[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis patients exhibit a considerable interindividual variability in response to drug treatment. Although many disease-related and demographic factors have been studied to predict treatment outcome, the effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy is not yet allocated based on factors that predict efficacy. Individual genetic characteristics are thought to play an important role in treatment response; therefore, current research aims to identify these genetic predictors for clinical response. Pharmacogenetic studies are beginning to provide results, which suggests that personalized treatment maximization of DMARD efficacy and minimization of adverse drug reactions are feasible.
Current Rheumatology Reports 11/2006; 8(5):369-77.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a high degree of interindividual variability in the degree of response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment. This study was undertaken to explore polymorphisms in genes contributing to antiinflammatory adenosine release as novel predictors of MTX treatment outcome.
In 205 patients with newly diagnosed RA, 5 polymorphisms in 5 genes coding for enzymes related to the release of adenosine were analyzed. All patients received standardized MTX treatment (up to 25 mg per week orally), combined with folic acid. MTX efficacy was evaluated by the Disease Activity Score (DAS) and compared among genotypes. The association between MTX-related adverse events and genotype was also assessed. The following polymorphisms were determined: AMPD1 34C>T, ATIC 347C>G, ITPA 94C>A, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G. When significant differences were found by chi-square analysis, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Patients carrying the AMPD1 34T allele, ATIC 347CC, or ITPA 94CC were more likely to have a good clinical response, as defined by a DAS of < or =2.4 (OR [95% confidence interval] 2.1 [1.0-4.5], 2.5 [1.3-4.7], and 2.7 [1.1-8.1], respectively). The likelihood of a good clinical response was increased if patients possessed all 3 favorable genotypes (OR 27.8 [95% confidence interval 3.2-250]). Regarding toxicity, only ATIC G allele carriers experienced a greater frequency of adverse events (OR 2.0 [95% confidence interval 1.1-3.7]).
Polymorphisms in the AMPD1, ATIC, and ITPA genes are associated with good clinical response to MTX treatment. These findings indicate that genotyping may help in the identification of patients who will benefit most from MTX treatment and may assist clinicians in making treatment decisions regarding patients with recent-onset RA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine associations of methotrexate (MTX) efficacy and toxicity with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for folate pathway enzymes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Patients (n=205) with active RA received MTX at an initial dosage of 7.5 mg/week, which was increased to 15 mg/week and combined with folic acid (1 mg/day) after 4 weeks. If the Disease Activity Score in 44 joints (DAS44) was >2.4 at 3 months, MTX was increased to 25 mg/week. MTX efficacy was evaluated at 3 and 6 months and compared for genotypes in 3 analyses: patients with and without good response (DAS44<or=2.4), patients with and without good improvement (DeltaDAS44>1.2), and patients with and without moderate improvement (DeltaDAS44>0.6). The association between MTX-related adverse drug events (ADEs) and genotype was evaluated by comparing genotypes between patients with and without ADEs, specifically pneumonitis, gastrointestinal ADEs, skin and mucosal ADEs, and elevated liver enzyme levels. The following SNPs were analyzed: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) -473G>A, DHFR 35289G>A, and reduced folate carrier 80G>A. In case of significant differences, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated.
At 6 months, MTHFR 1298AA was associated with good improvement relative to 1298C (OR 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.18-4.41), which increased with increased copies of the MTHFR 677CC haplotype. In contrast, MTHFR 1298C allele carriers developed more ADEs (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.32-4.72).
Patients with MTHFR 1298AA and MTHFR 677CC showed greater clinical improvement with MTX, whereas only the MTHFR 1298C allele was associated with toxicity. In the future, MTHFR genotypes may help determine which patients will benefit most from MTX treatment.