTA-1 for prediction of death or myocardial infarction was developed, with integer values proportional to regression coefficients. Discrimination was assessed using C-statistic. The validated model was tested for estimation of the likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease, defined as ≥50% stenosis, as compared to method of Diamond and Forrester. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included prevalent angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease. In CCTA-1, best-fit model discriminated individuals at risk of death or myocardial infarction (C-statistic 0·76). The integer model ranged from 3-13, corresponding to 3-year death risk or myocardial infarction of 0·25% to 53·8%. When applied to CCTA-2 and MPS cohorts, the model demonstrated C-statistics of 0·71 and 0·77. Both best-fit (C=0·76, 95% CI 0·746-0·771) and integer models (C=0·71, 95% CI 0·693-0·719) performed better than Diamond and Forrester (C=0·64; 95% CI, 0·628-0·659) for estimating obstructive coronary artery disease. For stable symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease, we developed a history-based method for prediction of death and obstructive coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American journal of medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.10.031 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to develop a clinical model that identifies patients with and without high-risk coronary artery disease (CAD). Although current clinical models help to estimate a patient's pre-test probability of obstructive CAD, they do not accurately identify those patients with and without high-risk coronary anatomy. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected multinational coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) cohort was conducted. High-risk anatomy was defined as left main diameter stenosis ≥50%, 3-vessel disease with diameter stenosis ≥70%, or 2-vessel disease involving the proximal left anterior descending artery. Using a cohort of 27,125, patients with a history of CAD, cardiac transplantation, and congenital heart disease were excluded. The model was derived from 24,251 consecutive patients in the derivation cohort and an additional 7,333 nonoverlapping patients in the validation cohort. The risk score consisted of 9 variables: age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, hyperlipidemia, family history of CAD, history of peripheral vascular disease, and chest pain symptoms. Patients were divided into 3 risk categories: low (≤7 points), intermediate (8 to 17 points) and high (≥18 points). The model was statistically robust with area under the curve of 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.78) in the derivation cohort and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.74) in the validation cohort. Patients who scored ≤7 points had a low negative likelihood ratio (<0.1), whereas patients who scored ≥18 points had a high specificity of 99.3% and a positive likelihood ratio (8.48). In the validation group, the prevalence of high-risk CAD was 1% in patients with ≤7 points and 16.7% in those with ≥18 points. We propose a scoring system, based on clinical variables, that can be used to identify patients at high and low pre-test probability of having high-risk CAD. Identification of these populations may detect those who may benefit from a trial of medical therapy and those who may benefit most from an invasive strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 03/2015; 8(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcmg.2014.11.015 · 6.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns have been raised about radiation dose of coronary CT angiography. Although high-pitch acquisition technique yields high potential for radiation dose savings, it is more vulnerable to artifacts, which impair diagnostic image quality. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 scan strategies for coronary CT angiography: a high-pitch helical scan first or a conventional scan first strategy. In this prospective, multicenter trial, we randomized 303 consecutive patients with a low and stable heart rate to either of the aforementioned mentioned strategies. Intravenous β-blockers were administered to achieve target heart rates. All scans were performed on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner. In case of nondiagnostic image quality, coronary CT angiography was allowed to be repeated. The primary end point was to demonstrate noninferior image quality in the high-pitch group. Image quality was assessed on a 4-point scale (1: nondiagnostic, 4: excellent). Secondary end point was total radiation dose. In the high-pitch helical first group, repeat scanning was necessary in 21 patients compared with 14 patients in the conventional first scan group (P = .25). Image quality in the high-pitch group was noninferior compared to the conventional scan group (3.81 ± 0.35 vs 3.83 ± 0.37; P for noninferiority <.0001). The total effective radiation dose estimate was 58% lower in the high-pitch group (2.0 ± 2.4 vs 4.7 ± 4.8 mSv; P < .0001). In patients with a low and stable heart rate diagnostic image quality can be maintained with a high-pitch helical scan first strategy while 58% of radiation dose can be saved. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of cardiovascular computed tomography 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jcct.2015.03.001 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has become an important tool for non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary dominance can be assessed by CCTA; however, the predictive value of coronary dominance is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of coronary dominance in a large prospective, international multicentre cohort of patients undergoing CCTA. The study population consisted of 6382 patients with or without CAD (47% females, 53% males, mean age 56.9 ± 12.3 years) who underwent CCTA and were followed over a period of 60 months. Right or left coronary dominance was determined. Right dominance was present in 91% (n = 5817) and left in 9% (n = 565) of the study population. At the end of follow-up, outcome in patients with obstructive CAD (>50% luminal stenosis) and right dominance was similar compared with patients with left dominance [hazard ratio (HR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.16-1.32, P = 0.15]. Furthermore, no differences were observed for the type of coronary dominance in patients with non-obstructive CAD (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.41-2.21, P = 0.8962) or normal coronary arteries (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68-1.59, P = 0.9). Subgroup analysis in patients with left main disease revealed an elevated hazard of the combined endpoint for left dominance (HR 6.45, 95% CI 1.66-25.0, P = 0.007), but not for right dominance. In our study population, survival after 5 years of follow-up did not differ significantly between patients with left or right coronary dominance. Thus, assessment of coronary vessel dominance by CCTA may not enhance risk stratification in patients with normal coronary arteries or obstructive CAD, but may add prognostic information for specific subpopulations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jeu314 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and events, its added prognostic value beyond its components remains unknown. This study compared the prevalence, severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and prognosis of patients with metabolic syndrome to those with individual metabolic syndrome components. The study cohort consisted of 27125 consecutive individuals who underwent ≥64-detector row coronary CT angiography (CCTA) at 12 centers from 2003 to 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per NCEP/ATP III criteria. Metabolic syndrome patients (n=690) were matched 1:1:1 to those with 1 component (n=690) and 2 components (n=690) of metabolic syndrome for age, sex, smoking status, and family history of premature CAD using propensity scoring. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined by a composite of myocardial infarction (MI), acute coronary syndrome, mortality and late target vessel revascularization. Patients with 1 component of metabolic syndrome manifested lower rates of obstructive 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel/left main disease compared to metabolic syndrome patients (9.4% vs 13.8%, 2.6% vs 4.5%, and 1.0% vs 2.3%, respectively; p<0.05), while those with 2 components did not (10.5% vs 13.8%, 2.8% vs 4.5% and 1.3% vs 2.3%, respectively; p>0.05). At 2.5 years, metabolic syndrome patients experienced a higher rate of MACE compared to patients with 1 component (4.4% vs 1.6%; p=0.002), while no difference observed compared to individuals with 2 components (4.4% vs 3.2% p=0.25) of metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, Metabolic syndrome patients have significantly greater prevalence, severity, and prognosis of CAD compared to patients with 1 but not 2 components of metabolic syndrome.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118998. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118998 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the risk of mortality associated with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine the impact of baseline statin and aspirin use on mortality. Coronary computed tomographic angiography permits direct visualization of nonobstructive CAD. To date, the prognostic implications of nonobstructive CAD and the potential benefit of directing therapy based on nonobstructive CAD have not been carefully examined. A total of 27 125 consecutive patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (12 enrolling centers and 6 countries) were prospectively entered into the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) registry. Patients, without history of previous CAD or obstructive CAD, for whom baseline statin and aspirin use was available were analyzed. Each coronary segment was classified as normal or nonobstructive CAD (1%-49% stenosis). Patients were followed up for a median of 27.2 months for all-cause mortality. The study comprised 10 418 patients (5712 normal and 4706 with nonobstructive CAD). In multivariable analyses, patients with nonobstructive CAD had a 6% (95% confidence interval, 1%-12%) higher risk of mortality for each additional segment with nonobstructive plaque (P=0.021). Baseline statin use was associated with a reduced risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.68; P=0.0003), a benefit that was present for individuals with nonobstructive CAD (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.55; P<0.001) but not for those without plaque (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-1.43; P=0.287). When stratified by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Program III, no mortality benefit was observed in individuals without plaque. Aspirin use was not associated with mortality benefit, irrespective of the status of plaque. The presence and extent of nonobstructive CAD predicted mortality. Baseline statin therapy was associated with a significant reduction in mortality for individuals with nonobstructive CAD but not for individuals without CAD. http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier NCT01443637. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304351 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated coronary artery disease (CAD) extent, severity, and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in never, past, and current smokers undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We evaluated 9456 patients (57.1 ± 12.3 years, 55.5% male) without known CAD (1588 current smokers; 2183 past smokers who quit ≥3 months before CCTA; and 5685 never smokers). By risk-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models, we related smoking status to MACE (all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction). We further performed 1:1:1 propensity matching for 1000 in each group evaluate event risk among individuals with similar age, gender, CAD risk factors, and symptom presentation. During a mean follow-up of 2.8 ± 1.9 years, 297 MACE occurred. Compared with never smokers, current and past smokers had greater atherosclerotic burden including extent of plaque defined as segments with any plaque (2.1 ± 2.8 vs. 2.6 ± 3.2 vs. 3.1 ± 3.3, P < 0.0001) and prevalence of obstructive CAD [1-vessel disease (VD): 10.6% vs. 14.9% vs. 15.2%, P < 0.001; 2-VD: 4.4% vs. 6.1% vs. 6.2%, P = 0.001; 3-VD: 3.1% vs. 5.2% vs. 4.3%, P < 0.001]. Compared with never smokers, current smokers experienced higher MACE risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.6, P < 0.001], while past smokers did not (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.6, P = 0.35). Among matched individuals, current smokers had higher MACE risk (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.2, P < 0.001), while past smokers did not (HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.4, P = 0.39). Similar findings were observed for risk of all-cause death. Among patients without known CAD undergoing CCTA, current and past smokers had increased burden of atherosclerosis compared with never smokers; however, risk of MACE was heightened only in current smokers. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    European Heart Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv013 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies examining coronary atherosclerosis in the young have been limited by retrospective analyses in small cohorts. We examined the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) and prevalence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a large, prospective, multinational registry of consecutive young individuals undergoing coronary computerized tomographic angiography (CCTA). Of 27 125 patients undergoing CCTA, 1635 young (<45 years) individuals without known coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary anomalies were identified. Coronary plaque was assessed for any CAD, obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis), and presence of calcified plaque (CP) and non-calcified plaque (NCP). Among 1635 subjects (70% men, age 38 ± 6 years), any CAD, obstructive CAD, CP, and NCP were observed in 19, 4, 5, and 8%, respectively. Compared with women, men demonstrated higher rates of any CAD (21 vs. 12%, P < 0.001), CP (6 vs. 3%, P = 0.01), and NCP (9 vs. 5%, P = 0.008), although no difference was observed for rates of obstructive CAD (5 vs. 4%, P = 0.46). Any CAD, obstructive CAD, and NCP were higher for young individuals with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, current smoking, or family history of CAD; while only diabetes and dyslipidaemia were associated with CP. Increasing cardiovascular RFs was associated with a greater prevalence and extent and severity of CAD, with individuals with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 RFs manifesting a dose-response increase in any CAD (P < 0.001, for trend), obstructive CAD (P < 0.001, for trend), NCP (P < 0.001, for trend), and CP (P < 0.001, for trend). In multivariable analysis adjusting for sex and cardiovascular RFs, male sex was the strongest predictor for any CAD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43-2.66, P < 0.001), CP (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.08-1.98, P = 0.01), and NCP (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.06-1.67, P = 0.01); family history of CAD was the strongest predictor for obstructive CAD (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.65-4.45, P < 0.001). Any and obstructive CAD is present in 1 in 5 and 1 in 20 young individuals, respectively, with family history associated with the greatest risk of obstructive CAD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jeu281 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study sought to determine the correlation between baseline cardiac medications and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosed by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Methods: 1637 patients (mean age 64.8 ± 10.2 years, 69.6% male) with obstructive CAD from the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry were followed over the course of three years. Obstructive CAD was defined as a ≥50% stenosis in an epicardial vessel. Medications analyzed included statins, aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Using Cox proportional-hazards models, we calculated the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as death, acute coronary syndrome, or myocardial infarction. Results: At the time of CCTA, 59%, 54%, 40%, and 46% of patients were using statins, aspirin, beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors or ARBs, respectively. Statins were associated with a 43% (95% CI = 0.38-0.87, p = 0.008) lower adjusted risk of MACE. Following adjustment, aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and ARBs did not attenuate the risk of MACE. When restricted to patients with multivessel obstructive CAD, only statins were associated with lower risk of MACE. Conclusion: In patients with obstructive CAD by CCTA, the baseline use of statins was associated with improved clinical outcomes. Other cardiac medications-including aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs-were not associated with reduced risk of MACE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 11/2014; 238(1):119-125. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.11.007 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior evidence observed no predictive utility of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) over the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and the Framingham risk score (FRS), among asymptomatic individuals. Whether the prognostic value of CCTA differs for asymptomatic patients, when stratified by CACS severity, remains unknown.
    European Heart Journal 09/2014; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu358 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited clinical data comparing different P2Y12-receptor inhibitors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock. The aim of the ISAR-SHOCK registry was to compare the clinical outcome of patients treated with clopidogrel vs prasugrel in this setting. Patients (n=145) with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock and undergoing primary PCI in two centres (Deutsches Herzzentrum München and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich) between January 2009 and May 2012 were included in this registry. The use of prasugrel for patients within this registry reflected co-morbidities and platelet function testing results during the acute AMI phase. Early outcome at 30-days was reported with regard to all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding events. With regard to antiplatelet treatment in the 145 cardiogenic shock patients, 50 patients were initially treated or immediately switched to prasugrel while 95 patients were treated with clopidogrel. All-cause mortality was lower in prasugrel- vs clopidogrel-treated patients (30 % vs 50.5%, HR: 0.51, 95% CI [0.29-0.92], p=0.025). No significant differences in prasugrel- vs clopidogrel-treated patients were observed for the occurrence of MI (p=0.233), ST (p=0.306) or TIMI major bleedings (p=0.571). Results of the ISAR-SHOCK registry suggest that the use of prasugrel in AMI patients complicated by cardiogenic shock might be associated with a lower mortality risk as compared to clopidogrel therapy without increasing the risk of bleeding. These findings, however, need confirmation from specifically designed randomised studies in this high-risk cohort of patients.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2014; 112(6). DOI:10.1160/TH14-06-0489 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the robustness of a novel test bolus (TB)-based computed tomographic angiography (CTA) contrast-enhancement-prediction (CEP) algorithm by retrospectively quantifying the systematic and random errors between the predicted and true enhancements.
    Investigative Radiology 08/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000088 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine the clinical outcomes of women and men with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) with coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography data in patients who were similar in terms of CAD risk factors, angina typicality, and CAD extent and distribution. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for all participating sites, with either informed consent or waiver of informed consent. In a prospective international multicenter cohort study of 27 125 patients undergoing coronary CT angiography at 12 centers, 18 158 patients with no CAD or nonobstructive (<50% stenosis) CAD were examined. Men and women were propensity matched for age, CAD risk factors, angina typicality, and CAD extent and distribution, which resulted in a final cohort of 11 462 subjects. Nonobstructive CAD presence and extent were related to incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were inclusive of death and myocardial infarction and were estimated by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results At a mean follow-up ± standard deviation of 2.3 years ± 1.1, MACE occurred in 164 patients (0.6% annual event rate). After matching, women and men experienced identical annualized rates of myocardial infarction (0.2% vs 0.2%, P = .72), death (0.5% vs 0.5%, P = .98), and MACE (0.6% vs 0.6%, P = .94). In multivariable analysis, nonobstructive CAD was associated with similarly increased MACE for both women (hazard ratio: 1.96 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.17, 3.28], P = .01) and men (hazard ratio: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.07, 2.93], P = .03). Conclusion When matched for age, CAD risk factors, angina typicality, and nonobstructive CAD extent, women and men experience comparable rates of incident mortality and myocardial infarction. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 07/2014; DOI:10.1148/radiol.14140269 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess whether gradations of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes measured with coronary computed tomography (CT) would augment risk stratification and discrimination for incident mortality. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained when required. Subjects without known coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent cardiac CT angiography with quantitative LV measurements were categorized according to LVEF (≥55%, 45%-54.9%, 35%-44.9%, or <35%). LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) and LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were classified as normal (≥90 mL) or abnormal (≥200 mL). CAD extent and severity was categorized as none, nonobstructive, obstructive (≥50%), one-vessel, two-vessel, and three-vessel or left main disease. LVEF and volumes were assessed for risk prediction and discrimination of future mortality by using Cox hazards model and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, respectively. Results During a follow-up of 2.0 years ± 0.9, 7758 patients (mean age, 58.5 years ± 13.0; 4220 male patients [54.4%]) were studied. At multivariable analysis, worsening LVEF was independently associated with mortality for moderately (hazard ratio = 3.14, P < .001) and severely (hazard ratio = 5.19, P < .001) abnormal ejection fraction. LVEF demonstrated improved discrimination for mortality (Az = 0.816) when compared with CAD risk factors alone (Az = 0.781) or CAD risk factors plus extent and severity. At multivariable analysis of a subgroup of 3706 individuals, abnormal LVEDV (hazard ratio = 4.02) and LVESV (hazard ratio = 6.46) helped predict mortality (P < .001). Similarly, LVESV and LVEDV demonstrated improved discrimination when compared with CAD risk factors or CAD extent and severity (P < .05). Conclusion LV dysfunction and volumes measured with cardiac CT angiography augment risk prediction and discrimination for future mortality. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 07/2014; 273(1):122816. DOI:10.1148/radiol.14122816 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To prospectively assess the outcome of percutaneous edge-to-edge repair in patients with degenerative vs. functional mitral regurgitation (MR). Background. The optimal patient population eligible for percutaneous edge-to-edge repair has yet to be defined. Methods. We analyzed 119 patients treated by percutaneous edge-to-edge repair for symptomatic MR, 72 patients with degenerative and 47 patients with functional MR. The primary endpoints were defined as procedural success (MR grade reduction ≥ 1 grade) as well as a composite endpoint defined as freedom from MR 3+ or 4+, mitral valve reintervention and death 12 months after clip implantation. In patients with successful clip placement we further analyzed MR grade, NYHA functional class, distance in the 6 minute walking test and left ventricular volumes 12 months after clip implantation. Results. The primary success rate of all intended clipping procedures was 83.3% for degenerative and 89.4% for functional MR (P = 0.42). Regarding the composite endpoint we observed an event free survival of 59.7% in patients treated for degenerative MR and 63.8% in patients treated for functional MR (P = 0.73). We observed a highly significant reduction in MR grade as well as improvement in NYHA functional status in both groups 12 months after clip implantation. However, there was a more pronounced MR grade reduction in patients treated for degenerative MR compared to patients treated for functional MR. Conclusions. Percutaneous edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve is feasible and comparably effective in patients with degenerative and functional MR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 07/2014; 84(1). DOI:10.1002/ccd.25331 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies evaluating the prognostic utility of cardiac CT angiography (CCTA) have been largely constrained to an all-cause mortality endpoint, with other cardiac endpoints generally not reported. To this end, we sought to determine the relationship of extent and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) by CCTA to risk of incident major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (defined as death, myocardial infarction, and late revascularization). We identified subjects without prior known CAD who underwent CCTA and were followed for MACE. CAD by CCTA was defined as none (0% luminal stenosis), mild (1-49% luminal stenosis), moderate (50-69% luminal stenosis), or severe (≥70% luminal stenosis), and ≥50% luminal stenosis was considered as obstructive. CAD severity was judged on per-patient, per-vessel, and per-segment basis. Time to MACE was estimated using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Among 15 187 patients (57 ± 12 years, 55% male), 595 MACE events (3.9%) occurred at a 2.4 ± 1.2 year follow-up. In multivariable analyses, an increased risk of MACE was observed for both non-obstructive [hazard ratio (HR) 2.43, P < 0.001] and obstructive CAD (HR: 11.21, P < 0.001) when compared with patients with normal CCTA. Risk-adjusted MACE increased in a dose-response relationship based on the number of vessels with obstructive CAD ≥50%, with increasing hazards observed for non-obstructive (HR: 2.54, P < 0.001), obstructive one-vessel (HR: 9.15, P < 0.001), two-vessel (HR: 15.00, P < 0.001), or three-vessel or left main (HR: 24.53, P < 0.001) CAD. Among patients stratified by age <65 vs. ≥65 years, older individuals experienced higher risk-adjusted hazards for MACE for non-obstructive, one-, and two-vessel, with similar event rates for three-vessel or left main (P < 0.001 for all) compared with normal individuals age <65. Finally, there was a dose relationship of CAD findings by CCTA and MACE event rates with each advancing decade of life. Among individuals without known CAD, non-obstructive, and obstructive CAD are associated with higher MACE rates, with different risk profiles based on age.
    05/2014; 15(5):586-94. DOI:10.1093/ehjci/jet132
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    ABSTRACT: Background The diagnostic performance of Multi-Detector CT to detect coronary artery stenosis has been evaluated in numerous single center studies, with only very limited data from large cohorts with low to intermediate likelihood of coronary disease and in multi-center trials. The MEDIC trial determines the accuracy of dual source CT to identify individuals with at least one coronary artery stenosis among patients with low-to-intermediate pre-test likelihood of disease. Methods The MEDIC trial was designed as a prospective, multi-center, international trial to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual source CT for the detection of coronary artery stenosis compared to invasive coronary angiography. The study includes eight sites in Germany, India, Mexico, the United States of America and Denmark. The study population comprises patients referred for a diagnostic coronary angiogram due to suspected coronary artery disease with an intermediate pre-test likelihood as determined by gender, age, and symptoms. All evaluations are performed by blinded core laboratory readers. Results The primary outcome of the MEDIC trial is the accuracy of DSCT to identify the presence of coronary artery stenoses with a luminal diameter narrowing of 50% or more on a per-vessel basis. Secondary outcome parameters include per-patient and per-segment diagnostic accuracy for 50% stenoses as well as accuracy to identify stenoses of 70% or more. Furthermore, secondary outcome parameters include the influence of heart rate, calcium score, body weight, body mass index, image quality and diagnostic confidence on the accuracy to detect coronary artery stenoses > 50% on a per-vessel basis Conclusion The results of the MEDIC trial will assess the clinical utility of coronary CT angiography in the evaluation of patients with intermediate pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jcct.2014.04.006 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In clopidogrel treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), high platelet reactivity (HPR) is associated with a higher risk for thrombotic events including stent thrombosis (ST). A personalised therapy with selective intensification of treatment may improve HPR patients´ outcome in this setting although recent randomised trials are against this hypothesis. The aim of the ISAR-HPR registry was to assess whether clopidogrel-treated HPR patients benefit from selective intensification of P2Y12 receptor inhibition. For the registry, outcomes were compared between two cohorts. We identified 428 clopidogrel treated HPR patients (AU x min ≥468 on the Multiplate analyser) between 2007-2008 (historical control cohort) without a change of treatment based on platelet function (PF) testing results. Between 2009-2011, we identified 571 HPR patients (guided therapy cohort) and used this information for guidance and selective intensification of P2Y12 receptor directed treatment (reloading with clopidogrel, switch to prasugrel, re-testing) in a setting of routine PF testing. The primary outcome was the composite of death from any cause or ST after 30 days. Major bleeding according to TIMI criteria was also monitored. The incidence of the primary outcome was significantly lower in the guided vs the control cohort (7 [1.2%] vs 16 [3.7%] events; HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.79; p=0.009). The incidence of major bleeding was numerically but not statistically higher in the guided vs the control cohort (1.9 vs 0.7%; p=0.10). In conclusion, present findings are in support for a PF testing guided antiplatelet therapy with selective intensification of P2Y12 receptor inhibition. The issue of personalised antiplatelet treatment warrants further investigation in randomized and well-controlled clinical trials.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 04/2014; 112(2). DOI:10.1160/TH13-10-0874 · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Clinical Practice 04/2014; 68(4). DOI:10.1111/ijcp.12380 · 2.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,797.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2015
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • • Department of Internal Medicine I
      • • Department of Clinical Radiology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Division of Medical Oncology
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2001–2015
    • Technische Universität München
      • • Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II
      • • German Heart Centre Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1995–2014
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      • • Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Surgery
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012–2013
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2001–2012
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Yonsei University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Ottawa
      • Division of Medical Oncology
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • Klinikum Garmisch-Partenkirchen
      Markt Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1999
    • Hannover Medical School
      • Department of Cardiology and Angiology
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany