[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A during a recent outbreak in Korea. Data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2007 to 2009 were collected from 21 tertiary hospitals retrospectively. Their demographic, clinical, and serological characteristics and their clinical outcomes were analyzed. A total of 4,218 patients (mean age 33.3 yr) were included. The median duration of admission was 9 days. The mean of the highest ALT level was 2,963 IU/L, total bilirubin was 7.3 mg/dL, prothrombin time INR was 1.3. HBsAg was positive in 3.7%, and anti-HCV positive in 0.7%. Renal insufficiency occurred in 2.7%, hepatic failure in 0.9%, relapsing hepatitis in 0.7%, and cholestatic hepatitis in 1.9% of the patients. Nineteen patients (0.45%) died or were transplanted. Complications of renal failure or prolonged cholestasis were more frequent in patients older than 30 yr. In conclusion, most patients with acute hepatitis A recover uneventfully, however, complication rates are higher in patients older than 30 yr than younger patients. Preventive strategies including universal vaccination in infants and active immunization of hepatitis A to adult population should be considered for prevention of community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea.
Journal of Korean medical science 02/2014; 29(2):248-53. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data regarding the management of adefovir (ADV) resistance are still limited. The aim of this study is to investigate treatment outcomes of rescue therapy in ADV-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
CHB patients who began rescue therapy due to documented genotypic resistance mutations to ADV between October 2006 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.
Sixty-three patients were included in this study. Most patients had history of lamivudine (LAM) resistance. Treatment response was evaluated at 3-month intervals up to 12 months. The cumulative rate of complete virologic response (CVR) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients (HBV DNA<60 IU/mL) was 15.9%, 27.2%, 28.9%, and 31.7% after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of rescue therapy. Thirty-five patients were treated with a combination of LAM plus ADV (LAM+ADV group) and 28 patients were treated with entecavir (ETV)-based therapy (ETV with or without ADV therapy, ETV±ADV group). The cumulative CVR rate was significantly higher in the ETV±ADV group than in the LAM+ADV group at month 12 (46.4% vs. 20.6%, respectively, P=0.040). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment serum HBV DNA levels at <6 log10 IU/mL (hazard ratio: 34.109, P=0.001) and type of rescue therapy (hazard ratio: 4.944, P=0.036) were associated with CVR.
Lower baseline HBV DNA level and ETV±ADV therapy were the important predictive factors for CVR in ADV-resistant CHB patients. This study suggests the need of early switching to a rescue therapy such as ETV±ADV at the time of low-level viremia.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based treatment in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who failed previous antiviral therapies.
Seventeen patients who failed to achieve virological responses during sequential antiviral treatments were included. The patients were treated with TDF monotherapy (four patients) or a combination of TDF and lamivudine (13 patients) for a median of 42 months. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured, and renal function was also monitored.
Prior to TDF therapy, 180 M, 204 I/V/S, 181 T/V, 236 T, and 184 L mutations were detected. After TDF therapy, the median HBV DNA level decreased from 4.6 log10 IU/mL to 2.0 log10 IU/mL and to 1.6 log10 IU/mL at 12 and 24 months, respectively. HBV DNA became undetectable (≤20 IU/mL) in 14.3%, 41.7%, and 100% of patients after 12, 24, and 48 months of treatment, respectively. HBeAg loss was observed in two patients. Viral breakthrough occurred in five patients who had skipped their medication. No significant changes in renal function were observed.
TDF-based rescue treatment is effective in reducing HBV DNA levels and is safe for patients with CHB who failed prior antiviral treatments. Patients' adherence to medication is related to viral rebound.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with liver cirrhosis, drugs acting on the central nervous system can lead to hepatic encephalopathy and the effects may be prolonged. Recently, misuse of propofol has been reported and the associated risk of death have become an issue. Propofol is commonly used during sedative endoscopy; therefore, its safety in high-risk groups must be further investigated. We performed a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of propofol during endoscopy in Korean patients with cirrhosis.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed under sedation with propofol along with careful monitoring in 20 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 control subjects. The presence or development of hepatic encephalopathy was assessed using the number connection test and neurologic examination.
Neither respiratory depression nor clinically significant hypotension were observed. Immediate postanesthetic recovery at 5 and 10 minutes after the procedure was delayed in the cirrhotic patients compared with the control group; however, at 30 minutes, the postanesthetic recovery was similar in both groups. Baseline psychomotor performance was more impaired in cirrhotic patients, but propofol was not associated with deteriorated psychomotor function even in cirrhotic patients with a minimal hepatic encephalopathy.
Sedation with propofol was well tolerated in cirrhotic patients. No newly developed hepatic encephalopathy was observed.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2014; 29(1):57-65.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NS-398, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, both exert an anticancer effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells, but the effect of co-administration of the 2 drugs remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the synergistic in vitro anticancer effect of co-administration of NS-398 and simvastatin and its mechanism.
The Hep3B and Huh-7 cell lines were cultured. Cells were treated with simvastatin, NS-398, or a combination. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine ELISA assay, flow cytometry, Western blot analyses, and immunofluorescence assay were performed.
In both cell lines, co-administration of simvastatin and NS-398 resulted in a greater effect on proliferation and apoptosis. In Hep3B cells, co-administration of the 2 drugs resulted in a greater decrease in procaspase 3 and Bcl-2 and increase in cleaved caspase 9 than that noted with monotherapy. In Huh-7 cells, co-administration of the 2 drugs resulted in a greater decrease in procaspase 3 and cyclin D1 and increase in cleaved caspase 9. Expression of NF-κB and Akt were also decreased to a greater extent when the 2 drugs were co-administered in both cell lines. Immunofluorescence assay showed suppression of the nuclear localization of NF-κB by simvastatin or NS-398. The effect was greater by co-administration.
The co-administration of NS-398 and simvastatin produced greater anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects against Hep3B cells and Huh-7 cells. Inhibition of the NF-κB and Akt pathway and activation of caspase cascade, which are considered as the major mechanism of synergistic anti-cancer properties, were observed in both cell lines.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of sorafenib with those of systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Sorafenib treatment has shown to improve the survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when compared with placebo. However, whether sorafenib controls advanced-stage HCC better than systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy has not been elucidated.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 220 patients with measurable advanced HCC who had not received systemic treatment previously between January 2007 and April 2012. Among these patients, 78 had been treated with sorafenib. Another 14 patients who were treated with a 4-weekly regimen of adriamycin, cisplatin, and capecitabine were included as the historical control group for comparison. The median overall survival, the progression-free survival, response rates, and safety profiles were evaluated.
Baseline characteristics were similar between the treatment groups. The median overall survival was 7.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.6-8.8] in the sorafenib group and 11.2 months (95% CI, 8.1-14.2) in the cytotoxic chemotherapy group (P=0.10). The median progression-free survival was 3.2 months (95% CI, 2.2-4.3) in the sorafenib group and 5.9 months (95% CI, 3.6-8.2) in the cytotoxic chemotherapy group (P=0.07). The deterioration of liver function and neutropenia were the most frequent serious adverse events in the sorafenib and the systemic chemotherapy group.
Although a direct head-to-head comparison could not be done, there were some patients who showed a good response to systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy. Further assessment is necessary to study the role of chemotherapy in patients who are intolerant or intractable to sorafenib.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The genotypic shift of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and its correlation with clinical course has not been evaluated in acute hepatitis A (AHA). Methods: From June 2007 to May 2009, we prospectively enrolled 546 AHA patients. We performed a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the serum samples in addition to phylogenetic analysis, then we compared patient clinical features. Results: Among 351 successfully genotyped patients, we found genotype IIIA in 178 patients (51%) and IA in 173 patients (49%). The sequences of genotype IA are identical to previously reported Korean genotype IA, and the new IIIA genotype is closely related to NOR24/Norway. We retrospectively analyzed 41 AHA samples collected from 2000 to 2006 and found that all of them were genotype IA. Patients with genotype IIIA showed significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, and lower platelet counts than patients with genotype IA when comparing baseline laboratory data or peak/lowest laboratory data during the disease course. However, there were no differences in duration of hospital stay, incidence of cholestatic hepatitis, acute kidney injury, and acute liver failure, or mortality between them. Conclusions: A genotypic shift of the HAV was identified in Korean AHA subjects, and genotype IIIA HAV has become endemic. Although there were significant differences in the biochemical responses of AHA between genotype IA and genotype IIIA patients, we did not detect any differences in clinical outcomes such as complications or mortality.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is an established palliative treatment for malignant stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, its application to benign stenosis is expected to be beneficial because of the more gradual and sustained dilatation in the stenotic portion. We aimed in this prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of temporary SEMS placement in benign pyloric stenosis.
Twenty-two patients with benign stenosis of the prepylorus, pylorus, and duodenal bulb were enrolled and underwent SEMS placement. We assessed symptom improvement, defined as an increase of at least 1 degree in the gastric-outlet-obstruction scoring system after stent insertion.
No major complications were observed during the procedures. After stent placement, early symptom improvement was achieved in 18 of 22 patients (81.8%). During the follow-up period (mean 10.2 months), the stents remained in place successfully for 6 to 8 weeks in seven patients (31.8%). Among the 15 patients (62.5%) with stent migration, seven (46.6%) showed continued symptomatic improvement without recurrence of obstructive symptoms.
Despite the symptomatic improvement, temporary SEMS placement is premature as an effective therapeutic tool for benign pyloric stenosis unless a novel stent is developed to prevent migration.
Gut and liver 07/2013; 7(4):417-22. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies revealed that long-term intake of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) increases the risk of vertebral or hip fracture; however, the exact mechanism for this is not known. To evaluate the effect of long-term PPI therapy on bone turnover, we analyzed the signaling pathway involved in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption/formation markers using ovariectomized rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats were ovariectomized, and two weeks later they were divided into four groups (group A, normal diet + placebo; group B, low calcium diet + placebo; group C, normal diet + PPI; and group D, low calcium diet + PPI). Omeprazole, at a concentration of 30 mg/kg, was administered orally for eight weeks and the rats were sacrificed when they were 16 weeks old. The relative expression levels of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio, c-Fos, nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and osteocalcin in femoral bone marrow cells were compared, and serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I (CTX-1) levels were determined. The relative ratio of RANKL/OPG was increased in group D, and gene expression levels of c-Fos and NFATc1 were upregulated in groups B and D, which are involved in differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Furthermore, expression levels of osteocalcin, a bone formation marker, were decreased and levels of serum CTX-1, a bone resorption marker, were increased in group D. Taken together, a low calcium diet and PPI administration are thought to collaborate in order to alter osteoclast activity and bone resorption signaling.
Molecular Medicine Reports 04/2013; 7(4):1267-72. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Genetic variations in interleukin 28B (IL28B) have been strongly associated with a sustained virological response (SVR) in European and African-American patients. Genetic variation of IL28B was investigated in healthy controls and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, and the treatment response in the CHC patients was analyzed according to IL28B polymorphism in the Korean population. METHODS:: IL28B polymorphisms (rs12979860 and rs8099917) were studied in 200 healthy controls and in 167 CHC patients who were treated with peginterferon-α and ribavirin. RESULTS:: The prevalence of rs12979860 in healthy controls is as follows: the CC-genotype was 88.5%, the CT-genotype was 11.5%, and the TT-genotype was not found. The prevalence of rs8099917 in healthy controls is as follows: the TT-genotype was 89.5%, the TG-genotype was 10.5%, and the GG-genotype was not found. The CC-genotype of rs12979860 and the TT-genotype of rs8099917 were found to be closely related (linkage disequilibrium; D'=1.0, χ=0.9082). In 106 CHC patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin, the SVR was 67.2% (n=58) for 1b, 91.6% (n=47) for 2a. In hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b with respect to rs12979860, the SVR in CC-genotype was 72.9% and that in CT-genotype was 40.0%. On investigating predictive factors for SVR, pretreatment low-HCV RNA levels, HCV genotype non-1, early virological response, and also the IL28B CC-genotype for rs12979860 were good indicators of an SVR. CONCLUSIONS:: In Korea, genetic variation of IL28B is different from that in western countries in view of high prevalence of rs12979860 CC-genotype. It seems likely that a high SVR in Korean patients with genotype 1 CHC patients is due to the genetic polymorphism in IL28B.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 02/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recently, new methods, including the concept of viable enhancing tumor such as EASL and mRECIST, have been proposed for substitution of the conventional WHO and RECIST criteria in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Herein, we evaluated the differences of four methods and compared the association of these methods with the prognosis of HCC patients undergoing TACE. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 114 consecutive newly diagnosed HCC patients and underwent TACE as initial treatment. We evaluated the intermethod agreement (κ values) between the methods and compared their association with the prognosis of HCC patients. RESULTS: The κ values for EASL vs. WHO, EASL vs. RECIST, mRECIST vs. WHO, and mRECIST vs. RECIST were low of 0.102, 0.088, 0.112 and 0.122, respectively. However, good correlations were observed for WHO vs. RECIST and EASL vs. mRECIST (κ =0.883, κ =0.759, respectively p<0.001). The median OS was 32.3 months. Hazard ratios for survival in responders compared with nonresponders were 0.21 (95% CI; 0.12-0.37, p<0.001) for EASL and 0.27 (95% CI; 0.15-0.48, p<0.001) for mRECIST. The mean survival of responders was significantly longer than nonresponders in both EASL (40.8 vs. 16.9 months, p<0.001) and mRECIST (41.1 vs. 20.7 months, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, EASL response (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.40, p<0.001) and mRECIST response (HR; 0.31, 95% CI, 0.17-0.59, p<0.001) were independently associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: The response assessment by EASL and mRECIST could reliably predict the survival of HCC patients undergoing TACE and could be applicable in practice with preference to the conventional WHO and RECIST criteria.
Journal of Hepatology 02/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prescribers, payors and healthcare decision-makers are increasingly examining the value of treatments. This study aims at analyzing economic value of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment options, which are available in Korea.
CHB infection was simulated using a health-state transition model with disease states defined as mild disease (Ishak F0/F1), fibrosis (F2/F3/F4), advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis (>F4), and complicated disease states (decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplant and death) based on available natural history data. The value of treatment-specific attributes on disease progression/regression was estimated based on published data in terms of events and costs avoided. 5-year treatment duration was assumed except for treatment initiation. Primary model output is the estimated cost savings of entecavir per patient per day of treatment versus the comparator in question for a given CHB patient.
The simulation of treating with entecavir versus no treatment predicted improved clinical outcomes for entecavir-treatment patients. In the long term, these clinical benefits translate into cost savings of $3.10 per day of treatment. In naive patient treatment, daily cost savings of using entecavir versus lamivudine or telbivudine was estimated at $2.89 and $1.72, respectively. In the case of suboptimal responders who pre-treated with lamivudine, daily cost saving for patients switching to entecavir was $1.38 per day of treatment compared to patients maintaining on lamivudine.
Entecavir exhibits characteristics of a favourable CHB treatment, which directly translates into economic and therapeutic value as opposed to either no treatment or alternative strategies.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e57900. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: As a rare liver disease, little is known about autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). This study investigated the clinical features and compared two diagnostic criteria of AIH in Korea. METHODS: A nationwide, multicenter, retrospective analysis was done of data of adult patients diagnosed with AIH from January 2005 to December 2009. RESULTS: The enrolled patients (n=343; mean age, 52.8 years; range, 19-87 years; 12% male, 88% female) met diagnostic criteria of AIH according to the revised original criteria (n=311) or the simplified criteria (n=250). At diagnosis, 30.6% were asymptomatic, 22.7% were cirrhotic, and 4.3% displayed hepatic decompensation. The positive results for anti-nuclear antibody, smooth muscle antibody, and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody were 94.2%, 23.0%, and 2.9%, respectively. Definite AIH and probable AIH according to the revised original criteria were 24.8% and 65.6%, respectively, while those according to the simplified criteria were 34.4% and 38.5%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and positive predictive value of simplified criteria in comparison with the revised original criteria were 69.9% and 86.4%, respectively. As an initial therapy, corticosteroid (37.7%) or corticosteroid with azathioprine (36.8%) was administered. Remission, incomplete response, and treatment failure were noted with 85.7%, 10.5%, and 3.9% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AIH in Korea is mostly type I, showing a mean age of 53 years with comparable clinical features to other countries. The concordant rate of the two diagnostic criteria was rather low with modest sensitivity of the simplified criteria. Further studies on the validation of the diagnostic criteria are warranted.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2012; · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Necrotizing pancreatitis is one of the rare complications of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Necrotizing pancreatitis after TACE may result from the development of ischemia caused by regurgitation of embolic materials into the vessels supplying the pancreas. We report a case of post-TACE necrotizing pancreatitis with abscess formation in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had suffered hepatic artery injury due to repetitive TACE; during his 25th TACE procedure he had submitted to selective catheterization of the feeding vessel from the dorsal pancreatic artery with a cytotoxic agent and Gelfoam particles. The patient complained of abdominal pain after the TACE procedure, and a CT scan led to a diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis with abscess formation. The pancreatic abscess progressed despite general management of the pancreatitis, including antibiotics. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, and the symptoms of the patient improved.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 09/2012; 18(3):321-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) among patients with esophageal or upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms.
Patients with esophageal or UGI symptoms including dysphagia food impaction, acid regurgitation, heartburn, chest pain, epigastric pain, nausea and/or vomiting were prospectively collected. The enrolled patients responded to a symptomatic questionnaire and underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy and esophageal biopsies. Supportive endoscopic findings of EoE (ring-like appearance, liner furrows, whitish papules, shearing or friability) were recorded. EoE was diagnosed if patients had chronic UGI or esophageal symptoms, the esophageal biopsy showed ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field and were unresponsive to 2-3 weeks of proton pump inhibitors.
A total of 122 patients were enrolled and supportive endoscopic findings were found in 31 (25.4%) patients [whitish papules: 19 (15.6%), ring-like appearance: 8 (6.6%), linear furrows: 5 (4.1%)]. One patient had a simultaneous ring-like appearance and linear furrows. EoE was diagnosed in 8 (6.6%) patients and supportive endoscopic findings and past history of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis were more common in EoE positive than EoE negative patients. The diagnostic yield of endoscopic findings was 40.0% (2/5) in linear furrows, 25.0% (2/8) in ring-like appearance and 15.8% (3/19) in whitish papules.
Prevalence of EoE among patients with esophageal or UGI symptoms was 6.6%. Linear furrows and ring-like appearance had a relatively high diagnostic value.
Journal of Digestive Diseases 06/2012; 13(6):296-303. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been widely performed. However, procedure related-complications and the risk of tumor recurrence are limitations. We analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of patients who underwent curative additional gastrectomy (gastrectomy) after ESD.
The clinical characteristics of cases underwent gastrectomy after ESD were retrospectively analyzed.
Between January 2002 and August 2010, 1,512 cases underwent ESD for early gastric cancer (n=511) or adenoma (n=1,001). Thirty-two cases (2.1%) underwent gastrectomy after ESD. Thirty cases (2.0%) were EGC and 2 cases (0.1%) were adenoma. Extended indication, larger tumor size and piecemeal resection were risk factors for gastrectomy after ESD. According to the causes of gastrectomy, 13 cases underwent gastrectomy due to complications (40.6%; bleeding in 9, perforation in 4), and 19 cases based on pathological results (incomplete resection in 13, lymphatic invasion in 6). In cases with incomplete resection, the rate of residual tumor and lymph node metastasis after gastrectomy was 69.2% (75% lateral margin, 60% deep and 75% both) and 7.7%, respectively. Three (50%) of the 6 cases with lymphatic invasion had lymph node metatstasis.
The causes of gastrectomy after ESD were the procedure-related complications, the incomplete resection and lymphatic invasion. For complete and curative ESD, endoscopists should try to minimize complications and determine the depth of invasion accurately before ESD.
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 04/2012; 59(4):289-95.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as a standard treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) and gastric adenoma. Occasionally, tumorous lesion is not found and pathologic discrepancies can occur after ESD. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the negative pathologic results after ESD.
We retrospectively reviewed the data from all patients with gastric neoplasm (276 EGC and 516 gastric adenomas) who were treated with ESD during past 3 years and enrolled the patients who had negative pathologic results.
Out of 792 patients treated with ESD, 27 patients (3.4%) were eligible for inclusion. Among the 27 patients, factors affecting the negative pathologic results were, most commonly, the focal lesion (n=13, 48.2%) which was small enough to be removed completely during pre-ESD biopsy, followed by pathologic discrepancies (n=11, 40.7%) between pathologists and lastly the operator factor (n=3, 11.1%) dissecting incorrect lesions. Of the focal lesions, the initial pathologic diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in 11 cases (84.6%). In cases with pathologic discrepancies, all the pretreatment diagnoses were adenoma with low grade dysplasia. In cases caused by operator factors, intestinal metaplasia was accompanied by elevated adenoma in all cases.
To decrease negative pathologic results after ESD, an endoscopist should perform ESD after sufficient communication with pathologists, especially for adenoma with low grade dysplasia, and choose correct lesion, especially located at the antrum and associated with intestinal metaplasia. The possibility of total removal of small lesions even by forcep biopsy should be considered.
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 03/2012; 59(3):211-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the durability of the biochemical and virologic responses after adefovir (ADV) discontinuation in lamivudine-resistant (LMV-R) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, and the outcomes of ADV discontinuation compared to that of ADV maintenance.
The indication for ADV treatment cessation was an undetectable level of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA documented on two occasions at least 6 months apart. All patients received additional ADV for at least 12 months after the confirmation of undetectable HBV DNA (Cobas TaqMan PCR assay, <70 copies/mL). Of 36 patients who had a sufficient ADV therapeutic effect, 19 discontinued ADV treatment, while the others maintained it. A virologic rebound was arbitrarily defined as the redetection of HBV DNA at a level higher than 10(5) copies/mL.
In the ADV discontinuation group, ADV treatment and additional therapy were administered for medians of 33 months (range, 12-47 months) and 18 months, respectively. The patients were followed for a median of 12 months (range, 3-30 months) after ADV cessation. During that period, 18 of 19 patients (95%) experienced viral relapse. Viral rebound was observed in six patients (32%). However, 12 of 18 patients (67%) exhibited serum HBV DNA levels of less than (5) copies/mL. Biochemical relapses were observed in four of the six patients with viral rebound. In the ADV maintenance group, patients were treated for a median of 53 months (range, 31-85 months), and 9 patients (53%) experienced viral breakthrough.
During short-term follow-up after ADV discontinuation, most patients (95%) exhibited viral relapse, whereas and viral breakthrough occurred in about half of patients (53%) maintained on ADV therapy. Therefore, the durability of virologic response after ADV discontinuation in LMV-R patients was unsatisfactory. In addition, and viral breakthrough was not infrequent in the ADV continuation group.
The Korean journal of hepatology. 12/2011; 17(4):261-7.