[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Venom-derived peptides constitute a unique source of drug prototypes for the pain management. Many of them can modulate voltage-gated calcium channels that are central in the processing of pain sensation. PhTx3-4 is a peptide isolated from Phoneutria nigriventer venom, which blocks high voltage-activated calcium channels with low specificity, thereby leading to neuroprotection in models of ischemia in vitro. The aim of the present work was evaluating the potential of intrathecal PhTx3-4 in the reversal of different nociceptive states in mice, furthermore assessing the potential of PhTx3-4 in triggering motor side effects. We found that bellow 100 pmol/site, PhTx3-4 did not cause major motor side effects. By comparison, ω-conotoxin MVIIA and ω-conotoxin MVIIC triggered motor side effects at the doses of 10 and 100 pmol/site, respectively. Also, PhTx3-4 (30 pmol/site) caused no significant alterations in the forced locomotor activity test (rotarod) and in the exploratory activity test (versamax). In a model of inflammatory persistent pain (formalin test), PhTx3-4 reversed nociceptive behavior both pre or post-administered, although this effect was observed only at the inflammatory phase of the test and not at the neurogenic phase. Comparatively, ω-conotoxin MVIIC was effective only when post-administered in the formalin test. Nonetheless, PhTx3-4 treatment was devoid of action in acute nociceptive thermal model (hotplate test), whereas morphine showed efficacy in this test. Efficacy of PhTx3-4 in the formalin test was associated with inhibition of formalin-induced glutamate release in the cerebrospinal fluid. PhTx3-4, but not ω-conotoxin MVIIC, reversed NMDA-induced nociceptive behavior indicating a putative role of PhTx3-4 at ionotropic glutamate receptors. Finally, we observed efficacy of PhTx3-4 in ameliorating mechanical hypersensitivity induced by paw incision, a post-operative and more clinically relevant pain model. Taken together, our data show that PhTx3-4 possesses antinociceptive effect in different models of pain in mice, suggesting that this toxin may serve as drug prototype for pain control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering that adjuvant arthritis is an experimental model of arthritis widely used for preclinical testing of numerous anti-arthritic agents, which were taken by a large number of patients worldwide, it is of great interest to investigate the therapeutic action of compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, such as Uncaria tomentosa extract. Moreover, there are no studies demonstrating the effect of U. tomentosa on the metabolism of adenine nucleotides published so far. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of U. tomentosa extract on E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in lymphocytes of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) arthritis induced rats.
To evaluate the effect of U. tomentosa extract on the activity of E-NTPDase and ADA in lymphocytes, the rats were submitted to an experimental adjuvant arthritis model. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were determined. Data were analyzed by a one- or two-way ANOVA. Post hoc analyses were carried out by the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) Multiple Comparison Test.
E-NTPDase activity was increased in arthritic untreated. Arthritic rats which received U. tomentosa extract, presented similar results to the control group. However, results obtained for adenosine hydrolysis by E-ADA were not altered in arthritic rats. U. tomentosa extract did not alter E-NTPDase and E-ADA activity in healthy animals.
The present investigation supports the hypothesis that the increased E-NTPDase activity verified in arthritic rats might be an attempt to maintain basal levels of ATP and ADP in the extracellular medium, since the arthritis induction causes tissue damage and, consequently, large amounts of ATP are released into this milieu. Also, it highlights the possibility to use U. tomentosa extract as an adjuvant to treat arthritis.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2015; 15(1):189. DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0694-4 · 2.02 Impact Factor
European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 03/2015; 93. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.03.020 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Verify the role of the kinin B1 receptors (B1R) and the effect of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) on acute gout induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in rodents.
Methods Painful (overt pain and allodynia) and inflammatory parameters (joint oedema, leukocyte trafficking, interleukin-1β levels) of acute gout attacks were assessed several hours after an intra-articular injection of MSU (1.25 or 0.5 mg/articulation) into the ankle of rats or mice, respectively. The role of B1R was investigated using pharmacological antagonism or gene deletion. Additionally, B1R immunoreactivity in ankle tissue and sensory neurons, kininase I activity and des-Arg9-bradykinin synovial levels were also measured. Similar tools were used to investigate the effects of ACEi on a low dose of MSU (0.0125 mg/articulation)-induced inflammation.
Results Kinin B1R antagonism or gene deletion largely reduced all painful and inflammatory signs of gout. Furthermore, MSU increased B1R expression in articular tissues, the content of the B1 agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin and the activity of the B1 agonist-forming enzyme kininase I. A low dose of MSU crystals, which did not induce inflammation in control animals, caused signs of acute gout attacks in ACEi-treated animals that were B1R-dependent.
Conclusions Kinin B1R contributes to acute gouty attacks, including the ones facilitated by ACEi. Therefore, B1R is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and prophylaxis of gout, especially in patients taking ACEi.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 10/2014; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205739 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of intrathecal administration of the toxins Phα1β and ω-conotoxin MVIIA were investigated in visceral nociception induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and an intracolonic application of capsaicin. The pretreatments for two hours with the toxins reduced the number of writhes or nociceptive behaviors compared with the control mice. Phα1β administration resulted in an Imax of 84 ± 6 and an ID50 of 12 (5 - 27), and ω-conotoxin MVIIA resulted in an Imax of 82 ± 9 and an ID50 of 11 (4-35) in the contortions induced by the intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid. The administration of Phα1β resulted in an Imax of 64 ± 4 and an ID50 of 18 (9 - 38), and ω-conotoxin MVIIA resulted in an Imax of 71 ± 9 and an ID50 of 9 (1 -83) in the contortions induced by intracolonic capsaicin administration. Phα1β (100 pmol/site) or ω-conotoxin MVIIA (30 pmol/site) pretreatments caused a reduction in CSF glutamate release in mice intraperitoneally injected with acetic acid or treated with intracolonic capsaicin. The toxins pretreatments reduced the ROS levels induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid injection. Phα1β, but not ω-conotoxin MVIIA, reduced significantly the ROS levels induced by intracolonic capsaicin administration.
Perspective: Phα1β is a ω-toxin with high therapeutic index and a broader action on calcium channels. It shows analgesic effect in several rodents’ models of pain, including visceral pain, suggesting that this toxin has the potential to be used in clinical setting as a drug in the control of persistent pathological pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain is the most common complaint in the medical field and the identification of novel compounds that can effectively treat painful states without causing side effects remains a major challenge in biomedical research. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antinociceptive effect of 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1-tosylpyrazole (FTosPz) in models of pathological pain in mice and compare these effects with those produced by the Celecoxib. FTosPz (100-500μmol/kg) or Celecoxib (26-260μmol/kg) were administrated orally. The administration of either FTosPz or Celecoxib reduced the hyperalgesia but not the edema or leukocyte infiltration that was caused by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), used as an arthritis model. Oral administration of both FTosPz and Celecoxib also attenuated the postoperative hyperalgesia as well as the hyperalgesia caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation, used as a neuropathic pain model. FTosPz and Celecoxib produced antinociceptive effects without altering the locomotor activity of animals. Furthermore, FTosPz neither altered AST/ALT enzyme activity nor the urea/creatinine levels. Still, the FTosPz did not alter the COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities. Thus, FTosPz is an interesting prototype for the development of novel analgesic drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin E (vit-E) is a lipophilic antioxidant, and its anti-inflammatory activity is still not full characterized. Thus, our goal was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of repeated vit-E treatment in the arthritis induced by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). We observed an increase in arthritis scores, interleukin-1β and H2O2 levels, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and loss of function induced by intraplantar CFA injection. These effects were unaltered after 1 day, partially reversed after 3 days, and inhibited after 9 days after vit-E treatment. Furthermore, the concentration of vit-E was reduced and that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was increased in the CFA-injected paw. Both effects were reversed from 1 to 9 days after vit-E treatment. However, vit-E treatment did not alter CFA-induced edema at any time. Thus, vit-E treatment produced an anti-inflammatory effect of slow onset in CFA, which demonstrates a disease-modifying drug profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Neuropathic pain is a severe painful pathology that is difficult to treat. One option for its management is the continuous intrathecal (i.t.) infusion of ziconotide (the Conus magnus peptide ω-conotoxin MVIIA), which, in addition to being effective, produces serious adverse effects at analgesic doses. Single i.t. administration of Phα1β, a peptide purified from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, has antinociceptive effects with a greater therapeutic window than ziconotide in rodents. To further evaluate its analgesic potential, we investigated the antinociceptive and toxic effects of Phα1β after single or continuous i.t. infusion in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Adult male Wistar rats (200-300 g) bred in-house were used. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was used as the neuropathic pain model. Nociception was assessed by detecting mechanical hyperalgesia, considering a significant reduction in 50% paw withdrawal threshold values after CCI compared with baseline values. First, we assessed the antinociceptive effect of a single i.t. injection of Phα1β (10, 30, or 100 pmol/site) in a model of neuropathic pain 8 days after nerve injury. In a different experiment, we delivered Phα1β (60 pmol/μL/h) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline, 1.0 μL/h) through continuous infusion using an osmotic pump by spinal catheterization for 7 days in rats submitted to nerve injury. Behavioral adverse effects were evaluated after single or continuous Phα1β i.t. administration, and histopathological analysis of spinal cord, brainstem, and encephalon was performed after continuous Phα1β i.t. injection.
We observed that CCI of the sciatic nerve but not sham surgery caused intense (reduction of approximately 2.5 times in mechanical withdrawal threshold) and persistent (up to 14 days) nociception in rats. The single i.t. injection of Phα1β (30 or 100 pmol/site) reduced neuropathic nociception from 1 to 6 hours after administration, without showing detectable side effects. Similarly, the continuous infusion of Phα1β (60 pmol/μL/h for 7 days) was also able to reverse nerve injury-induced nociception from 1 to 7 days, but did not cause either behavioral side effects or histopathological changes in the central nervous system.
Thus, we have shown for the first time that the continuous i.t. delivery of Phα1β produces analgesia disconnected from toxicity in a relevant model of neuropathic pain, indicating that it is an effective and safe drug with a great potential to treat pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute gout attacks produce severe joint pain and inflammation associated with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals leading to oxidative stress production. The transient potential receptor ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is expressed by a subpopulation of peptidergic nociceptors and via its activation by endogenous reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), contributes to pain and neurogenic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TRPA1 in hyperalgesia and inflammation in a model of acute gout attack in rodents. Inflammatory parameters and mechanical hyperalgesia were measured in male Wistar rats, wild-type (Trpa1(+/+)) or TRPA1-deficient (Trpa1(-/-)) male mice. Animals received intra-articular (i.a., ankle) injection of MSU. The role of TRPA1 was assessed by receptor antagonism, gene deletion or expression, sensory fiber defunctionalization, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release. We found that nociceptor defunctionalization, TRPA1 antagonist treatment (via i.a. or oral administration), and TRPA1 gene ablation abated hyperalgesia and inflammatory responses (edema, H2O2 generation, interleukin-1β release, and neutrophil infiltration) induced by i.a. MSU injection. In addition, we showed that MSU evoked generation of H2O2 in synovial tissue which stimulating TRPA1 producing CGRP release and plasma protein extravasation. The MSU-elicited responses were also reduced by the H2O2-detoxifying enzyme catalase and the reducing agent dithiothreitol. TRPA1 activation by MSU challenge-generated H2O2 mediates the entire inflammatory response in an acute gout attack rodent model, thus strengthening the role of the TRPA1 receptor and the H2O2 production as potential targets for treatment of acute gout attacks.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2014; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.04.021 · 5.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics may cause tardive dyskinesia in humans and orofacial dyskinesia in rodents. Although the dopaminergic system has been implicated in these movement disorders, which involve the basal ganglia, their underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear. CB1 cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed in the basal ganglia, and a potential role for endocannabinoids in the control of basal ganglia-related movement disorders has been proposed. Therefore, this study investigated whether CB1 receptors are involved in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. Adult male rats were treated for four weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38mg/kg, intramuscularly - i.m.). The effect of anandamide (6nmol, intracerebroventricularly - i.c.v.) and/or the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) was assessed 28days after the start of the haloperidol treatment. Anandamide reversed haloperidol-induced VCMs; SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) did not alter haloperidol-induced VCM per se but prevented the effect of anandamide on VCM in rats. These results suggest that CB1 receptors may prevent haloperidol-induced VCMs in rats, implicating CB1 receptor-mediated cannabinoid signaling in orofacial dyskinesia.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2014; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.04.006 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) has been identified as a relevant target for the development of novel analgesics. Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenolic compound commonly found in green tea and various berries and possesses a wide range of biological activities. The goal of this study was to identify GA as a TRPA1 antagonist and observe its antinociceptive effects in different pain models. First, we evaluated the ability of GA to affect cinnamaldehyde-induced calcium influx. Then, we observed the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of GA (3-100 mg/kg) oral administration after the intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of TRPA1 agonists (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, or hydrogen peroxide-H2O2) in either an inflammatory pain model (carrageenan i.pl. injection) or a neuropathic pain model (chronic constriction injury) in male Swiss mice (25-35 g). GA reduced the calcium influx mediated by TRPA1 activation. Moreover, the oral administration of GA decreased the spontaneous nociception triggered by allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, and H2O2. Carrageenan-induced allodynia and edema were largely reduced by the pretreatment with GA. Moreover, the administration of GA was also capable of decreasing cold and mechanical allodynia in a neuropathic pain model. Finally, GA was absorbed after oral administration and did not produce any detectable side effects. In conclusion, we found that GA is a TRPA1 antagonist with antinociceptive properties in relevant models of clinical pain without detectable side effects, which makes it a good candidate for the treatment of painful conditions.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 04/2014; 387(7). DOI:10.1007/s00210-014-0978-0 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation mainly affects biological tissues by inducing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to deleterious outcomes for the skin, including pain and inflammation. As a protective strategy, many studies have focused on the use of natural products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe saponaria on nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters in a model of UVB-induced sunburn in adult male Wistar rats. Sunburned animals were topically treated with vehicle (base cream), 1% silver sulfadiazine (positive control) or A. saponaria (10%) once a day for 6days. UVB-induced nociception (allodynia and hyperalgesia), inflammation (edema and leukocyte infiltration) and oxidative stress (increases in H2O2, protein carbonyl levels and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in non protein thiol content) were reduced by both A. saponaria and sulfadiazine topical treatment. Furthermore, A. saponaria or its constituents aloin and rutin reduced the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in skin homogenates in vitro. Our results demonstrate that topical A. saponaria treatment displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a UVB-induced sunburn model, and these effects seem to be related to its antioxidant components.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 03/2014; 133C:47-54. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.02.019 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opioids are standard therapy for the treatment of pain; however, adverse effects limit their use. Voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blockers may be used to increase opioid analgesia, but their effect on opioid-induced side effects is little known. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the action of the peptide Phα1β, a VGCC blocker, on the antinociceptive and adverse effects produced by morphine in mice. A single administration of morphine (3-10 mg/kg) was able to reduce heat nociception as well as decrease gastrointestinal transit. The antinociception caused by a single injection of morphine was slightly increased by an intrathecal injection (i.t.) of Phα1β (30 pmol/site). Repeated treatment with morphine caused tolerance, hyperalgesia, withdrawal syndrome and constipation and the Phα1β (0.1-30 pmol/site, i.t.) was able to reverse these effects. Finally, the effects produced by the native form of Phα1β were fully mimicked by a recombinant version of this peptide. Taken together, these data show that Phα1β was effective in potentiating the analgesia caused by a single dose of morphine as well as in reducing tolerance and the adverse effects induced by repeated administration of morphine, indicating its potential use as an adjuvant drug in combination with opioids.
This article presents pre-clinical evidences for an useful adjuvant drug in opioid treatment. Phα1β, a peptide calcium channel blocker, could be used not only to potentate morphine analgesia, but also to reduce the adverse effects caused by repeated administration of morphine.
The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 03/2014; 15(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2014.02.007 · 4.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of Phα1β, pregabalin and diclofenac using an animal model of fibromyalgia (FM). Repeated administration of reserpine (0.25 mg/kg sc) once daily for three consecutive days significantly decreased thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and dopamine and serotonin content in the brain on the 4th day. Phα1β and pregabalin treatment completely reverted the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by reserpine treatment on the 4th day, but diclofenac was ineffective. Reserpine treatment significantly increased the immobility time in the forced swim test, which is indicative of depression in the animals. Phα1β, but not pregabalin, reduced the immobility time (56%), suggesting that Phα1β may control persistent pathological pain in FM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation.