J A Cartón

Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain

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Publications (110)345.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals suffer from accelerated immunologic aging. One of the most prominent changes during T lymphocyte aging is the accumulation of CD28(null) T lymphocytes, mainly CD8(+) but also CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Enhancing the functional properties of these cells may be important because they provide antigen-specific defense against chronic infections. The objective of this study was to compare the responses of CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null) T lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients to the immunomodulatory effects of cytokines IL-15 and IL-21. We quantified the frequencies of CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null) T lymphocytes in peripheral blood from 110 consecutive, HIV-infected patients and 25 healthy controls. Patients showed increased frequencies of CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null). Both subsets were positively correlated to each other and showed an inverse correlation with the absolute counts of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Higher frequencies of HIV-specific and CMV-specific cells were found in CD28(null) than in CD28(+) T lymphocytes. Activation of STAT5 by IL-15 and STAT3 by IL-21 was higher in CD28(null) compared with CD28(+) T lymphocytes. Proliferation, expression of CD69, and IFN-γ production in CD28(null) T lymphocytes were increased after treatment with IL-15, and IL-21 potentiated most of those effects. Nevertheless, IL-21 alone reduced IFN-γ production in response to anti-CD3 stimulation but increased CD28 expression, even counteracting the inhibitory effect of IL-15. Intracytoplasmic stores of granzyme B and perforin were increased by IL-15, whereas IL-21 and simultaneous treatment with the 2 cytokines also significantly enhanced degranulation in CD4(+)CD28(null) and CD8(+)CD28(null) T lymphocytes. IL-15 and IL-21 could have a role in enhancing the effector response of CD28(null) T lymphocytes against their specific chronic antigens in HIV-infected patients. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1189/jlb.1A0514-276RR · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. It is unclear whether metabolic or body composition effects differ between protease inhibitor-based regimens recommended for initial treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods. ATADAR is a phase 4, open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Stable antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults were randomly assigned to atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg or darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine daily. Predefined endpoints were treatment or virological failure, drug discontinuation due to adverse effects, and laboratory and body composition changes at 96 weeks. Results. At 96 weeks, 56 (62%) atazanavir/ritonavir and 62 (71%) darunavir/ritonavir patients remained free of treatment failure (estimated difference 8.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.6 to 21.6) and 71 (79%) atazanavir/ritonavir and 75 (85%) darunavir/ritonavir patients remained free of virological failure (estimated difference 6.3%; 95% CI, -.5 to 17.6). Seven patients discontinued atazanavir/ritonavir and 5 discontinued darunavir/ritonavir due to adverse effects. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol similarly increased in both arms, but there was a greater increase in triglycerides in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm. At 96 weeks, body fat (estimated difference 2862.2 gr; 95% CI, 726.7 to 4997.7; P = .0090), limb fat (estimated difference 1403.3 gr; 95% CI, 388.4 to 2418.2; P = .0071), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (estimated difference 28.4 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.9 to 55.0; P = .0362) increased more in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm than in darunavir/ritonavir arm. Body fat changes in the atazanavir/ritonavir arm were associated with higher insulin resistance. Conclusions. We found no major differences between atazanavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir in efficacy, clinically relevant side effects, or plasma cholesterol fractions. However, atazanavir/ritonavir led to higher triglycerides and more total and subcutaneous fat than darunavir/ritonavir. Also, fat gains with atazanavir/ritonavir were associated with insulin resistance.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2014; 60(5). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu898 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) influences susceptibility to infection and hemodynamic failure (HF) in sepsis. NOS3 and NOS2 SNPs might modify plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, sepsis development, hemodynamics and survival. Methods 90 severely septic and 91 non-infected ICU patients were prospectively studied. NOS3 (E298D), NOS3 (-786 T/C), NOS3 (27 bp-VNTR), and NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs and plasma NOx levels were assessed. Results 21 patients (11.6%) died, 7 with sepsis. TT homozygotes and T allele carriers of NOS3 (E298D) and AG carriers of the NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs were more frequent among septic compared to non-infected ICU patients (p<0.05). Plasma NOx was higher in septic, especially in septic with hemodynamic failure (HF) or fatal outcome (p<0.006). Plasma NOx was higher in carriers of the T allele of the NOS3 (E298D) SNP (p=0.006). Sepsis independently associated with HF, increased NOx, peripheral neutrophils, and fibrinogen levels, decreased prothrombin and the presence of the NOS3 (E298D) and NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs. A low APACHE II score was the only variable associated with sepsis survival. NOx independently associated with sepsis, HF, decreased neutrophils and higher APACHE. Conclusions NOS3 (E298D) and NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs, individually and in combination, and plasma NOx, associated with sepsis development. NOx associated with HF and fatal outcome.
    Nitric Oxide 11/2014; 42. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.09.004 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix-metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue-inhibitors (TIMPs), modulated by different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are critical in sepsis development. Ninety ICU severely septic and 91 ICU uninfected patients were prospectively studied. MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G), MMP-3 (-1612 5A/6A), MMP-8 (-799 C/T), MMP-9 (-1562 C/T), and MMP-13 (-77A/G) SNPs were genotyped. Plasma MMPs (-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -13) and TIMPs (-1,-2,-4) were measured. AA homozygotes and A allele carriers of MMP-13 (-77 A/G) and 1G2G carriers of the MMP-1 (-1607 1G/2G) SNPs frequencies were different between septic and uninfected patients (p < 0.05), as well as plasma MMP-3, -8, -9 -10 and TIMP-2 levels (p < 0.04). No differences in MMPs levels among MMP-13 or MMP-1 SNPs genotypes carriers were observed. The area under the ROC curve for MMP-8 in the diagnosis of sepsis was 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.92), and that of CRP was 0.98 (0.94-0.998), whereas the area of MMP-9 in the detection of non-septic state was 0.73 (0.65-0.80), p < 0.0001 for all curves. Sepsis associated with increased MMP-8 and decreased MMP-9 levels in multivariate analysis (p < 0.0002). We report for the first time an association between MMP-13 and MMP-1 SNPs and sepsis. An independent association of MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels with sepsis was also observed.
    Scientific Reports 05/2014; 4:5002. DOI:10.1038/srep05002 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an unusual case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) unmasking a latent cryptococcal infection in a HIV-infected patient starting HAART. The patient developed endophtalmic, lymphadenopathic, neuromeningeal and probably skin and pulmonary involvement by Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcal bilateral endophtalmitis manifested as choroidal nodules, retinal hemorrhages and necrosis. The patient responded to a 5 week combined IV therapy of amphotericin B + fluconazole although severe eyesight loss remained.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 04/2014; DOI:10.1089/AID.2014.0039 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. Methods SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/ r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/mL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir1lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia 43 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels4200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were �13 mg/dL (�7%; Po0.0001), �19 mg/dL (�13%; Po0.0001) and �7 mg/dL (�6%; P50.021), respectively. Conclusions In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological resp
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the study: ATV/r or DRV/r plus TDF/FTC are recommended for first-line therapy due at least in part to their clinical tolerability and scarce metabolic effects. We investigated whether both regimens might differ regarding plasma lipids, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (MDRD). Methods: Multicentre, randomized, clinical trial (ATADAR Study, NCT01274780). Primary end-point: 24-week change in total cholesterol. Secondary end-points: changes in lipids other than total cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and MDRD; clinical tolerability; and efficacy. We assumed that patients assigned to DRV/r would have an increase in plasma total cholesterol<21 mg/dL, which was the difference between lopinavir/r and ATV/r in CASTLE study. Fasting plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and creatinine were measured at baseline, and 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Analyses were by intent-to-treat. Summary of results: 180 patients were randomized (ATV/r=91, DRV/r=89), 95% Caucasian, and 8% co-infected with hepatitis C virus. At baseline (mean, SD): age 36 (9) years; plasma log HIV RNA 4.8 (0.7); CD4 334 (189) cells/mm3; triglycerides 107 (62), total cholesterol 158 (32), LDL cholesterol 97 (28), HDL cholesterol 39 (11) mg/dL, and glucose 84 (13) mg/dL; HOMA-IR 2.47 (3.46); and MDRD 108 (21) mL/min/1.73 m2. At 24 weeks, total cholesterol (mean, SD) changed +7.26 (26.76) mg/dL with ATV/r and +11.47 (25.85) mg/dL with DRV/r (estimated difference ATV/r minus DRV/r -4.21 (95% CI-12.11 to +3.69), P=0.2944), thus confirming our primary hypothesis. Changes (mean, SD) in triglycerides were roughly similar: +16.29 (61.76) mg/dL with ATV/r and +18.40 (64.24) mg/dL with DRV/r (P=0.8261), but there were trends to more favourable changes in LDL (-2.14 [21.45] vs +3.14 [21.97] mg/dL, P=0.1160) and HDL cholesterol (+5.50 [10.36] vs +3.88 [8.42] mg/dL, P=0.2625), and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (-1.16 [6.38] vs -0.14 [0.86], P=0.0652) with ATV/r than with DRV/r. There were small, non-significant decreases in HOMA-IR (ATV/r -0.17 [2.48] vs DRV/r -0.70 [3.38], P=0.3785) and MDRD (ATV/r -7 [22] vs DRV/r -6 [15] mL/min/1.73 m2, P=0.6652). 6 ATV/r and 3 DRV/r patients had their study drugs discontinued because of adverse effects (P=0.4967). 7 additional patients in each arm had confirmed HIV RNA >50 copies. Conclusions: There were trends to more favourable changes in LDL and HDL cholesterol and particularly total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio at 24 weeks with ATV/r than with DRV/r.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2012; 15(6):18202. DOI:10.7448/IAS.15.6.18202 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:   The role of exposure to antiretrovirals (ARV) and serum matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) on liver fibrosis (LF) progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mono or HIV- hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is unclear. Thus, 213 Caucasian adult HIV-infected patients were studied, 111 of whom had HCV-coinfection and 68 were HCV-monoinfected. Patients with ethanol consumption >50 g/day, hepatitis B coinfection, non-infective liver diseases or HAART adherence <75% were excluded. LF was assessed by transient elastometry (TE, Fibroscan). Serum levels of MMPs (MMP -1,-2,-3,-8,-9,-10 and -13) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1,-2 and -4) were measured by ELISA microarrays. Associations with LF were statistically analysed. Protease inhibitors, usually administered to patients with advanced LF were excluded from the analysis. Increased LF was significantly associated with d4T (P = 0.006) and didanosine (ddI) use (P = 0.007), months on d4T (P = 0.001) and on ARV (P = 0.025), duration of HIV (P < 0.0001) and HCV infections (P < 0.0001), higher HIV (P = 0.03) and HCV loads (P < 0.0001), presence of lipodystrophy (P = 0.02), male gender (P = 0.02), older age (P = 0.04), low nadir (P = 0.02) and current CD4(+) T-cells (P < 0.0001), low gain of CD4(+) T-cells after HAART (P = 0.01) and higher MMP-2 (P = 0.02) and TIMP-2 serum levels (P = 0.02). By logistic regression the only variables significantly associated with increased LF were: use of ddI (OR 8.77, 95% CI: 2.36-32.26; P = 0.005), male gender (OR 7.75, 95% CI: 2.33-25.64, P = 0.0008), HCV viral load (in log) (OR 3.53, 95% CI: 2.16-5.77; P < 0.0001) and age (in years) (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.34, P = 0.0003). We conclude that only higher HCV viral load, older age, male gender, and use of ddI associated independently with increased LF in our study.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 10/2012; 19(10):685-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2012.01596.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for grade 3 or 4 ALT or AST elevations (TE) and grade 4 total bilirubin elevations (TBE) among HIV/HCV- coinfected treatment-naïve patients with an initial regimen including 2 nucleoside analogs plus efavirenz (EFV), nevirapine (NVP), or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r). This was a retrospective multicenter observational cohort study that recruited 745 HIV-infected drug-naïve patients with detectable plasma HCV RNA who started a regimen including EFV, NVP, or PI/r. EFV was prescribed in 323 (43%), NVP in 126 (17%), and a PI/r in 296 (40%) patients. Grade 3 or 4 TE were observed in 19 (5.9%) individuals receiving EFV compared with 14 (11%) on NVP (P = .056) and 31 (10.5%) on PI/r (P = .036). Grade 4 TBE were identified in 7 (2.2%) patients on EFV, 1 (0.8%) on NVP, and 11 (3.7%) on PI/r (P = .19). Therapy was discontinued due to liver toxicity in 13 (4%) patients on EFV, 16 (13%) on NVP, and 17 (6%) on PI/r (P = .003). Regimens including EFV, NVP, or PI/r are generally safe in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Grade 3-4 TE are less commonly seen with EFV than with PI/r. Discontinuations due to hepatotoxicity were less frequent for patients receiving EFV than for those treated with NVP.
    HIV Clinical Trials 03/2012; 13(2):61-9. DOI:10.1310/hct1302-61 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the frequency of severe liver toxicity in HIV/hepatitis C (HCV)-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis receiving efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral combinations. One hundred and eighty-nine previously antiretroviral naïve, HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, who started a regimen including two nucleoside analogues plus EFV, and in whom the presence or absence of advanced liver fibrosis could be established, were retrospectively analyzed. Liver fibrosis was evaluated according to a stepwise algorithm including liver biopsy, transient elastography and FIB-4 index. Fifty-six patients had advanced fibrosis - 25 with cirrhosis - and 133 did not. Three (5.4%) subjects with and 9 (6.8%) (p=0.717) without advanced fibrosis developed grade 3-4 transaminase elevation (TE). Grade 4 total bilirubin elevation was seen in 5 (8.9%) patients with advanced fibrosis and in 1 (0.8%) without it (p=0.003). Liver events led to EFV discontinuation in 10 (5.3%) patients, 6 (10.7%) with and 4 (3%) without advanced fibrosis (p=0.031). The hepatic tolerability of EFV was good in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis. The frequency of grade 3-4 TE was similar to that observed in patients without advanced fibrosis, there was no death attributable to liver failure caused by drug toxicity and the rate of EFV discontinuations due to liver events was low.
    The Journal of infection 11/2011; 64(2):204-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2011.10.016 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    Julio Collazos, José Antonio Cartón, Víctor Asensi
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate gender differences in liver fibrosis and hepatitis C virus-related parameters in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Transversal study of 782 patients who underwent a complete clinical and laboratory evaluation. Fibrosis was measured by transient elastometry (TE) and by commonly used laboratory-derived fibrosis indexes. Men were older, had higher rates of alcohol abuse, higher HCV viral load and liver tests, lower platelet values, poorer CDC clinical stages, longer duration of HCV infection, shorter time on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) and had appreciably more advanced fibrosis than women. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender (P < 0.0001), longer time since HCV acquisition (P < 0.0001), alcohol abuse (P < 0.0001), HCV genotype 3 (P=0.01), shorter time on successful ART (P=0.005) and worse CDC clinical stages (P=0.03) were independently associated with significant or higher stages of fibrosis. Male gender was also independently predictive of advanced or higher stages of fibrosis (P=0.06) or cirrhosis (P=0.02). In patients with no alcohol abuse, men had worse fibrosis parameters than women (P < 0.01 for each), but these differences decreased in patients with alcohol abuse and became non-significant. HIV-HCV-coinfected women have more favorable HCV virological and clinical profile than men and, particularly, lower degrees of fibrosis. Alcohol abuse seemed to result more deleterious in women than in men. The reportedly poorer outcomes of liver disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients, as compared with their HCV-monoinfected counterparts, could be ameliorated by addressing these cofactors, some of them preventable or treatable.
    Current HIV research 08/2011; 9(5):339-45. DOI:10.2174/157016211797635982 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis are desirable, and the risk factors associated with fibrosis are not fully identified. A cross-sectional study of a cohort of 805 HIV-HCV-coinfected patients with active HCV replication, most (95.2%) of whom were intravenous drug users, was conducted. Liver fibrosis was measured by transient elastometry with cutoff values of 7.2 kPa (significant fibrosis), 9.4 kPa (advanced fibrosis) and 14.0 kPa (cirrhosis), and by liver fibrosis indexes (LFI; APRI, Forns and FIB-4). Available liver biopsies were also evaluated. The prevalences of significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis were 55.8%, 38.4% and 23.5%, respectively. A number of parameters were associated both in the univariate and multivariate analyses with each of the diverse fibrosis groups; however, only six of them were predictive of all stages of fibrosis: heavy alcohol intake (odds ratio [OR] 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-5.59; P < 0.001), duration of HCV infection (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19; P < 0.001), CDC category C3 (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.07-3.02; P=0.026), anti-HCV treatment failure (OR 4.37, 95% CI 2.24-8.55; P < 0.001), thrombocytopaenia (OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.011-1.019; P < 0.001) and increased aspartate aminotransferase (1.006, 95% CI 1.0021-1.010; P = 0.004). Furthermore, 53%, 68% and 80% of patients with significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively, had increased measures on at least one of the LFI, with the Forns index being the most sensitive. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of elastometry to predict histological fibrosis was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76-0.90), 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.95) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.94) for Metavir score ≥ F2, ≥ F3 and F4, respectively. Elastometry constitutes a useful tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Fibrosis is associated with diverse factors, some of them treatable or preventable, which need to be addressed considering the high prevalence and course of fibrosis in these patients.
    Antiviral therapy 01/2011; 16(1):27-35. DOI:10.3851/IMP1708 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and adipocyte differentiation and are inhibited by antiretrovirals. MMPs and TIMPs and their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might contribute to the HAART-related lipodystrophic syndrome pathogenesis. Cross-sectional study in a university-based outpatient clinic. Two hundred and sixteen HIV-infected patients on extended HAART were studied. Serum MMPs (1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 13) and TIMPs (1, 2, 4) were measured by ELISA microarrays. MMP1 (-16071G/2G) SNP was also genotyped. Lipodystrophic syndrome was diagnosed by a clinical scale validated by fat dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Eighty-two patients (38.0%) showed lipodystrophic syndrome, mostly lipoatrophy. The 2G/2G MMP1 SNP genotype was more frequent among lipodystrophic syndrome patients (41.3 vs. 20.5%, odds ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-5.29; χ² = 9.62, P = 0.002 for HIV-infected patients with and without lipodystrophic syndrome respectively). Carriers of this genotype had higher serum levels of MMP1 compared with those with the 1G/1G (P = 0.02). Higher MMP1 (P = 0.022) and lower TIMP4 (P = 0.038) serum levels were observed while comparing HIV patients with and without lipodystrophic syndrome. MMP1 2G carriage (P = 0.0008), TIMP4 lower serum levels (P = 0.02), treatment with stavudine (P < 0.0001), treatment with zidovudine (P = 0.006) and absence of hepatitis C virus coinfection (P = 0.002) were associated with lipodystrophic syndrome by logistic regression. MMP1 SNP, which induced increased serum levels of this protein, was associated with lipodystrophic syndrome.
    AIDS (London, England) 10/2010; 24(16):2499-506. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833e922c · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. Methods SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/μL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir+lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia >3 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels>200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were −13 mg/dL (−7%; P<0.0001), −19 mg/dL (−13%; P<0.0001) and −7 mg/dL (−6%; P=0.021), respectively. Conclusions In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological response in controlled pretreated patients.
    HIV Medicine 10/2010; 11(9):545-553. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Julio Collazos, José Antonio Cartón, Víctor Asensi
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    ABSTRACT: The possible effects on liver fibrosis and HCV viral load of the immunological status of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients are unclear. A cohort of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients was divided according to the current CD4 counts into poor (≤200/μl, n = 117) or good (≥500/μl, n = 441) immunological status. The groups were compared for diverse HCV- and fibrosis-related parameters. Fibrosis was evaluated by transient elastometry and other noninvasive indexes. Many variables were significantly associated with the immunological status in univariate analyses, including fibrosis parameters. However, in multivariate analyses current immunological status or nadir CD4 were not associated with HCV viral load (p = 0.8 and p = 0.3, respectively), liver fibrosis at the time of evaluation (p = 0.9 for both), or fibrosis progression over time (p = 0.98 and p = 0.8, respectively). The factors independently associated with significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis, as compared with minimal or no fibrosis, were alcohol abuse [OR 3.57 (95% CI 1.43-8.85), p = 0.006; OR 10.10 (3.75-27.03), p < 0.0001; and OR 31.25 (10.6-90.90), p < 0.0001, respectively], HBsAg positivity [OR 9.09 (1.47-55.56), p = 0.02; OR 55.56 (9.80-333.33), p < 0.0001; and OR 43.48 (4.76-476.19), p = 0.0008, respectively], and platelet counts [OR 0.994 (0.989-0.998), p = 0.006; OR 0.990 (0.985-0.995), p = 0.0003; and OR 0.985 (0.979-0.991), p < 0.0001, respectively]. Immunological status did not associate with any fibrosis stage (significant fibrosis, p = 0.7; advanced fibrosis, p = 0.4; and cirrhosis p = 0.9). The current or past immunological status of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients does not seem to have any significant influence on HCV viral load or on the development of liver fibrosis when adjusting for important covariates.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 10/2010; 27(4):383-9. DOI:10.1089/aid.2010.0168 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    J Collazos, JA Cartón, V Asensi
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection on the viroimmunological outcomes of HIV-1 infection. A cross-sectional study of 805 patients with active HCV infection receiving or not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was carried out. A number of parameters were significantly associated with undetectable HIV-1 viral load in univariate analyses, such as age, toxic habits, CD4 cell count, liver test results, HCV viral load and ART. However, only current ART (P<0.0001), CD4 cell count (P<0.0001), age (P=0.004) and current injecting drug use (P=0.02) were independently associated with undetectable viral load in multivariate analysis. None of the many HCV- and liver fibrosis-related parameters analysed showed a significant association with HIV-1 viral load or CD4 cell count in multivariate analyses, with the exception of the annual fibrosis progression index which almost reached statistical significance in the subgroup of ART-untreated patients (P=0.06) and was inversely predictive of CD4 cell count in the whole group (P=0.007). However, its relative weight was modest, as it only explained 0.8% of the total variability in CD4 cell count. HCV-related parameters did not significantly affect virological and immunological outcomes of HIV-1 infection in ART-treated and untreated patients. In contrast, liver fibrosis, as measured using the annual fibrosis progression index, was inversely associated with CD4 cell count, although its weight was relatively small. Therefore, HCV- and liver fibrosis-related factors do not seem appreciably to influence these outcomes from a practical viewpoint in ART-naïve patients, nor impair CD4 and HIV-1 viral load responses to ART.
    HIV Medicine 10/2010; 12(5):308-15. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00886.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of carbapenems versus cefotaxime (8g/day)+metronidazole (1.5-2g/day) [combined standard chemotherapy (CSC)] for the treatment of brain abscess was compared. Fifty-nine adult patients with brain abscesses received either imipenem or meropenem (3-4g/day) or CSC for a mean of 5 weeks, in addition to neurosurgery in most cases. Cure was obtained in 84.7% of cases; 42/47 (89.4%) on carbapenems [18/22 (81.8%) on imipenem versus 24/25 (96.0%) on meropenem] and 8/12 (66.7%) on CSC (P=0.06). Seven patients with multiple abscesses were treated with imipenem (1 died; cure rate 85.7%), five with meropenem (all survived; cure rate 100%) and five with CSC (2 died; cure rate 60%) (P<0.4). Neurosurgery was performed in 43/59 cases (72.9%); 17 (77.3%) in the imipenem group, 21 (84.0%) in the meropenem group and 5 (41.7%) in the CSC group (P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the rate of relapse requiring re-intervention. Treatment with meropenem was associated with a lower mortality than CSC (P=0.026). Seizures were observed only with carbapenems [8/22 (36.4%) for imipenem versus 2/25 (8.0%) for meropenem; P=0.03]. Carbapenems were more effective than CSC for treatment of brain abscesses. Because meropenem induced significantly fewer seizures than imipenem with at least the same clinical efficacy, the former appears to be a better choice to treat this infection.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 03/2010; 35(3):301-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.11.012 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/μL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir+lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia >3 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels>200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were -13 mg/dL (-7%; P<0.0001), -19 mg/dL (-13%; P<0.0001) and -7 mg/dL (-6%; P=0.021), respectively. In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological response in controlled pretreated patients.
    HIV Medicine 03/2010; 11(9):545-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00827.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    01/2010; DOI:10.4137/CMRT.S53
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    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2010; 13. DOI:10.1186/1758-2652-13-S4-P91 · 4.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

677 Citations
345.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2015
    • Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias
      • Department of Immunology
      Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
  • 1987–2014
    • University of Oviedo
      • Department of Medicine
      Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
  • 1995–2010
    • Hospital Central de Asturias
      Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
  • 1991–1993
    • Hospital Valle Del Nalon
      Galicia, Spain
  • 1991–1992
    • Facultad de Medicina
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain