[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by autoimmune-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration. The CNS of patients with MS harbors expanded clones of antigen-experienced B cells that reside in distinct compartments including the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and parenchyma. It is not understood whether this immune infiltrate initiates its development in the CNS or in peripheral tissues. B cells in the CSF can exchange with those in peripheral blood, implying that CNS B cells may have access to lymphoid tissue that may be the specific compartment(s) in which CNS-resident B cells encounter antigen and experience affinity maturation. Paired tissues were used to determine whether the B cells that populate the CNS mature in the draining cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire demonstrated that clonally expanded B cells were present in both compartments. Founding members of clones were more often found in the draining CLNs. More mature clonal members derived from these founders were observed in the draining CLNs and also in the CNS, including lesions. These data provide new evidence that B cells traffic freely across the tissue barrier, with the majority of B cell maturation occurring outside of the CNS in the secondary lymphoid tissue. Our study may aid in further defining the mechanisms of immunomodulatory therapies that either deplete circulating B cells or affect the intrathecal B cell compartment by inhibiting lymphocyte transmigration into the CNS.
Science translational medicine 08/2014; 6(248):248ra107. · 10.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are widely used in Europe for the treatment of psoriasis because of their clinical efficacy and favourable safety profile. However, the mechanisms of action by which FAE improve psoriasis remain largely unknown.Objectives
To identify pathways and mechanisms affected by FAE treatment and to compare these with pathways affected by treatment with the anti-TNF-α biologic etanercept.Methods
In a prospective cohort study, 50 patients with plaque psoriasis were treated with FAE for 20 weeks. Nine patients were randomly selected for gene expression profiling of plaque biopsies from week 0 and week 12. The groups consisted of FAE responders (>PASI-75 improvement) and non-responders (<PASI-50 improvement). Changes in gene expression profiles were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and the outcome was compared with gene expression affected by etanercept.ResultsResponse to FAE treatment was associated with a ≥2-fold change (P<0.05) in the expression of 458 genes. In FAE responders the ‘role of IL17A in psoriasis’ pathway was most significantly activated. Glutathione and Nrf2 pathway molecules were specifically induced by FAE treatment and not by etanercept treatment, representing a FAE specific effect in psoriatic skin. In addition, FAE treatment specifically induced the transcription factors PTTG1, NR3C1, GATA3 and NFκBIZ in responding patients.ConclusionsFAE treatment induces glutathione and Nrf2 pathway genes in lesional skin of patients with psoriasis. In responders FAE specifically regulates the transcription factors PTTG1, NR3C1, GATA3 and NFκBIZ, which are important in normal cutaneous development, Th2 and Th17 pathways, respectively.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
British Journal of Dermatology 05/2014; · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depleting mAbs against the pan B cell marker CD20 are remarkably effective in the treatment of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The primary objective of this study was to find a mechanistic explanation for the remarkable clinical effect of the anti-CD20 mAbs in a representative nonhuman primate autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disorder model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in common marmosets, allowing detailed analysis of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). We observed that the depletion of CD20(+) B cells creates a less immunostimulatory environment in the SLO reflected by reduced expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD83, and CD80/CD86. APCs isolated from SLO of B cell-depleted EAE monkeys were also less responsive to mitogenic stimulation. The depleted B cell areas were replenished by T cells, of which the majority expressed CD127 (IL-7R) and CCR7. Such effects were not detected in EAE marmosets treated with mAb against BLyS or APRIL, where B cell depletion via withdrawal of essential survival cytokines was not associated with a marked clinical effect. We propose that at least part of the efficacy of anti-CD20 mAb therapy is attributable to the sustained CCR7 expression on T cells within SLO, limiting their release into the circulation.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with reduced function, degenerative changes, and increased neuroinflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests that changes in microglia cells contribute to the age-related deterioration of the CNS. The most prominent age-related change of microglia is enhanced sensitivity to inflammatory stimuli, referred to as priming. It is unclear if priming is due to intrinsic microglia ageing or induced by the ageing neural environment. We have studied this in Ercc1 mutant mice, a DNA repair-deficient mouse model that displays features of accelerated aging in multiple tissues including the CNS. In Ercc1 mutant mice, microglia showed hallmark features of priming such as an exaggerated response to peripheral lipopolysaccharide exposure in terms of cytokine expression and phagocytosis. Specific targeting of the Ercc1 deletion to forebrain neurons resulted in a progressive priming response in microglia exemplified by phenotypic alterations. Summarizing, these data show that neuronal genotoxic stress is sufficient to switch microglia from a resting to a primed state.
Neurobiology of aging 03/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis and often precedes development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a life-threatening paralytic disease. The incorporation of the carbohydrate sialic acid into C. jejuni lipooligosaccharides (LOS) is associated with increased severity of gastroenteritis and with induction of GBS; however, the underlying mechanisms remain completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that sialic acids in C. jejuni endotoxin enhance the rapid production of IFN-β and TNF-α by human dendritic cells (DCs). Using neutralizing Abs and receptors it was shown that these DC-derived cytokines promote the proliferation of human mucosal B cells in a T cell-independent manner. The production of both IFN-β and TNF-α by DCs in response to LOS requires CD14, and the amplified response of DCs to sialylated C. jejuni LOS is CD14 dependent. Together, these results indicate that sialylation of C. jejuni LOS increases DC activation and promotes subsequent B cell responses through CD14-driven production of IFN-β and TNF-α. This enhanced DC/B cell response may explain the increased pathogenicity of sialylated C. jejuni and may be key to the initiation of B cell-mediated autoimmunity in GBS.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of eicosanoid pathways is critical to the inflammatory and immune responses that are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Yet, the signals that regulate these pathways are poorly understood. Here, we address whether the innate immune signals of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD) 2 affect eicosanoids metabolism in atherosclerosis.
Analysis of human carotid plaques revealed that NOD2 was abundantly expressed at both mRNA and protein level by endothelial cells and macrophages. Stimulation of NOD2 in ex vivo-cultured carotid plaques by muramyl dipeptide, an extrinsic ligand of NOD2, led to release of prostaglandin E2, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, and to downregulation of cyclooxygenase-1. NOD2 was coexpressed with cyclooxygenase-2 in lesional macrophages. NOD2-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages was dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and was mediated by interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. Selective lipidomic analysis of the eicosanoids released by the carotid plaques characterized the metabolites of 12-, 5-, and 15-lipoxygenase as the predominant eicosanoids that were produced by the atherosclerotic lesion in the absence of additional stimuli. Unlike the prostaglandin E2 pathway, metabolic activity of the lipoxygenase pathways was not altered on the short-term activation of NOD2 in carotid plaques.
These results suggest that atherosclerosis may involve enhanced NOD2-mediated innate immunity. Activation of NOD2 preferentially upregulates the prostaglandin E2 pathway. Nevertheless, lipoxygenase pathways, such as 12-lipoxygenase, predominate the basal synthesis and metabolism of eicosanoids in atherosclerotic plaques. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of eicosanoids in atherosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) model is used for preclinical research into the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), mostly in inbred, specific pathogen free (SPF)-raised laboratory mice. However, the naive state of the laboratory mouse immune system is considered a major hurdle in the translation of principles from the EAE model to the MS patient. Non-human primates (NHP) have an immune system harboring T- and B-cell memory against environmental antigens, similar as in humans. We sought to further refine existing NHP EAE models, which may help to bridge the gab between mouse EAE models and MS. We report here on new EAE models in three NHP species: rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). EAE was induced with recombinant human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein extracellular domain (1-125) (rhMOG) formulated in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). IFA lacks the bacterial antigens that are present in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), which are notorious for the induction of discomforting side effects. Clinically evident EAE could be induced in two out of five rhesus monkeys, six out of six cynomolgus monkeys and six out of six common marmosets. In each of these species, the presence of an early, high anti-rhMOG IgM response is correlated with EAE with an earlier onset and more severe disease course. Animals without an early high IgM response either did not develop disease (rhesus monkeys) or developed only mild signs of neurological deficit (marmoset and cynomolgus monkeys).
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 07/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD44 variant (CD44(v)) isoforms play important roles in the development of autoimmune disorders, including colitis and arthritis, but their role in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been explored only to a limited extent. We determined the functional relevance of CD44(v) isoforms in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Genetic ablation of CD44(v7) and CD44(v10) isoforms significantly reduced the clinical EAE burden, as well as the number of inflammatory infiltrates. CD44(v7) and CD44(v10) expression on both memory T and antigen-presenting cells, participated in the development of adoptive transfer EAE. Significantly reduced mRNA expression of Th1 signature genes was detected in the brains of CD44(v10-/-) mice compared with those of CD44(WT) mice. Furthermore, forkhead transcription factor 3 (Foxp3), Bcl-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were reduced in CD44(v10-/-) brains, whereas active caspase-3 was elevated. Brain-infiltrating CD4(hi)CD44(v10+) T cells preceded EAE onset and paralleled disease severity in wild-type but not in CD44(v7-/-) and CD44(v10-/-) mice. CD44(v7) and CD44(v10) expression contributed to EAE by increasing the longevity of autoreactive CD4(hi)panCD44(hi) T cells. Accordingly, the absence of CD44(v7) and CD44(v10) led to increased apoptosis in the inflammatory infiltrates and reduced Th1 responses, resulting in marked disease reduction. Although absent in noninflamed human brains, we detected CD44(v3), CD44(v7), and CD44(v10) isoforms on glial cells and on perivascular infiltrating cells of MS lesions. We conclude that CD44(v7) and CD44(v10), expressed on autoreactive CD4(hi)panCD44(hi) T cells, are critically involved in the pathogenesis of classic EAE by increasing their life span. Targeting these short CD44(v) isoform regions may reduce inflammatory processes and clinical symptoms in MS.-Ghazi-Visser, L., Laman, J. D., Nagel, S., van Meurs, M., van Riel, D., Tzankov, A., Frank, S., Adams, H., Wolk, K., Terracciano, L., Melief, M.-J., Sabat, R., Günthert, U. CD44 variant isoforms control experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by affecting the lifespan of the pathogenic T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the absence of conventional lymphatics, there is efficient drainage of both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) from the CNS to regional lymph nodes. CSF drains from the subarachnoid space by channels that pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to the nasal mucosa and cervical lymph nodes in animals and in humans; antigen presenting cells (APC) migrate along this pathway to lymph nodes. ISF and solutes drain from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes by a separate route along 100-150 nm wide basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries. This pathway is too narrow for the migration of APC so it is unlikely that APC traffic directly from brain parenchyma to lymph nodes by this route. We present a model for the pivotal involvement of regional lymph nodes in immunological reactions of the CNS. The role of regional lymph nodes in immune reactions of the CNS in virus infections, the remote influence of the gut microbiota, multiple sclerosis and stroke are discussed. Evidence is presented for the role of cervical lymph nodes in the induction of tolerance and its influence on neuroimmunological reactions. We look to the future by examining how nanoparticle technology will enhance our understanding of CNS-lymph node connections and by reviewing the implications of lymphatic drainage of the brain for diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the CNS ranging from neuroimmunological disorders to dementias. Finally, we review the challenges and opportunities for progress in CNS-lymph node interactions and their involvement in disease processes.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 05/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The robust and rapid clinical effect of depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrates a critical pathogenic contribution of B cells. The clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb has been replicated in a relevant preclinical MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). By contrast, treatment with mAbs against two essential cytokines in B cell activation growth and survival, i.e. BlyS/BAFF and APRIL, was only partially effective. All three mAbs induced depletion of CD20+ B cells from the circulation, albeit with different kinetics and based on distinct mechanisms of action. In the current study we analyzed whether the different clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb or the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL mAbs is due to different depletion of B cells infected with the EBV of marmosets, CalHV3. Employing a novel PCR-based assay, half of the colony of group-housed marmosets was tested positive for CalHV3 DNA in secondary lymphoid organs. The same prevalence was observed in placebo-treated monkeys. In marmosets treated with anti-CD20 mAb the load of CalHV3 DNA in lymphoid organs was substantially reduced, while this was not observed in the monkeys treated with anti-BLyS or anti-APRIL mAbs. To examine the pathogenic role of virus-transformed B cells, we infused EBV-transformed B lymphoblastic cell (BLC) lines presenting the immunodominant MOG34-56 peptide. We observed in the recipients of MOG34-56 pulsed BLC, but not in their fraternal siblings infused with non-pulsed BLC, activation of anti-MOG34-56 T cells and meningeal inflammation. Collectively, the data show that among CD20+ B cells, the herpesvirus-transformed subset has a particularly important pathogenic role in the marmoset EAE model.
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 03/2013; · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections are frequently associated with bacteraemia. To support clinical decisions on antibiotic therapy, there is an urgent need for reliable markers as predictors of infection outcome. In the present study in mice, bacteraemia was established by intravenous inoculation of a clinical S. aureus isolate at the LD50 inoculum. As potential biomarkers for fatal outcome, blood culture (qualitative and quantitative), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as 31 selected cytokines and chemokines were assessed during the first three days of infection. A positive S. aureus blood culture, the quantitative blood culture, CRP levels, and levels of eight cytokines were indicative for the presence of S. aureus bacteraemia. However, only tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL) 1α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC; a functional homologue of human IL-8) were each significantly elevated in eventually non-surviving infected mice versus eventually surviving infected mice. In severe S. aureus bacteraemia in mice, TNF-α, IL-1α, and KC are biomarkers predicting fatal outcome of infection. KC was a biomarker elevated irrespective the progression of infection, which is very interesting regarding clinical application in view of the heterogeneity of patients experiencing bacteraemia in this respect.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59107. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The remarkable clinical efficacy of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis points at the critical involvement of B cells in the disease. However, the exact pathogenic contribution of B cells is poorly understood. In this publication we review new data on the role of CD20+ B cells in a unique experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied neotropical primate. We will also discuss the relevance of these data for MS. Different from rodent EAE models, but similar to MS, disease progression in marmosets can develop independent of autoantibodies. Progressive disease is mediated by MHC class Ib (Caja-E) restricted cytotoxic T cells, which are activated by γ-herpesvirus-infected B cells and cause widespread demyelination of cortical gray matter. B-cell directed monoclonal antibody therapies (anti-CD20 versus anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL) have a variable effect on EAE progression, which we found associated with variable depletion of the Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-like γ-herpesvirus CalHV3 from lymphoid organs. These findings support an important pathogenic role of CD20+ B cell in MS, especially of the subset infected with EBV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Ustekinumab is a fully human anti-p40 mAb which neutralizes IL-12 and IL-23, thereby interfering with Th1/Th17 pathways and keratinocyte activation, and is highly effective in psoriasis. During ustekinumab treatment, some of our patients noticed reduced koebnerisation of non-involved skin and less new plaque formation. Objectives: To determine whether ustekinumab improves psoriasis-related gene expression and tape-strip responses in non-involved skin. Methods: Before and 4 weeks after ustekinumab treatment, non-involved skin was tape-stripped. After 5 h, biopsies were taken from untouched and tape-stripped skin. The mRNA expression of psoriasis-related markers such as NGF, GATA3 and IL-22RA1, and several antimicrobial peptides (AMP) was quantified. Leukocyte counts and a broad range of inflammatory serum proteins were analysed to get insight into the systemic alterations. Results: 4 Weeks following a single ustekinumab injection, NGF showed a significant decrease, whereas GATA3 and IL-22RA1 expression increased, indicative of reduced responsiveness to epidermal triggering. This was accompanied by an increase of the inflammation-related serum proteins GPNMB, MST1 and TRADD. The baseline and the tape-strip-induced mRNA expression of the AMP human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2), S100A7 and LL-37 remained unaltered. Clinically, after 4 weeks, 8 out of 11 patients showed a 50% PASI improvement, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in serum hBD-2 levels. No changes were noted in total leucocytes, CRP, and sedimentation rate. Conclusions: These findings indicate that ustekinumab reduces psoriasis-related gene expression in non-involved psoriatic skin, making it more resistant to exogenous triggering, without disturbing its antimicrobial response. In parallel, ustekinumab modulates important circulating inflammation-related proteins.
British Journal of Dermatology 12/2012; · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme which can neutralize endotoxin as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an endogenous danger signal released during brain injury. In this study we assessed a potential therapeutic role for AP in inhibiting neuroinflammation using three complementary approaches. METHODS: Mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and treated with AP for seven days during different phases of disease. In addition, serological assays to determine AP activity, endotoxin levels and endotoxin-reactive antibodies were performed in a cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. Finally, the expression of AP and related enzymes CD39 and CD73 was investigated in brain tissue from MS patients and control subjects. RESULTS: AP administration during the priming phase, but not during later stages, of EAE significantly reduced neurological signs. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation of splenocytes to the immunogen, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide. In MS patients, AP activity and isoenzyme distribution were similar to controls. Although endotoxin-reactive IgM was reduced in primary-progressive MS patients, plasma endotoxin levels were not different between groups. Finally, unlike AP and CD73, CD39 was highly upregulated on microglia in white matter lesions of patients with MS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that: 1) pre-symptomatic AP treatment reduces neurological signs of EAE; 2) MS patients do not have altered circulating levels of AP or endotoxin; and 3) the expression of the AP-like enzyme CD39 is increased on microglia in white matter lesions of MS patients.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 12/2012; 9(1):266. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transanal advancement flap repair has been advocated as the treatment of choice for high transsphincteric perianal fistulas, but fails in 1 of every 3 patients. Persistence of the fistula after flap repair might be the result of ongoing disease in the remaining fistula tract. In 10 specimens of the distal part of the fistula, microbiota was assessed by means of conventional microbiological culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Proinflammatory bacterial peptidoglycan and recognition proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Bacterial species were bowel derived, skin derived, or a combination of both. No mycobacterium species were identified. 16S rRNA gene sequencing failed to identify bacteria in all but 1 specimen, most likely as a result of low numbers of organisms. Peptidoglycan was detected in 90% of the patients, and a host response to peptidoglycan in 60%. Therefore, we suggest that peptidoglycan might play a role in the ongoing inflammation in perianal fistulas.
Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 10/2012; · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms (single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)) in the interleukin-7 receptor-α (IL-7Rα)/IL-7 pathway are associated with an increased risk to develop multiple sclerosis (MS). The rs6897932 SNP in the IL-7Rα leads to increased soluble IL-7Rα production. Given the functional interaction between sIL-7Rα, membrane-bound IL-7Rα and IL-7, we assessed IL-7, mIL-7Rα and sIL-7Rα levels in MS patients and healthy controls (HCs). One-hundred and twenty eight MS patients had significantly lower sIL-7Rα levels compared with 73 HCs. The levels of sIL-7Rα increased dose-dependent upon rs6897932 [C] risk allele carriership in both HCs and MS. Next, we hypothesized that lower sIL-7Rα could result in a higher mIL-7Rα to soluble IL-7Rα ratio. Indeed, 52 MS patients had significantly increased mIL-7Rα to sIL-7Rα ratio for both CD4 and CD8 T cells compared with 44 HCs. Given the supposed role of IL-7 in autoimmunity, we determined whether sIL-7Rα influences IL-7 levels. IL-7 levels were significantly decreased in 40 MS patients compared with 40 HCs. In conclusion, MS patients had lower free IL-7 and a higher membrane to soluble IL-7Rα ratio. The soluble IL-7Rα levels correlate with the rs6897932 [C] risk allele carriership. The skew at the IL-7 and IL-7Rα level may influence responsiveness of IL-7Rα(+) cells.
Genes and immunity 08/2012; 13(7):587-92. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is still enigmatic, and a valid animal model for HS is currently not available. The recent discovery of γ-secretase mutations in a subpopulation of patients with HS suggested γ-secretase transgenic mice as a model for HS pathogenesis. However, the discrepancies between human HS and these mice are daunting. We critically review cases of animal HS and transgenic γ-secretase mouse models for HS and discuss the criteria which should be met for a representative pathogenic model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD20-positive B-cell depletion is a highly promising treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), but the mechanisms underlying therapeutic effects are poorly understood. B cells are thought to contribute to MS pathogenesis by producing autoantibodies that amplify demyelination via opsonization of myelin. To analyze autoantibody-nondependent functions of B cells in an animal model of MS, we used a novel T cell-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). In this model, demyelination of brain and spinal cord white and gray matter and the ensuing neurological deficits are induced by immunization with peptide 34 to 56 of myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG34-56) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Although autoantibodies do not have a detectable pathogeniccontribution in the model, depletion of B cells with monoclonal antibody 7D8, a human IgG1κ monoclonal antibody against human CD20, suppressed clinical and pathological EAE. In B cell-depleted monkeys, the activation of peptide-specific Th17-producing and cytotoxic T cells, which in previous studies were found to play an essential role in disease induction, was impaired. Thus, we demonstrate a critical antibody-nondependent role for B cells in EAE, that is, the activation of pathogenic T cells.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 07/2012; 71(8):716-28. · 4.35 Impact Factor