D l'Allemand

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (47)121.15 Total impact

  • Dagmar L'allemand, Josef Laimbacher
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    ABSTRACT: The general practitioner or pediatrician mostly is the first point of contact for overweight children and may recognize adiposity early enough in order to start therapy of obesity or comorbidity or to initiate measures of prevention. Interventions against overweight are most efficient before age 7 in terms of short-and long-term results and should not be delayed. As obesity requires care of the entire family, close or recurring contact with the overweight child and its family is important as well as the treatment nearby their residence. In preschoolers, targeting parents exclusively for obesity therapy is highly effective. Changing cherished habits and style of education is the biggest challenge to parents. Therefore, various techniques of treatment of alcohol or tobacco addiction can be used and recommendations for improvement of self-worth as well as healthy eating behavior and exercise are presented. First feasible objectives include modest lifestyle changes and reduction of comorbidities; if an extreme obesity with a BMI above 99.5th percentile or mental disorders are present or if it becomes apparent within the first 6 months that the patient cannot achieve his own goals for changes in lifestyle and body weight, a referral to a specialized center is indicated. There, a multi-professional treatment of the child and his family is performed in common by specialists for nutrition, exercise and psychology. Childhood obesity is a chronic disease that requires a very long-term treatment and usually persists into adulthood.
    Therapeutische Umschau 11/2013; 70(11):695-702.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The aim was to analyze the effectiveness of treatment concerning obesity-associated comorbidities in clinical practice.METHODS:A total of 11 681 overweight children with 6-month follow-up treated at 175 centers specialized in pediatric obesity care in Central Europe were included in this analysis (mean body mass index (BMI) 29.0±5.6 kg m(-)(2), standard deviation score body mass index (SDS-BMI) 2.48±0.54, 45% boys, age 11.4±2.8 years). The changes of weight status, blood pressure, fasting lipids and glucose, and oral glucose tolerance tests were documented by standardized prospective quality documentation software (APV).RESULTS:After follow-up of in median 1.2 (interquartile range 0.9-2.2) years, a mean reduction of -0.15 SDS-BMI was achieved. The prevalence of prehypertension (37->33%) and hypertension (17->12%) decreased, while prevalences of triglycerides >150 mg dl(-1) (22->21%), low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol >130 mg dl(-1) (15->14%), impaired fasting glucose (6->6%) and impaired glucose tolerance (9->8%) remained stable. Drug treatment according to cutoffs recommended in European obesity guidelines were not frequently indicated (hypertension: 10%; dyslipidemia: 1%, type 2 diabetes <1%). None of the children with dyslipidemia received lipid-lowering drugs and only 1.4% of the children with hypertension were treated with antihypertensive drugs.CONCLUSIONS:Achieving sufficient weight loss to improve obesity associated comorbidities was difficult in clinical practice. Drug treatment of hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes was rarely performed even if it was indicated only in a minority of the overweight children. Future analyses should identify reasons for this insufficient drug treatment of comorbidities and analyze whether the benchmarking processes of APV improve medical care of childhood obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 13 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.184.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 11/2012; · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hintergrund. In Berlin wurde 1992 die Bestimmung des 17-Hydroxyprogesterons (17-OHP) im Filterpapier als Neugeborenenscreening zur Früherkennung des Adrenogenitalen Syndroms (AGS) eingeführt. Diagnose. Seither wurden nahezu 250.000 Neugeborene untersucht, und bei 26 Kindern wurde die Diagnose eines klassischen AGS (21-Hydroxylase-Mangel) gestellt und durch spezifische Steroiduntersuchungen im Serum und die molekulargenetische Diagnostik gesichert. Dies entspricht einer Häufigkeit von 1:9594 Neugeborenen, die den Erfahrungen anderer weltweit durchgeführter Screeningprogramme entspricht und doppelt so hoch wie die Häufigkeit aufgrund klinischer Diagnose ist. Es waren 14 Mädchen und 12 Jungen betroffen, wobei alle Jungen und 8 Mädchen ein AGS mit Salzverlust (77% aller Patienten) aufwiesen. Die Diagnose wurde zwischen dem 2. und 10. Lebenstag (im Mittel 6. Lebenstag) gestellt, und in der Regel wurde bereits am nächsten Tag mit der Substitutionstherapie begonnen. So konnte in allen Fällen eine Stoffwechselkrise vermieden werden. Bei nur 7 der 14 Mädchen bestand der klinische Verdacht aufgrund eines intersexuellen Genitales, sodass bei allen Jungen und der Hälfte der Mädchen die Diagnose allein durch das Screening gestellt wurde. Durch die Anwendung gestationsaltersabhängiger Perzentilen der 17-OHP-Spiegel gelang es, die Recallrate bei Frühgeborenen gering zu halten (0,6%). Resümee. Das so durchgeführte Screening erwies sich im Sinn der Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse als geeignet, die Diagnose und Therapie des AGS im Sinn der Qualitätssicherung zu verbessern. Background. In 1992 in Berlin a screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was introduced. Diagnosis. Since then nearly 250 000 newborns were screened and 26 newborns with classical CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency were detected. The diagnosis was ascertained by specific determination of serum 17-OHP and molecular genetic diagnosis. The incidence was 1: 9594 newborns, which is comparable to the incidence reported by other screening programs world-wide and double the incidence established by clinical diagnosis. 14 female and 12 male patients were detected, with 12 male and 8 females presenting with the salt-wasting form (77% of all patients). The diagnosis was made between the second and 10th day of life and therapy was started usually on the next day. A metabolic crisis was prevented in all cases. Only in 7 of the 14 girls there was a suspicion of CAH because of an intersexual development of the external genitalia. Thus, in all boys and in 50% of the girls the diagnosis was made by screening. Using gestational age adjusted percentiles of 17-OHP-concentrations the recall rate in preterms was kept low with an overall recall rate of 0.6%. Conclusion. Using the described method and procedure newborn screening for CAH proved to be cost-effective in improving the diagnosis and treatment of CAH.
    Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 04/2012; 148(11):1006-1011. · 0.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overweight and obese youth represent a challenge for the affected individual, the healthcare system as well as society as a whole. Increased long-term cardiovascular risk is one of the major consequences of early-onset obesity, affecting both life expectancy and quality of life. The aim of this report is to study the effects of age, gender and obesity category on the presence of individual components of dyslipidemia using normal-weight subjects from the population-based German KIGGS study including 17,641 randomly selected children and adolescents, aged 0-18 years (11,110 normal-weight subjects with lipid measurements) and the German-Austrian-Swiss APV registry, including 57,239 overweight or obese children, adolescents and young adults from 162 specialized obesity care centers (lipid measurements available in 29,711 subjects). Subjects were classified according to BMI category based on the age- and gender-adjusted BMI-z-scores as recommended by the AGA (German Pediatric Obesity working group). Cut-offs for dyslipidemia were based on the recommendations by the American Heart Association: total cholesterol: > 5.2 mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol < 0.9 mmol/l, LDL-cholesterol > 3.4 mmol/l, triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. Using SAS 9.2-software, hierarchic modeling with both linear and logistic regression analysis was applied. Within the group of normal-weight children, fasting triglycerides were elevated in 3.3%, LDL-cholesterol in 7.2% and HDL-cholesterol was reduced in 3.1%. With increasing BMI-category, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and reduced HDL-cholesterol increased rapidly. A weaker relationship was present for LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. Among obese youth, 30.5% displayed any dyslipidemia, underlining the importance of adequate screening and intervention.
    International journal of pediatric obesity: IJPO: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 09/2011; 6 Suppl 1:53-8. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comorbidities of childhood obesity challenge health-care systems in Europe. Further, there is a lack of population-specific prevalence data and diagnostic strategies available, especially for obesity-related disturbances of liver function. Therefore, the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and their relationship to biological parameters were studied in a large pediatric obesity cohort. In 111 specialized pediatric obesity centers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, 16,390 children and adolescents (age 12.4±2.6 years, 58% boys) were categorized as overweight (body mass index (BMI) >90th percentile) and obese (>97th percentile) and studied for related comorbidities, especially nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; as defined by aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >50 U l(-1)). Data were collected using a standardized software program (APV) for longitudinal multicenter documentation. Pseudonymized data were transmitted for central statistical analysis. In this pediatric cohort, 16% of the study population was overweight, 46% obese and 35% extremely obese (>99.5th percentile extreme obesity (Xob)). NAFLD was present in 11% of the study population, but predominantly in boys (boys vs girls; 14.4:7.4%; P<0.001), in Xob (obese vs Xob; 9.5:17.0%; P<0.001) and in older age (< 12 vs ≥12 years; 8:12%; P<0.001; adjusted for BMI). ALT >50 U l(-1) was significantly associated with fasting insulin and BMI-SDS. In multiple logistic regression models, Xob and male gender were strongly associated with NAFLD (odds ratio Xob vs normal weight=3.2; boys vs girls OR=2.3). In a large cohort of overweight and obese European children and adolescents, markers of nonalcoholic liver disease, especially ALT, are frequent and predicted by Xob and male gender. The results underline the epidemiological dimension of this obesity-related morbidity even in childhood. Therefore, at least ALT is recommended as a screening parameter in basic care.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 10/2010; 34(10):1468-74. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study whether metformin reduces obesity, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and the metabolic syndrome (MtS) in obese European adolescents in addition to previous unsuccessful lifestyle intervention. After 6 months of multiprofessional lifestyle intervention, 70 out of 86 adolescents without improvement in body mass index (BMI) and HOMA-IR were randomized into either the placebo (n=34) or the metformin group (2×500 mg/day, n=36) in addition to ongoing lifestyle intervention for another 6 months. Age was 13.8 years, BMI was 33.1 kg/m(2), 65% were female, and 89% were Caucasians. During lifestyle intervention alone, BMI and HOMA-IR deteriorated significantly. In the subsequent medication period, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin improved similarly in the placebo and metformin groups (HOMA-IR decreased 73 vs 54% respectively in metformin versus placebo; P=0.048), but BMI remained unchanged. The insulin sensitivity index, however, only improved in the metformin group. High fasting insulin is correlated with a subsequent BMI increase irrespective of the medication. MtS remained unchanged. Obese European adolescents' insulin sensitivity improved without weight change during placebo or metformin intervention in addition to lifestyle intervention. Most differences did not reach statistical significance, probably due to improved compliance with lifestyle intervention as a placebo effect. In addition, the metformin dose may be too low.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 10/2010; 163(4):585-92. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in the TSHR gene were found in patients suffering from nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. In the past, it was assumed that thyroid hyperplasia is due to constitutive activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway; however, the physiological role of the Gq/11 pathway in this context remains unclear. In this study, we investigated molecular details of the TSHR in a patient with nonautoimmune and nongoitrous hyperthyroidism. We detected a heterozygous mutation in exon 10 of the TSHR gene leading to an exchange of a cysteine residue for tryptophan at amino acid position 636 in transmembrane helix 6. Functional characterization of the mutant receptor revealed a slight reduction of the cell surface expression and TSH induced cAMP accumulation compared to the wild type. Additional observations included a constitutive activation of the Gs-mediated signaling pathway and a simultaneous nearly complete loss-of-function for the Gq/11 pathway after bovine TSH stimulation. Studies on TSHR models suggest significant changes of important amino acid interactions and the overall helix arrangement caused by mutation C636W. We report a patient in whom a TSHR mutation leads to nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism due to a mutation that constitutively activates the Gs signaling pathway but additionally completely inhibits the Gq/11 pathway. The absence of goiter in the patient suggests that the Gq/11 pathway is related to thyroid growth and that different signaling pathways are mediated and regulated by TSH. These functional data could be confirmed by reproducible findings of two siblings with a constitutive activation for both pathways.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2010; 95(8):3605-10. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An impressive discrepancy between reported and measured parental height is often observed. The aims of this study were: (a) to assess whether there is a significant difference between the reported and measured parental height; (b) to focus on the reported and, thereafter, measured height of the partner; (c) to analyse its impact on the calculated target height range. A total of 1542 individual parents were enrolled. The parents were subdivided into three groups: normal height (3-97th Centile), short (<3%) and tall (>97%) stature. Overall, compared with men, women were far better in estimating their own height (p < 0.001). Where both partners were of normal, short or tall stature, the estimated heights of their partner were quite accurate. Women of normal stature underestimated the short partner and overestimated the tall partner, whereas male partners of normal stature overestimated both their short as well as tall partners. Women of tall stature estimated the heights of their short partners correctly, whereas heights of normal statured men were underestimated. On the other hand, tall men overestimated the heights of their female partners who are of normal and short stature. Furthermore, women of short stature estimated the partners of normal stature adequately, and the heights of their tall partners were overestimated. Interestingly, the short men significantly underestimated the normal, but overestimated tall female partners. Only measured heights should be used to perform accurate evaluations of height, particularly when diagnostic tests or treatment interventions are contemplated. For clinical trails, we suggest that only quality measured parental heights are acceptable, as the errors incurred in estimates may enhance/conceal true treatment effects.
    Acta Paediatrica 04/2010; 99(4):569-74. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P450c17 has two distinct activities: 17alpha-hydroxylase activity and 17,20-lyase activity. Combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency leads to a severe defect in the production of cortisol and sex steroids. In affected males this results in impaired masculinization with ambiguous or female external genitalia. Female patients have normal genitalia but show a lack of pubertal development in adolescence. An increased production of mineralocorticoids often leads to hypertension and hypokalemia in both sexes. To better understand the mechanisms of P450c17 deficiency, we studied 2 patients (both 46,XY) with combined 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency of different severity: one with complete lack of masculinization and one with ambiguous genitalia. Four mutations were identified by sequencing of the CYP17A1 gene: I332T and A355T in the less severely affected patient; G111S and R440H in the patient with complete lack of masculinization. The three novel mutations were expressed in COS1 cells and all mutant proteins except I332T showed a complete loss of both enzymatic activities. I332T retained some residual 17alpha-hydroxylase as well as 17,20-lyase activity. We identified 2 patients with the phenotypical spectrum of P450c17 deficiency. Three novel mutations in the CYP17A1 gene were identified and their functional characterization provided a good phenotype-genotype correlation. The location of the mutated residues in the three-dimensional model of P450c17 gave some additional insights into its structure-function relationship.
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics 01/2010; 73(3):198-204. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although randomized controlled trials demonstrated the long-term efficacy of lifestyle interventions in overweight children, the effects of these interventions in clinical practice under real-life conditions are largely unknown. One hundred twenty-nine centers specialized in outpatient pediatric obesity care participated in this quality assessment. All patients presenting before the year 2006 for lifestyle intervention of at least 6 months duration in these institutions were analyzed in a 2-year follow-up. A total of 21,784 (45% male) overweight children and adolescents aged 2-20 years (mean BMI 30.4 kg/m2, mean SDS-BMI 2.51, mean age 12.6 years) were included in the analysis. Based on an intention-to-treat analysis with variables set back to baseline in lost of follow-up, 22% of the children reduced their SDS-BMI after 6 months, 15% after 12 months, and 7% after 24 months, but only in 24, 17, and 8% of children, respectively, complete data were available. In the five treatment centers with the best outcome (518 patients), 83% of the children reduced their overweight after 6 months, 67% after 12 months, and 51% after 24 months. Under real-life conditions, most treatment centers cannot prove the long-term efficacy of their interventions due to high drop-out rate or lack of documentation. Conversely, some institutions achieved a reduction of overweight in nearly the half of their patients 24 months after baseline demonstrating the great heterogeneity in outcome. To improve the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in real-life studying, the process and structure quality as well as their long-term results is urgently needed.
    Obesity 07/2009; 17(6):1196-9. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore how foot growth relates to musculoskeletal loading in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In 37 children with PWS, foot length (FL) before and after 6 years of growth hormone therapy (GHT) was retrospectively evaluated with parental and sibling's FL, height, and factors reflecting musculoskeletal loading, such as weight for height (WfH), lean body mass (LBM; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, deuterium labeled water), physical activity (accellerometry), and walk age. Because of the typically biphasic evolution of body mass and the late walk age in PWS, 2 age groups were separated (group 1, >2.5 years; group 2, < or =2.5 years). Children with PWS normalized height, but not FL after 6 years of GHT. Parental FL correlation with PWS's FL was lower than with sibling's FL. In group 1, FL positively correlated with WfH, LBM, and physical activity. In group 2, FL negatively correlated with age at onset of independent ambulation. Foot catch-up growth with GHT was slower in group 2 compared with group 1. In PWS, FL is positively associated with musculoskeletal loading. Small feet in children with PWS before and during long-term GHT may be more than just another dysmorphic feature, but may possibly reflect decreased musculoskeletal loading influencing foot growth and genetic and endocrine factors.
    The Journal of pediatrics 10/2008; 154(2):225-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle hypotonia and failure to thrive are key symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) allowing diagnosis during infancy already. Improved general care as well as Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) and growth hormone (GH) are administered to improve PWS children's outcome. This study aims to investigate psychomotor development of young PWS children in relation to body weight and body composition at baseline as well as to the effects of GH or CoQ(10) therapy. Twenty-six young children (age 1.0 +/- 0.1 years, mean +/- SEM) with PWS genetically proven at age 0.1 +/- 0.1 years (17 deletions, 8 maternal disomy) were divided into three groups: Group 1 on GH therapy (started in 1994-1996, 6 mg/kg/week) tolerating low body weight (<50th centile), group 2 on GH (1997-2000) and group 3 on CoQ(10) (2001-2002, 2.5 mg/kg/day orally), both combined with active early weight management to achieve weight >50th centile. Anthropometry, body composition and Griffith's developmental scores (DQs) were assessed before therapy and after 12 months. DQs were not related to infants' weight, lean mass or genetic background. DQs improved significantly with chronological age and were best in the most recently diagnosed group. Improved psychomotor development, mainly due to progress in locomotor development, did not differ between GH and CoQ(10) treated groups. In conclusion, while only GH has significant effects on growth and body composition, GH and CoQ(10) therapy act equally on psychomotor development of PWS infants. However, improving psychomotor development may merely reflect an age-related phenomenon additionally depending on early diagnosis and introduction of appropriate care.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2008; 146(7):873-80. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In boys with Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome (PWS), hypogonadism causes pubertal arrest and reduces pubertal muscle growth. Formerly, it was assumed that therapy with gonadal hormones accentuates behaviour abnormalities in PWS. Our aim was to assess the clinical effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy on pubertal development, muscle mass and behaviour in adolescents with PWS. 6 peripubertal boys with PWS undergoing long-term treatment with growth hormone were examined 6-monthly for at least 2 years before and after pubertal arrest (13.5 +/- 0.3 years, mean +/- SEM) and the beginning of hCG therapy (500-1,500 IU twice weekly, intramuscularly). Height, weight, pubertal stage, bone age, body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), testosterone levels and behaviour abnormalities (obtained from parents) were assessed. Testicular volume and lean mass were reduced in pubertal boys with PWS. During hCG therapy, testosterone levels and lean mass significantly increased (at the beginning and after 2 years of hCG therapy: 2.3 +/- 0.9 and 10.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/l, -3.1 +/- 0.3 and -1.4 +/- 0.6 SD, respectively), and fat mass stabilized at 38%. The characteristically observed PWS-associated problems, mood instability, aggressiveness and difficulties in social interaction, did not deteriorate during therapy. In the present study, timely application of hCG to treat hypogonadism in boys with PWS promoted virilization and normalized muscle mass without detrimental effects on behaviour. Larger studies comparing hCG therapy with testosterone replacement would be useful.
    Hormone Research 02/2007; 68(4):178-84. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • R Holl, S Wiegand, D l'Allemand, K Widhalm, T Reinehr
    Diabetologie Und Stoffwechsel - DIABETOL STOFFWECHS. 01/2007; 2.
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    ABSTRACT: The specific form of hypogonadism in Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome (PWS), central or peripheral, remains unexplained. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cause of hypogonadism in PWS and determine whether human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment can restore pubertal development. This was a clinical follow-up study, divided into two samples, over a duration of 1.5 and 4.5 yr. Eight male infants and six peripubertal boys (age at start of observation, 0.06-0.93 and 8.1-10.8 yr, respectively) with genetically confirmed PWS were studied. hCG (500-1500 U twice weekly) was given from age 13.5 yr to the present. Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, and testosterone levels and pubertal development were the main outcome measures. Infants with PWS presented normal LH (2.3 +/- 0.7 U/liter) and testosterone (2.5 +/- 0.9 nmol/liter) levels (mean +/- sem at 5 months) compared with the reference range. However, two thirds of the boys displayed cryptorchidism. Inhibin B levels were at the lowest level of the normal range and decreased significantly between infancy and puberty (at 13 yr, 72 +/- 17 pg/ml), whereas FSH secretion increased (9.9 +/- 2.6 U/liter). Pubertal maturation stopped at an average bone age of 13.9 yr. hCG therapy increased testosterone (11 +/- 2 nmol/liter) and reduced FSH (at 16 yr, 1.1 +/- 0.9 U/liter) levels. Testicular volume (5.6 +/- 1 ml) and inhibin B (26.5 +/- 11.9 pg/ml) remained low. Children with PWS display a specific form of combined hypothalamic (low LH) and peripheral (low inhibin B and high FSH) hypogonadism, suggesting a primary defect in Sertoli and/or germ cell maturation or an early germ cell loss. hCG therapy stimulates testosterone production and virilization.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 04/2006; 91(3):892-8. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reduction of spontaneous physical activity (PA) and of muscle tissue are thought to be major causes of fat accretion and metabolic deterioration in Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome (PWS). We investigated whether a generalized physical training programme in a home setting improves these parameters. The prospective study included 11 prepubertal children (mean age 8.7 years, range 5.9-11.8) with documented PWS and under continuous growth hormone treatment for at least 2.8 years. Seven children were enrolled in a training programme for several muscle groups during 4-10 minutes daily. Twelve matched children with PWS served as controls (average age 8.8 years, 6.1-11.3). Before and after training, at 6 months, PA was assessed by measuring walking distance by pedometer registration and by an activity score, and body composition by DEXA expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS) related to height. After training, lean mass (LM) increased from -1.83 to -1.48 SDS, p <0.05, whereas the controls showed no change. In the training group, walking distance and PA increased from 4.2 to 4.7 km/d and from 255 to 266 points, respectively, and these rises significantly exceeded those observed in controls. CONCLUSION: Children with PWS can be motivated by their families to follow a short daily training, which has general effects on PA and does increase, but not normalize LM.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 02/2006; 19(1):65-74. · 0.75 Impact Factor
  • Diabetologie Und Stoffwechsel - DIABETOL STOFFWECHS. 01/2006; 1.
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    ABSTRACT: Dosage recommendations for the initial therapy of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in newborns vary between 8 microg/kg/d and 10-15 microg/kg/d. To evaluate the practicability of LT4 in liquid form and to define the initial dosage for optimal treatment. Liquid LT4 solution was administered to 28 consecutive newborns with primary CH. We measured TSH, T3, T4, free T3 and free T4 before therapy and during follow-up up to 2 years. After 2 years a standardized developmental test (Griffith) was performed. The median dosage at start of therapy was 12.3 microg LT4/kg/d and decreased to about 5 microg LT4/kg/d after 9 months. The median time of normalization of TSH (< or =6 mU/l) was 2 weeks. In 21 patients, who received a median starting dosage of 12.7 microg LT4/kg (range 9.8-17.1 microg/kg), TSH levels normalized within a median of 1 week. Seven patients receiving only 10.1 microg LT4/kg normalized their TSH only after a median of 2 months. Newborns with CH should normalize their TSH within 1-2 weeks. The initial dose necessary to normalize TSH is not lower when a liquid solution is used. The higher dose used in tablets is not due to inefficient absorption, but rather reflects the increased demand for thyroid hormone in the first weeks of life.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 07/2004; 17(7):967-74. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess body composition of infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) by using deuterium dilution and investigating the efficacy of early institution of growth hormone (GH) therapy in increasing lean mass (LM) and preventing massive obesity. One group of 11 children with PWS <2 years before and during 30-month GH therapy (GH group) was compared with 6 infants administered only coenzyme Q(10) for 1 year (Q10 group). LM adjusted for height (LM(Ht)) and relative fat mass (%FM(Age)) standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated from data of 95 healthy children. Initially, LM(Ht) of all patients was below the normal average. LM(Ht) decreased by -0.46 +/- 0.3 SD (P=.03) per year in the Q10 group but rose by 0.25 +/- 0.3 SD (P=.02) per year during GH therapy, normalizing after 30 months (-0.70 +/- 1.0 SD). Despite low to normal weight for height (WfH), %FM(Age) was above the normal average (GH group, 31.0% +/- 4.5%, Q10 group, 32.4% +/- 9.5%). In the Q10 infants, %FM(Age) increased by 0.71 +/- 0.7 SD per year, whereas in the GH group, %FM(Age) remained more stable up to 30 months. Diminished LM(Ht) found in infants with PWS further declines during the early years. Early institution of GH therapy lifts LM(Ht) into the normal range and delays fat tissue accumulation.
    Journal of Pediatrics 06/2004; 144(6):753-8. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In children with Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome (PWS), the insulin secretion is reduced, despite obesity, being ascribed to the growth hormone (GH) deficiency of hypothalamic origin. Besides, an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus was described in this syndrome. Hence, we addressed the questions of how body composition and insulin secretion are interrelated and what impact GH therapy has on the carbohydrate metabolism in PWS. We measured weight, lean and fat mass (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), triglycerides, HbA(1c), and fasting insulin and glucose levels in 17 children (age range 1.5-14.6 years) with PWS to examine whether the carbohydrate metabolism is altered during 36 months of therapy with 8 mg GH/m(2) body surface/week. In a subgroup of 8 children, the insulin secretion was longitudinally assayed during oral glucose tolerance at 0 and 12 months of therapy. Before therapy, the insulin secretion was lower and markedly delayed as compared with reference data and did not rise during therapy. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 2 of 12 children examined by oral glucose tolerance test before therapy and normalized during therapy. Fasting insulin and insulin resistance being normal at the beginning, significantly increased at 12 months and returned to initial levels at 36 months of GH therapy. Fasting glucose as well as HbA(1c) and triglyceride levels were always normal. The fat mass before GH therapy was increased (39.5%) and dropped into the upper normal range (28.3%) during 3 years of therapy, being correlated with fasting insulin concentration and indices of insulin sensitivity before and after 1 year of therapy. Children with PWS are characterized by an intact insulin sensitivity with a decrease and a delay of insulin secretion, regardless of moderate obesity or GH treatment. In the present setting, the carbohydrate metabolism is not impaired by GH therapy, but by the excessively increased fat mass.
    Hormone Research 02/2003; 59(5):239-48. · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

785 Citations
121.15 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2012
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2010
    • Kantonsspital St. Gallen
      San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland
  • 2009
    • FHS St. Gallen University of Applied Sciences
      San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland
  • 2001
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 1983–1987
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany