[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) and is the most com-mon cause of neurological disability in young adults. MS-Associated Retrovirus (MSRV) is member of Human Endogenous Retroviruses W family, and their increased activity in MS patients is associated to the disease immu-nopathogenesis. Natalizumab, an antibody-based therapy, hinders migration of T cells into the CNS and is currently the most potent treatment for MS. Although Natalizumab interferes with gene expression relevant for function and differentiation of lymphocytes, its effects on genes involved in immunopathogenesis are unknown. Here, we report the effect of different treatments on the HERV-W/MRSV expression in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. MRSV transcripts were quantified by qRT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 9 patients receiving Natalizu-mab for at least 6 months (MSNat group) and 11 patients under immunosuppressive treatments (MSI group). The mean age was 28 years (18-35) for MSNat group and 44 (28-54) for MSI. The mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was 4 (2-6) and 2.6 (1-6.5) for MSNat and MSI groups respectively. MSRV transcripts level was slightly higher in MSNat group, although not significantly, suggesting that Natalizumab does not interfere on HERV-W expression. Patients included in Natalizumab protocol usually do not respond to other treatments and present higher EDSSs. Possibly, EDSS and age have more impact in retroelements activity, as already demonstrated. This is the first comparison of HERV/MSRV expression between different therapy groups in MS, and other studies are needed to confirm such findings.
16th International Conference on Human Retroviruses: HTLV and Related Viruses, Montreal, Canada; 01/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-γ when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-γ against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-α levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-α synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-α synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT/AIDS patients produced low levels of IL-10 (Th2 response) and IFN-γ (Th1 response). They produced high TNF-α suggesting a high inflammatory response triggered by the parasite.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a major public health and continues to cause substantial mortality and morbidity. Serotype C is the most frequent in Brazil. The clinical spectrum of IMD is broad (meningitis, meningococcemia or both) and the clinical evolution may be unpredictable. Main features associated with mortality are: age higher than 50 years old, seizures, shock, and meningococcemia without meningitis. Blood cultures should be obtained immediately. Lumbar puncture can be performed without previous computed tomography scan (CT) in most cases. Clinical features can be useful to predic patients where an abnormal CT scan is likely. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and Gram stain should always be required. Latex agglutination sensitivity is highly variable. Polymerase chain reaction is specially useful when other methods are negative or delayed. Usually ceftriaxone should not be delayed while awaiting CSF study or CT. Dexamethasone can be used in meningococcal meningitis. Early suspicion of IMD and antibiotic in primary care before hospitalization, rapid transportation to a hospital, and stabilization in an intensive-care unit has substantially reduced the case-fatality rate. Vaccines against serotypes A, C, W-135, and Y are available while vaccines against serotype B are expected.
Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 09/2013; 71(9B):653-8. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurological opportunistic disease manifested in HIV infected patients. Excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) are serological markers for the diagnosis of reactivation of the infection in HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients develop high antibodies titers for ESA. However, little is known about the humoral response for these antigens. The present study analyzed the profile of antibody recognition against ESA in comparison with tachyzoite lysate antigen (TLA) in 265 sera and 270 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from infected patients with Toxoplasma gondii and or HIV and in sera of 50 healthy individuals. The samples of sera and CSF were organized in 8 groups. The sera samples groups were: Group I- Se/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 58 samples; Group II- Se/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 49 samples; Group III- Se/ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/negative toxoplasmosis) with 58 samples; Group IV- Se/PosT/NegHIV (individuals with asymptomatic toxoplasmosis/negative HIV) with 50 samples and Group V- Se/NegT/NegHIV (healthy individuals/negative toxoplasmosis and HIV) with 50 samples. The CSF samples groups were: Group VI- CSF/CT/AIDS (patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS) with 99 samples; Group VII- CSF/ONinf/AIDS/PosT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/positive toxoplasmosis) with 112 samples, and Group VIII- CSF/ ONinf/AIDS/NegT (patients with AIDS/other neuroinfections/ negative toxoplasmosis) with 59 samples. Levels of IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses were determined by ELISA against TLA and ESA antigens. IgM, IgA or IgE antibodies against ESA or TLA were not detected in sera from patients with toxoplasmosis suggesting that all patients were in chronic phase of the infection. High levels of IgG1 against TLA were found in sera samples from groups I, II and IV and in CSF samples from groups VI and VII; whereas IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were not detected in the same sera or CSF samples groups. However, patients from groups I and VI, that had tachyzoites circulating in blood and CSF respectively, produced a mix of IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against ESA. IgG2 against ESA were predominant in serum from patients with the latent (non-active) T. gondii infection/HIV negative and in CSF samples from patients with other neuroinfections and positive toxoplasmosis (groups IV and VII, respectively). IgG4 levels against ESA were found to be significantly (P<0.05 and P<0.005) higher in patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis (groups I and VI, respectively) in comparison with groups II, IV and VII. This data suggest that IgG4 can be valuable for supporting the diagnosis of focal brain lesions, caused by T. gondii infection, in HIV-infected patients. This approach might be useful, mainly when molecular investigation to detect parasites is not available.
Journal of immunological methods 06/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1) earlier HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation with retention-in-care to avoid AIDS; (2) pre-HAART cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening with preemptive fluconazole treatment; (3) better diagnostics (e.g. CRAG testing); and (4) optimal treatment with aggressive management of intracranial pressure and induction therapy with antifungal combination. Implementation of these strategies can reduce cryptococcal-related deaths, improve care, and reduce healthcare costs.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 05/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors±raltegravir±enfuvirtide±maraviroc) after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6). The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2). At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90%) had an HIV RNA level <50 copies/mL and the median CD4 cell count was 301 (interquartile range 224-445) cells/mm(3). Baseline HIV RNA >100000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 01/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raltegravir (RAL) is the first licensed antiretroviral integrase inhibitor that may be used both for treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients and for salvage therapy. The Brazilian public free access programme limits its use for salvage therapy, with scarce information regarding RAL resistance from patients failing a RAL-containing salvage regimen. This study evaluated RAL resistance mutations detected by population sequencing in 69 HIV-infected patients with advanced disease failing a RAL-containing regimen in a real-world setting. RAL resistance mutations were identified in 47/69 patients (68%). The most common salvage regimen, used by 56/69 patients (81%), included lamivudine, tenofovir, darunavir/ritonavir and RAL. At failure, major RAL resistance mutations included Q148H/R/K (21/47; 45%), N155H (14/47; 30%), Y143R/H/C (3/47; 6%) and E92Q (1/47; 2%). Most samples with Q148H/R/K also showed G140S/A/C (21/47; 45%). RAL resistance was significantly associated with less than two active drugs in the optimised background therapy regimen at failure [39/39 (100%) vs. 9/17 (53%); P < 0.001] and with a longer cumulative duration with detectable viraemia (viral load >50 copies/mL) (86 weeks vs. 32 weeks; P = 0.001). A high frequency of RAL mutations was observed in this study. In addition, these results reinforce the importance of close monitoring of RAL-containing regimens to reduce the time of failure and consequent resistance accumulation.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 01/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-inferiority (NI) randomized clinical trials (RCTs) commonly evaluate efficacy of new antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Their reporting and interpretation have not been systematically evaluated. We evaluated the reporting of NI RCTs in HIV patients according to the CONSORT statement and assessed the degree of misinterpretation of RCTs when NI was inconclusive or not established.
PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were reviewed until December 2011. Selection and extraction was performed independently by three reviewers.
Of the 42 RCTs (n = 21,919; range 41-3,316) selected, 23 were in ARV-naïve and 19 in ARV-experienced patients. Twenty-seven (64%) RCTs provided information about prior RCTs of the active comparator, and 37 (88%) used 2-sided CIs. Two thirds of trials used a NI margin between 10 and 12%, although only 12 explained the method to determine it. Blinding was used in 9 studies only. The main conclusion was based on both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses in 5 trials, on PP analysis only in 4 studies, and on ITT only in 31 studies. Eleven of 16 studies with NI inconclusive or not established highlighted NI or equivalence, and distracted readers with positive secondary results.
There is poor reporting and interpretation of NI RCTs performed in HIV patients. Maximizing the reporting of the method of NI margin determination, use of blinding and both ITT and PP analyses, and interpreting negative NI according to actual primary findings will improve the understanding of results and their translation into clinical practice.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63272. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) arise from ancient infections of the host germline cells by exogenous retroviruses, constituting 8% of the human genome. Elevated level of envelope transcripts from HERVs-W has been detected in CSF, plasma and brain tissues from patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), most of them from Xq22.3, 15q21.3, and 6q21 chromosomes. However, since the locus Xq22.3 (ERVWE2) lack the 5' LTR promoter and the putative protein should be truncated due to a stop codon, we investigated the ERVWE2 genomic loci from 84 individuals, including MS patients with active HERV-W expression detected in PBMC. In addition, an automated search for promoter sequences in 20 kb nearby region of ERVWE2 reference sequence was performed. Several putative binding sites for cellular cofactors and enhancers were found, suggesting that transcription may occur via alternative promoters. However, ERVWE2 DNA sequencing of MS and healthy individuals revealed that all of them harbor a stop codon at site 39, undermining the expression of a full-length protein. Finally, since plaque formation in central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients is attributed to immunological mechanisms triggered by autoimmune attack against myelin, we also investigated the level of similarity between envelope protein and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Comparison of the MOG to the envelope identified five retroviral regions similar to the Ig-like domain of MOG. Interestingly, one of them includes T and B cell epitopes, capable to induce T effector functions and circulating Abs in rats. In sum, although no DNA substitutions that would link ERVWE2 to the MS pathogeny was found, the similarity between the envelope protein to MOG extends the idea that ERVEW2 may be involved on the immunopathogenesis of MS, maybe facilitating the MOG recognizing by the immune system. Although awaiting experimental evidences, the data presented here may expand the scope of the endogenous retroviruses involvement on MS pathogenesis.
Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:172. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Resistance is a major cause of virologic failure in HIV-1-infected patients; genotypic analyses optimize salvage therapy but technical constraints limit testing in plasma viral load (pVL) below 1000 copies/ml. Nevertheless a great amount of patients are failing therapy with a persistent low viral load, it is possible to obtain genotypic information at lower viremias although slight modifications are required during genotype standard procedures. Objective: To assess genotypic resistance in HIV-1-infected patients with persistent low level viremia and virologic response after switching to genotype-guided salvage therapy. To evaluate viral selection of mutation when previous genotypic information were available. Study design: Cohort prospective study in which eligible patients were at least 18 years old, provided informed consent, were on HAART for at least 12 months with two consecutive pVL between 200-999 copies/ml after achieving and maintaining viral suppression (two pVL <50 copies/ml). Modifications in genotype standard procedures included a larger volume of starting plasma, concentrating the sample by centrifugation and higher viral RNA input. Resistance was defined as the detection of any NRTI, NNRTI or PR major resistance mutations. Virologic response was assessed 12 weeks after salvage therapy. Results: Eighteen patients, 50% male, median age 52, median CD4 405 cells/mm3, median pVL 596 copies/ml, median of number of previous regimens 5, 17 (94%) with successful genotype. Resistance mutations were detected in 14 patients (77%). All patients had NRTI mutations, four patients had NNRTI mutations and ten patients had PR mutations, most common mutations were M41L, D67N, M184V, K103N, M46I, I47V, I54V and L90M. Of these fourteen patients, nine started a genotype-guided salvage regimen and presented a pVL < 50 copies/ml after 12 weeks of follow up. For two patients there was previous genotypic information highlighting the selection and accumulation of resistance mutation during persistent low level viremia. Conclusion: In this group of heavily pretreated patients with persistent low viremia, a high frequency of genotypic resistance was observed; obtaining genotypic information may prevent further accumulation of resistance mutation and preserve future therapeutic options.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2012; 15(6):18173. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of the urinary excretion of BKV and JCV in HIV-infected patients without neurological symptoms.
Urine samples from HIV-infected patients without neurological symptoms were tested for JC virus and BK virus by PCR. Samples were screened for the presence of polyomavirus with sets of primers complementary to the early region of JCV and BKV genome (AgT). The presence of JC virus or BK virus were confirmed by two other PCR assays using sets of primers complementary to the VP1 gene of each virus. Analysis of the data was performed by the Kruskal-Wallis test for numerical data and Pearson or Yates for categorical variables.
A total of 75 patients were included in the study. The overall prevalence of polyomavirus DNA urinary shedding was 67/75 (89.3%). Only BKV DNA was detected in 14/75 (18.7%) urine samples, and only JCV DNA was detected in 11/75 (14.7%) samples. Both BKV and JCV DNA were present in 42/75 (56.0%) samples.
In this study we found high rates of excretion of JCV, BKV, and simultaneous excretion in HIV+ patients. Also these results differ from the others available on the literature.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 08/2012; 54(4):201-5. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal cell counts for associations with in-hospital outcomes of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Ninety-eight HIV-infected adult patients with CSF culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis were admitted between January 2006 and June 2008 at a referral center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cryptococcal meningitis was the first AIDS-defining illness in 69%, of whom 97% (95/98) had known prior HIV infection. The median CD4+ T-cell count was 39 cells/μL (interquartile range 17-87 cells/μL). Prior antiretroviral therapy was reported in 50%. Failure to sterilize the CSF by 7-14 days was associated with baseline fungal burden of ≥ 10 yeasts/μL by quantitative CSF microscopy (odds ratio [OR] = 15.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1-56.7; P < 0.001) and positive blood cultures (OR = 11.5, 95% CI 1.2-109; P = 0.034). At 7-14 days, ≥ 10 yeasts/μL CSF was associated with positive CSF cultures in 98% versus 36% with <10 yeasts/μL CSF (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was 30% and was associated with symptoms duration for >14 days, altered mental status (P < 0.001), CSF white blood cell counts <5 cells/μL (P = 0.027), intracranial hypertension (P = 0.011), viral loads >50,000 copies/mL (P = 0.036), ≥ 10 yeasts/μL CSF at 7-14 days (P = 0.038), and intracranial pressure >50 cmH(2)0 at 7-14 days (P = 0.007). In conclusion, most patients were aware of their HIV status. Fungal burden of ≥ 10 yeasts/μL by quantitative CSF microscopy predicted current CSF culture status and may be useful to customize the induction therapy. High uncontrolled intracranial pressure was associated with mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several presentations of neurologic complications caused by JC virus (JCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have been described and need to be distinguished from the "classic" form of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PMl). The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the spectrum and frequency of presentations of JCV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases; 2) identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality of patients with JCV-associated CNS disease; and 3) to estimate the overall mortality of this population.
This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients admitted consecutively for JCVassociated CNS diseases in a referral teaching center in São Paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2007. All patients with laboratory confirmed JCV-associated CNS diseases were included using the following criteria: compatible clinical and radiological features associated with the presence of JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PMl; 2) inflammatory PMl; and 3) JC virus granule cell neuronopathy (GCN).
We included 47 cases. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PMl: 42 (89%); 2) inflammatory PMl: three (6%); and 3) JC virus GCN: four (9%). Nosocomial pneumonia (p = 0.003), previous diagnosis of HIV infection (p = 0.03), and imaging showing cerebellar and/or brainstem involvement (p = 0.02) were associated with in-hospital mortality. overall mortality during hospitalization was 34%.
Novel presentations of JCV-associated CNS diseases were observed in our setting; nosocomial pneumonia, previous diagnosis of HIV infection, and cerebellar and/or brainstem involvement were associated with in-hospital mortality; and overall mortality was high.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 04/2012; 16(2):153-6. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects glial cells and causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We described a novel JCV-variant with a 10 bp deletion in the C terminus of the VP1 capsid protein, JCV(GCN1). This mutant was associated with lytic infection of cerebellar granule cell neurons and cerebellar atrophy in an human immunodeficiency virus/PML patient. This condition, also observed independently from PML, was named JCV granule cell neuronopathy (JCV GCN). We characterized JCV mutations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of four other JCV GCN patients, and reviewed the literature on 10 reported cases. The strain from one patient harboured the identical GCN1-deletion, while the other patients had novel mutations in the same area, named JCV(GCN2-4), causing variable changes in VP1 structure. One patient also had wild-type JCV in the CSF. To study the mechanisms leading to JCV GCN, we compared viral replication kinetics from JCV(GCN1) with the prototype JCV(Mad1), the PML isolate JCV(HWM) and the prototype JCV(Mad1D) engineered with the GCN1-deletion. While all strains replicated at low levels in the medulloblastoma cell line DAOY from a cerebellar neuronal tumour, JCV(Mad1) replicated better in astroglial SVG cells than JCV(Mad1D) or JCV(GCN1) and all strains replicated at higher levels in COS-7 kidney cells, suggesting that the GCN1-deletion confers a disadvantage for viral growth in central nervous system white matter. The GCN1-deletion remained stable after 100 days in culture and VP1 protein was produced in all cell lines, indicating that JCV(GCN1) is replication-competent in vitro. These data highlight an important and previously overlooked aspect of JCV-pathogenesis. Detection of GCN-type JCV strains in CSF may help clinicians diagnose JCV GCN.
Journal of General Virology 09/2011; 93(Pt 1):175-83. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurologic opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) are the majority of the circulating antigens in sera from hosts with acute toxoplasmosis, and their usefulness as antigens has been shown. This study considered whether it could find anti-ESA antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and whether these antibodies can be markers of active infection. Samples of CSF from 270 HIV-infected patients were analyzed and divided into 3 groups according to the presence or absence of active toxoplasmosis. Group I: 99 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis; group II: 112 patients with other opportunistic neurologic diseases and seropositive for toxoplasmosis; and group III: 59 patients with other opportunistic neurologic diseases and seronegative for toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii ESA and a crude tachyzoite antigen were used as antigens using ELISA and immunoblotting. The statistical analysis was done using the F test and unpaired Student's t test. Crude tachyzoite antigen: mean ELISA-relative values ± standard error for CSF of groups I and II were 7.0 ± 0.27 and 3.9 ± 0.19, respectively. Variance analysis revealed that results of both groups of patients were statistically different (1.80, P = 0.0025). The difference between the mean results was 3.0 ± 0.3, and the Student's t test value was 9.41 (P = 0.0001). Samples from groups I and II were reactive by immunoblotting, with similar intensities. In ESA-ELISA, the mean for group I was 9.0 ± 0.39. Group II showed a mean value of 2.7 ± 0.12. Both groups were statistically different (9.16, P < 0.001). However, in ESA, the difference between the mean results was higher (6.2 ± 0.39) and the Student's t test value was 16.04 (P < 0.0001). Similar results were shown in immunoblotting where a CSF sample from group I reacted well with ESA, and the sample from a group II patient failed to do so. The mean ELISA-relative value of the control group (group III) was 0.5 ± 0.09 for the first antigen and 0.4 ± 0.22 for the second. ESA-ELISA and/or immunoblotting of CSF samples can be used for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in association with clinical, serologic, and radiological information, thus providing a simple straightforward methodology, particularly suitable in countries with high prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in the general population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Brazil. In clinical practice, the initial diagnosis is usually presumptive and alternative diagnosis tools are necessary. Our objective was to evaluate whether the detection of high titers of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii and T. gondii DNA in blood samples are associated with the diagnosis of CT.
In this case-control study we included 192 patients with HIV-1 infection: 64 patients with presumptive CT (cases) and 128 patients with other diseases (controls). Blood samples to perform indirect immunofluorescense reaction (IFI) to detect anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were collected before or within the first three days of anti-Toxoplasma therapy. Two multivariate logistic regression models were performed: one including the variable qualitative serology and another including quantitative serology.
In the first model, positive IgG anti-T. gondii (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2-18.3; p = 0.027) and a positive T. gondii PCR result (OR 132, 95% CI 35-505; p < 0.001) were associated with the diagnosis. In the second model, IgG anti-T. gondii titres > 1:1024 (OR 7.6, 95% CI 2.3-25.1; p = 0.001) and a positive T. gondii PCR result (OR 147, 95% CI 35-613; p < 0.001) were associated with the diagnosis.
Quantitative serology and molecular diagnosis in peripheral blood samples were independently associated with the diagnosis of CT in HIV-infected patients. These diagnostic tools can contribute to a timely diagnosis of CT in settings where Toxoplasma infection is common in the general population.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 08/2011; 15(4):356-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii samples collected from 62 patients with toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. DNA samples were isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluids of 25 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS, two patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 12 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, six newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis and 17 pregnant women with acute infection. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was based in clinical, radiological and laboratory features. Genotyping was performed using multilocus PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, C22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Among the 62 clinical samples, 20 (32%) were successfully genotyped at eight or more genetic loci and were grouped to three distinct genotypes. Eighteen samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #65 and the other two samples were identified as ToxoDB Genotypes #6 and #71, respectively (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). Patients presenting Genotypes #6 and #71 had severe and atypical cerebral toxoplasmosis, characterized by diffuse encephalitis without extensive brain lesions. These results indicate that T. gondii Genotype #65 may have a high frequency in causing human toxoplasmosis in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This unusual finding highlights the need to investigate the possible association of parasite genotypes with human toxoplasmosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information about resistance profile of darunavir (DRV) is scarce in Brazil. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of DRV resistance mutations in patients failing protease inhibitors (PI) and to identify factors associated with having more DRV resistance mutations. All HIV-infected patients failing PI-based regimens with genotyping performed between 2007 and 2008 in a referral teaching center in São Paulo, Brazil, were included. DRV-specific resistance mutations listed by December 2008 IAS-USA panel update were considered. Two Poisson regression models were constructed to assess factors related to the presence of more DRV resistance mutations. A total of 171 HIV-infected patients with available genotyping were included. The number of patients with lopinavir, saquinavir, and amprenavir used in previous regimen were 130 (76%), 83 (49%), and 35 (20%), respectively. The prevalence of major DRV resistance mutations was 50V: 5%; 54M: 1%; 76V: 4%; 84V: 15%. For minor mutations, the rates were 11I: 3%; 32I: 7%; 33F: 23%; 47V: 6%; 54L: 6%; 74P: 3%; 89V: 6%. Only 11 (6%) of the genotypes had > 3 DRV resistance mutations. In the clinical model, time of HIV infection of > 10 years and use of amprenavir were independently associated with having more DRV resistance mutations. In the genotyping-based model, only total number of PI resistance mutations was associated with our outcome. In conclusion, the prevalence of DRV mutations was low. Time of HIV infection, use of amprenavir and total number of PI resistance mutations were associated with having more DRV mutations.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 06/2011; 15(3):245-8. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human polyomavirus JC is the causative agent of a deadly form of sudden onset dementia, progressive multifocal leukocoencephalopathy (PML). PML is highly prevalent in immunodeficient populations, specially those undergoing chemotherapy, immunosuppressive treatments for autoimmune conditions, and HIV-1/AIDS patients. In fact, before the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens became available, PML was a leading cause of death in HIV-1 seropositive individuals. However, patients under HAART show increased survival times with better prognoses. In this report we described the main differences between PML before and after the HAART era; highlighting the new patterns of presentation, the neurotropism of other human polyomaviruses, and the increased prevalence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), as a complication of PML in patients under HAART. Lastly, we propose a revised classification of human poliomavirus-associated cerebral disorders that may reflect more accurately what clinicians encounter in their everyday practice.
Pathology research international. 01/2011; 2011:562427.