[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction can be detected by the presence of elevated levels of biomarkers of endothelial cell activation. In this study, we aimed to establish whether correlations of these biomarkers with characteristics of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) exist. We also studied the effect of anti-TNF-α therapy on these biomarkers. Serum sE-selectin, MCP-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were measured by ELISA in 30 non-diabetic AS patients undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy, immediately before and after an infusion of infliximab. Correlations of these biomarkers with clinical features, systemic inflammation, metabolic syndrome and other serum and plasma biomarkers of cardiovascular risk were studied. Potential changes in the concentration of these biomarkers following an infliximab infusion were also assessed. sE-selectin showed a positive correlation with CRP (p = 0.02) and with other endothelial cell activation biomarkers such as sVCAM-1 (p = 0.019) and apelin (p = 0.008). sVCAM-1 negatively correlated with BMI (p = 0.018), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.008) and serum glucose (p = 0.04). sVCAM-1 also showed a positive correlation with VAS spinal pain (p = 0.014) and apelin (p < 0.001). MCP-1 had a negative correlation with LDL cholesterol (p = 0.026) and ESR (p = 0.017). Patients with hip involvement and synovitis and/or enthesitis in other peripheral joints showed higher levels of MCP-1 (p = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively). A single infliximab infusion led to a significant reduction in sE-selectin (p = 0.0015) and sVCAM-1 (p = 0.04). Endothelial dysfunction correlates with inflammation and metabolic syndrome features in patients with AS. A beneficial effect of the anti-TNF-α blockade on endothelial dysfunction, manifested by a reduction in levels of biomarkers of endothelial cell activation, was observed.
Rheumatology International 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00296-015-3314-1 · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B alleles are implicated in the susceptibility to Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in the largest series of Caucasian HSP patients ever assessed for genetic studies.
The study population was composed of 349 Spanish patients diagnosed with HSP fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and the Michel et al. classification criteria, and 335 sex and ethnically matched controls. HLA-B phenotypes were determined by sequencing-based typing (SBT) and analyzed by chi-square or Fisher exact test.
A statistically significant increase of HLA-B*41:02 allele in HSP patients when compared with controls was found (8.3% versus 1.5% respectively; p = 0.0001; OR (odds ratio) =5.76 [2.15-19.3]). These results remained statistically significant after adjusting for Bonferroni correction (p = 0.0028). An internal validation also confirmed the susceptibility effect on HSP associated with HLA-B*41:02 (OR = 5.70 [1.98-16.44]). Since a former study described an association between HLA-DRB1*01:03 and HSP susceptibility, we also evaluated the implication of HLA-B*41:02 independently of HLA-DRB1*01:03. Interestingly, the association remained statistically significant (p = 0.0004, OR = 4.97 [1.8-16.9]). No HLA-B association with specific HSP clinical features was found.
Our study indicates that HLA-B*41:02 is associated with the susceptibility to HSP in Spanish patients irrespective of HLA-DRB1 status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is also an inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) features. AS patients often display osteoporosis as well as new bone formation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a protein involved in both inflammation and bone metabolism. In the present study we assessed whether disease activity, systemic inflammation, MeS features, adipokines, and biomarkers of endothelial activation were associated with IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in a series of 30 nondiabetic AS patients without CV disease undergoing TNF-α antagonist-infliximab therapy. All determinations were made in the fasting state, immediately before an infliximab infusion. Although no association of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels with angiopoietin-2 or osteopontin was found, an inverse correlation between IGF-1 levels and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor that impairs nitric oxide production and secretion promoting endothelial dysfunction, was found (r = -0.397; P = 0.04). However, no significant association was found between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels and disease activity, systemic inflammation, metabolic syndrome features, or adipokines. In conclusion, in nondiabetic patients with AS undergoing periodic anti-TNF-α therapy, IGF-1 and ADMA are inversely correlated.
BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2014:671061. DOI:10.1155/2014/671061 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been associated with increased risk and severity of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Since ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, we aimed to assess whether OPG levels correlate with disease activity, systemic inflammation, metabolic syndrome, adipokines and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation in patients with AS undergoing TNF-α antagonist therapy.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 09/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease with high incidence of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Several polymorphisms in the OPG gene with functional effects on cardiovascular disease in non-rheumatic individuals have been described. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of three of these functional OPG polymorphisms on the risk of cardiovascular disease in a large and well-characterized cohort of Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Three OPG gene variants (rs3134063, rs2073618 and rs3134069) were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 2027 Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing was positive in 997 of 1714 tested. Also, 18.3% of the whole series had experienced cardiovascular events, including 5.4% with cerebrovascular accidents. The relationship between OPG variants and cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox regression.
No association between OPG gene variants and cardiovascular disease was observed in the whole group of rheumatoid arthritis patients or in anti-CCP positive patients. Nevertheless, a protective effect of CGA haplotype on the risk of cardiovascular disease in general, and specifically in the risk of cerebrovascular complications after adjusting for sex, age at disease diagnosis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors was disclosed in anti-CCP negative patients (HR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.31–0.95; p = 0.032 and HR = 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04–0.78; p = 0.022, respectively).
Our results indicate a protective effect of the OPG CGA haplotype on cardiovascular risk, mainly due to a protective effect against cerebrovascular events in anti-CCP negative rheumatoid arthritis patients.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106823. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106823 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex polygenic inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) disease risk. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a regulator of type I interferon induction. Recently, researchers have described an association between multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the IRF5 gene and some rheumatic disorders. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether three different haplotype blocks within the IRF5 locus which have been shown to alter the protein function are involved in the risk of CV events occurring in Spanish RA patients.
Three IRF5 polymorphisms (rs2004640, rs2070197 and rs10954213) representative of each haplotype group were genotyped by performing TaqMan assays using a 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System with tissue from a total of 2,137 Spanish patients diagnosed with RA. Among them, 390 (18.2%) had experienced CV events. The relationship of IRF5 genotypes and haplotypes to CV events was tested using Cox regression.
Male sex, age at RA diagnosis and most traditional risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking habit) were associated with increased risk for CV events in the RA population. Interestingly, a protective effect of both IRF5 rs2004640 GG and IRF5 rs10954213 GG genotypes against the risk for CV events after adjusting the results for sex, age at RA diagnosis and traditional CV disease risk factors was observed (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.38 to 0.92, P = 0.02; and HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.95, P = 0.03, respectively). Moreover, we detected a protective effect of the GTG haplotype against the risk for CV events after adjusting the results for potential confounding factors (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.93, P = 0.012).
Our results reveal that IRF5 gene variants are associated with risk of CV events in patients with RA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Recent studies have identified the ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, and ADAMTS7 rs3825807 polymorphisms as genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease and the PIK3CG rs17398575 and EDNRA rs1878406 polymorphisms as the most significant signals related to the presence of carotid plaque in nonrheumatic Caucasian individuals. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential relationship between these 5 polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis (assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and presence/absence of carotid plaques) and CV disease in RA. Material and Methods. 2140 Spanish RA patients were genotyped for the 5 polymorphisms by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated in 620 of these patients by carotid ultrasonography technology. Results. No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to cIMT values and presence/absence of carotid plaques in RA, after adjusting the results for potential confounders. Moreover, no significant differences were obtained when RA patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of CV disease after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion. Our results do not confirm association between ABO rs579459, PPAP2B rs17114036, ADAMTS7 rs3825807, PIK3CG rs17398575, and EDNRA rs1878406 and subclinical atherosclerosis and CV disease in RA.
Mediators of Inflammation 06/2014; 2014:756279. DOI:10.1155/2014/756279 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. TRAIL is a potential biomarker of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with metabolic syndrome (MeS) and accelerated atherosclerosis. We assessed whether disease activity, systemic inflammation, and MeS features were associated with circulating TRAIL levels in AS patients undergoing TNF- α antagonist infliximab therapy and if infliximab infusion modified TRAIL levels. Methods. We measured TRAIL serum levels in 30 nondiabetic AS patients without CV disease undergoing anti-TNF- α therapy, immediately before and after an infliximab infusion, and in 48 matched controls. Correlations of TRAIL levels with disease activity, systemic inflammation and MeS features, adipokines, and biomarkers of endothelial activation were evaluated. Changes in TRAIL levels following anti-TNF- α infusion were analyzed. Results. TRAIL levels were higher in AS patients than controls. TRAIL levels displayed an inverse correlation with total and LDL cholesterol. We observed an inverse correlation with QUICKI and a marginal association with HOMA-IR. We also found an inverse correlation with resistin and a marginal association with apelin and OPN. Anti-TNF- α infusion did not change TRAIL levels after 120'. Conclusion. Elevated TRAIL levels in AS patients may be the result of a compensatory mechanism to reduce CV risk in these patients.
Mediators of Inflammation 05/2014; 2014:798060. DOI:10.1155/2014/798060 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Xq28 region, containing IRAK and MECP2, represent a common susceptibility locus for a high number of autoimmune diseases. Our aim in the present study was to evaluate the influence of the IRAK1 and MECP2 autoimmunity-associated genetic variants in the giant cell arteritis (GCA) susceptibility and its clinical subphenotypes.
We analysed a total of 627 female biopsy-proven GCA patients and 1,520 female healthy controls of Spanish Caucasian origin. Two polymorphisms, rs1059702 and rs17345, located at IRAK1 and MECP2, respectively, were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays.
No association with any of the analysed polymorphisms was evident when genotype and allele frequencies were compared between GCA patients and controls (rs1059702: allelic p-value=0.699, OR=0.96, CI 95% 0.80-1.17; rs17435: allelic p-value=0.994, OR=1.00, CI 95% 0.84-1.19). Likewise, the subphenotype analysis yield similar negative results.
We have assessed for the first time the possible role of IRAK1 and MECP2 autoimmune disease-associated polymorphisms in GCA. Our data suggest that IRAK1 rs1059702 and MECP2 rs17435 genetic variants do not play a significant role in GCA susceptibility or severity.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 04/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. AS patients also display a high prevalence of features clustered under the name of metabolic syndrome (MeS). Anti-TNF- α therapy was found to be effective to treat AS patients by suppressing inflammation and also improving endothelial function. Previously, it was demonstrated that a short infusion of anti-TNF- α monoclonal antibodyinfliximab induced a rapid and dramatic reduction in serum insulin levels and insulin resistance along with a rapid improvement of insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic AS patients. The role of adipokines, MeS-related biomarkers and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation and inflammation seem to be relevant in different chronic inflammatory diseases. However, its implication in AS has not been fully established. Therefore, in this review we summarize the recent advances in the study of the involvement of these molecules in CV disease or MeS in AS. The assessment of adipokines and biomarkers of endothelial cell activation and MeS may be of potential relevance in the stratification of the CV risk of patients with AS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) may contribute to the link between systemic inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated the relationship of OPG concentrations with endothelial activation and carotid atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
OPG concentrations and those of endothelial activation molecules were measured by using ELISA in 34 patients who were treated with infliximab (IFX), both immediately before and after an IFX infusion. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque were determined by ultrasound in 27 of the study participants.
Median (interquartile range) OPG concentrations decreased from 4.8 pmol/l (2.8-6.5) to 4.4 pmol/l (2.9-6.1; p = 0.04) upon IFX infusion. Baseline OPG concentrations were inversely associated with those of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (partial R = -0.50, p = 0.004, and R = -0.48, p = 0.007, respectively). Prior to IFX administration, OPG concentrations were associated with those of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 (partial R = 0.34, p = 0.05), CIMT (partial R = 0.51 to 0.52, p < 0.009), and plaque (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.29 to OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.03-2.51; p < 0.04), independent of conventional risk factors and C-reactive protein concentrations or disease activity. Except for the OPG concentrations-plaque association (p = 0.09), these relationships remained significant subsequent to IFX administration (p < 0.05). Reductions in OPG levels related to those in vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 concentrations (partial R = 0.35, p = 0.04) and had borderline significance (p = 0.09) with those in ICAM-1 (partial R = 0.29) concentrations.
OPG concentrations are independently associated with endothelial activation and carotid atherosclerosis in RA. Reductions in OPG concentrations upon IFX administration are associated with decreased endothelial activation. OPG may be involved in increased cardiovascular disease risk and may improve its stratification in patients with RA.
The Journal of Rheumatology 02/2014; 41(3). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.131037 · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether circulating gelsolin (GSN) levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) undergoing TNF-α antagonist-infliximab-therapy are altered compared with controls and to establish whether disease activity, systemic inflammation and metabolic syndrome are potential determinants of circulating GSN levels in these patients.
We assessed GSN serum concentrations in a series of 30 non-diabetic AS patients without cardiovascular (CV) disease undergoing TNF-α antagonist-infliximab therapy and 48 matched controls. GSN levels were measured immediately before and after an infliximab infusion. Correlations of GSN serum levels with disease activity, systemic inflammation and metabolic syndrome were assessed. Potential changes in GSN concentration following an infusion of anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody-infliximab were also analysed.
Although at the time of the study AS patients undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy had adequate control of the disease (mean BASDAI 2.94), they showed lower GSN serum levels than healthy controls (mean±SD: 38660.42±23624.6 ng/ml versus 68975.43±31246.79 ng/ml; p<0.0001). When AS patients were stratified according to sex, we observed that GSN levels were significantly lower in men than in women (p=0.032). However, no differences in GSN levels according to the specific clinical features of the disease were seen. No association was found between GSN concentration and adipokines or biomarkers of endothelial cell activation. However, correlation between basal GSN levels and insulin resistance was observed. A single infliximab infusion did not lead to significant changes in GSN levels.
GSN concentration is reduced in AS patients undergoing periodical anti-TNF-α therapy and low disease activity. Potential association with some metabolic syndrome features seems to exist.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 12/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether circulating osteopontin (OPN) levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) undergoing TNF-α antagonist-infliximab-therapy are increased compared with controls and to establish whether disease activity, systemic inflammation, metabolic syndrome, adipokines and biomarkers of atherosclerosis are potential determinants of circulating OPN levels in these patients.
We assessed OPN serum concentrations in a series of 30 non-diabetic AS patients without cardiovascular disease undergoing TNF-α antagonist-infliximab therapy and 48 matched controls. OPN levels were measured immediately before and after an infliximab infusion, at time 0 and at time 120 minutes respectively. Correlations of OPN serum levels with clinical features, disease activity, systemic inflammation, metabolic syndrome and several biomarkers of atherosclerosis were assessed. Potential changes in OPN concentration following an infusion of anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody-infliximab were also analysed.
At the time of the study AS patients undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy had low disease activity (mean BASDAI 2.94) and they showed similar OPN serum levels to healthy controls. No differences in OPN levels according to the specific clinical features of the disease were seen. Also, no correlation between OPN concentration and insulin resistance and adipokines was observed. However, a positive correlation between OPN and angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) serum levels was found (r=0.397; p=0.04). In addition, a single infliximab infusion led to a marginal statistically significant reduction in OPN levels (24112.19±14608.73 pg/ml at time 0 versus 21806.62±11390.83 pg/ml at time 120'; p=0.05).
OPN and Angpt-2 serum levels are correlated in non-diabetic AS patients undergoing TNF-α antagonist therapy.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 12/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic polygenic inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we evaluated the potential association of 9p21.3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - previously linked to coronary artery disease - and CVD risk in 2001 Spanish RA patients genotyped for 9p21.3 SNPs using TaqMan™ assays. Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and presence of carotid plaques were also analyzed. Cox regression model did not disclose significant differences between patients who experienced CVD and those who did not. Neither association was found between cIMT or carotid plaques and SNPs allele distribution. In conclusion, results do not support a role of rs10116277 or rs1537375 SNPs in CVD risk in Spanish RA patients.