[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is usually used to evaluate palpable nodes in patients with melanoma. The goal of our study is to review the sensitivity and specificity of this technique when applied to palpable but also to nonpalpable nodes.
FNAC was performed during 1984-2007 in 1279 patients with suspicious lesions and/or lymph nodes. Indications for biopsy included increased size and/or palpability of nodes or abnormal ultrasound findings such as increased perfusion or focal lesions within the lymph nodes. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FNACs guided by palpation or ultrasound were calculated for all patients and for subgroups of patients with palpable nodes or nonpalpable but sonomorphologically suspicious nodes.
A total of 2446 FNACs were performed in 1279 melanoma patients, of which 2011 (82.2%) FNACs had clinically or histologically confirmed results. Increased size and/or palpability of nodes was observed in 376 (29.4%) of 1279 patients, and abnormal ultrasound findings occurred for 903 (70.6%), indicating that a biopsy was needed. FNACs guided by palpation had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values similar to that of FNACs guided by ultrasound (sensitivity = 98.4% vs 97.2%, specificity = 100% vs 99.8%, positive predictive value = 100% vs 99.9%, and negative predictive value = 95.2% vs 96.4%, for palpation-guided FNACs vs ultrasound-guided FNACs, respectively). Results did not differ between patients with the palpable nodes and patients with nonpalpable but sonomorphologically suspicious nodes.
Ultrasound-guided FNAC of suspicious lymph nodes and lesions in melanoma patients has a high sensitivity and specificity, and FNAC should not be limited to palpable nodes. FNAC of normal-sized nodes and/or lymph nodes with abnormal ultrasound findings can be used to identify early metastatic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analyzes (1) the value of tyrosinase reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of aspirates obtained by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) of sentinel nodes (SNs) in patients with melanoma before sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and (2) the value of RT-PCR of blood samples of all SLNB patients.
Between 2001 and 2003, 127 patients with melanoma (median Breslow depth, 2.1 mm) underwent SLNB. FNAC was performed in all SNs of all patients pre- and post-SLNB. The aspirates were partly shock-frozen for RT-PCR and were partly used for standard cytology. Peripheral blood was collected at the time of SLNB and at every outpatient visit thereafter.
Thirty-four (23%) of 120 SNs were positive for melanoma. SN involvement was predicted by US-FNAC with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 72%. Additional tyrosinase RT-PCR revealed the same sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 72%. At a median follow-up time of 40 months from first blood sample, peripheral-blood RT-PCR was a significant independent predictor of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS; P < .001).
US-FNAC is highly accurate and eliminates the need for SLNB in 16% of all SLNB patients. RT-PCR of the aspirate or excised SN does not improve sensitivity or specificity. RT-PCR of blood samples predicts DFS and OS.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2008; 26(35):5742-7. · 17.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with radiation therapy have an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study is to describe the coronary CT angiography findings and calcium scores of asymptomatic patients who had mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma and to evaluate the impact of coronary CT angiography on patient management.
We evaluated nine consecutive patients, age range 35-60 years, who had been treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma by radiation therapy between the ages of 11 and 27 years. The total mediastinal dose ranged from 34 to 45 Gy. All patients were evaluated with 64-MDCT with calcium scoring followed by CT angiography of the coronary arteries. Imaging findings and clinical follow-up were analyzed.
Eight of nine patients had coronary artery disease. CT showed long segments of diffuse disease; areas of stenosis from soft plaque; and calcification in the proximal right coronary, left anterior descending, and left circumflex arteries. Calcium scores were significantly higher than in other patients of this age group. Additional tests, including selective coronary angiography, were necessary in patients with diffuse disease with calcifications. CT evaluation led to bypass surgery and angioplasty in two patients.
Coronary CT angiography and calcium scores are useful tools for evaluation of irradiation-related coronary artery disease. Complementary tests might be necessary in selected patients. Prospective larger studies are needed to better define the role of coronary CT angiography and calcium scores and to establish an algorithm for evaluation and treatment of these patients.
American Journal of Roentgenology 08/2008; 191(1):32-7. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most curable cancers because of its sensitivity to both radiation and several chemotherapy agents. Radical radiotherapy alone provided curative therapy for patients who had Hodgkin lymphoma as early as six decades ago. Yet, the radiation field included normal organs, such as breast tissue, thyroid, and coronary arteries, which were at risk for long-term complications. Dedicated imaging approaches have been developed to evaluate late radiation effects on these structures.
Radiologic Clinics of North America 04/2008; 46(2):419-30, x. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and management of lymphoma have undergone significant changes in the past 20 years. For example, new immunophenotypic and molecular methods have replaced traditional histology-based classification schemes for lymphoma. Fluorine-18-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has evolved into a potent staging tool and prognostic indicator in many kinds of lymphoma. The role of radiation therapy, especially in patients who have early-stage Hodgkin's disease, has changed substantially. The introduction of anti-CD 20 antibody therapy (Rituximab) has improved the treatment of B-cell lymphoma. These changes are linked with higher expectations for imaging, such as detection of more subtle lymphoma manifestations, evaluation of residual changes, and better assessment of early response. This article reviews clinical and radiologic features of both Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It also describes the radiologic staging of lymphoma and the emerging role of FDG-PET for assessing lymphoma.
Radiologic Clinics of North America 02/2007; 45(1):69-83. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) allows early detection of metastases, thereby enabling early treatment in melanoma patients likely to benefit from adjuvant therapies. This prospective study analyzes the possible benefits of additional ultrasound (US) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of sentinel nodes (SN) prior to SLNB.
Over a 2-year period 127 melanoma patients with 151 SN were scheduled for SLNB. All SN were initially identified with lymphoscintigraphy, then identified and evaluated by US and the cells aspirated for cytology (FNAC). US findings and FNAC results were compared to surgical findings.
Of 127 patients, 114 had one SN each, 12 had two, and one had three. In vivo US achieved a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI: 62-91%) and a specificity of 72% (95% CI: 62-81%). FNAC showed a sensitivity of 59% (95% CI: 41-76%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 95-100%). The combination of these two in vivo methods achieved an overall sensitivity of 82% (95% CI: 65-93%) and an overall specificity of 72% [95% CI: 62-81%].
Combined US and FNAC provides important information prior to SLNB in that both procedures identify metastases in the lymph nodes (sensitivity > 80%). Patients with positive FNAC may proceed directly to complete lymph node dissection (cLND) instead of having initial SLNB. Thus, combined US and FNAC may prevent unnecessary anesthesia and surgical management as well reduce costs. In our study 16% (19/121) fewer SLNB procedures were carried out, subsequently replaced by cLND. For patients with a negative combination of in vivo US and FNAC, SLNB remains the best diagnostic option.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2006; 13(12):1682-9. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cowden disease, also known as multiple hamartoma syndromes, is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous benign mucocutaneous tumors, hamartomas of multiple organs, and malignancies of the breast and thyroid. In this report, we present the computed tomographic findings in three patients with Cowden disease. In addition to the classic findings, the patients were diagnosed with spinal neurinoma (n=1), meningioma (n=1), and hepatic hemangioma (n=3). We also review current clinical and genetic concepts that unify Cowden disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prognostic value of serial reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) -based measurements of tyrosinase mRNA in peripheral blood of stage II and III melanoma patients.
During routine follow-up of American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II and III melanoma patients, serial testing for tyrosinase transcripts in peripheral blood was performed by RT-PCR. The PCR results were compared with the clinical data collected during the follow-up.
Over a period of 3 years, 111 patients (78 stage II and 33 stage III patients) were enrolled, and tyrosinase determinations were carried out. The 6-year disease-specific survival probability was 97% for patients always showing negative RT-PCR results and 67% for patients who tested positive at least once. In a Cox proportional hazards model, the prognostic value of sex, age, site of primary tumor, histologic subtype, stage, Breslow's tumor thickness, Clark level, and the time-dependent variable PCR result was assessed. Patients with a positive RT-PCR test had a distinctly higher risk of dying from melanoma, with a hazard ratio of 12.6 (95% CI, 3.4 to 46.3; P < .001).
Our study shows a strong association between PCR and disease-specific survival time. Detection of tyrosinase mRNA in peripheral blood may be of similar importance for the clinical course of melanoma as the detection of micrometastatic disease in the sentinel lymph node. Whether a combination of these two factors leads to a better definition of the prognosis of melanoma patients is under investigation in current studies.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2005; 23(6):1218-27. · 17.88 Impact Factor