J. P. McKean

University of Groningen, Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

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Publications (75)345.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We observed six strongly lensed, radio-loud quasars (MG 0414+0534, CLASS B0712+472, JVAS B1030+074, CLASS B1127+385, CLASS B1152+199, and JVAS B1938+666) in order to identify systems suitable for measuring cosmological parameters using time delays between their multiple images. These systems are in standard two and four image configurations, with B1938 having a faint secondary pair of images. Two separate monitoring campaigns were carried out using the VLA and upgraded JVLA. Lightcurves were extracted for each individual lensed image and analyzed for signs of intrinsic variability. While it was not possible to measure time delays from these data, $\chi^2$-based and structure function tests found evidence for variability in a majority of the lightcurves. B0712 and B1030 had particularly strong variations, exhibiting linear flux trends. These results show that most of these systems should be targeted with followup monitoring campaigns, especially B0712 and B1030.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present LOFAR Low Band observations of the Bootes and 3C295 fields. Our images made at 34, 46, and 62 MHz reach noise levels of 12, 8, and 5 mJy beam$^{-1}$, making them the deepest images ever obtained in this frequency range. In total, we detect between 300 and 400 sources in each of these images, covering an area of 17 to 52 deg$^{2}$. From the observations we derive Euclidean-normalized differential source counts. The 62 MHz source counts agree with previous GMRT 153 MHz and VLA 74 MHz differential source counts, scaling with a spectral index of $-0.7$. We find that a spectral index scaling of $-0.5$ is required to match up the LOFAR 34 MHz source counts. This result is also in agreement with source counts from the 38 MHz 8C survey, indicating that the average spectral index of radio sources flattens towards lower frequencies. We also find evidence for spectral flattening using the individual flux measurements of sources between 34 and 1400 MHz and by calculating the spectral index averaged over the source population. To select ultra-steep spectrum ($\alpha < -1.1$) radio sources, that could be associated with massive high redshift radio galaxies, we compute spectral indices between 62 MHz, 153 MHz and 1.4 GHz for sources in the Bo\"otes field. We cross-correlate these radio sources with optical and infrared catalogues and fit the spectral energy distribution to obtain photometric redshifts. We find that most of these ultra-steep spectrum sources are located in the $ 0.7 \lesssim z \lesssim 2.5$ range.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 793(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted two pilot surveys for radio pulsars and fast transients with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) around 140 MHz and here report on the first low-frequency fast-radio burst limit and the discovery of two new pulsars. The first survey, the LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS), observed a large fraction of the northern sky, ~1.4 x 10^4 sq. deg, with 1-hr dwell times. Each observation covered ~75 sq. deg using 7 independent fields formed by incoherently summing the high-band antenna fields. The second pilot survey, the LOFAR Tied-Array Survey (LOTAS), spanned ~600 sq. deg, with roughly a 5-fold increase in sensitivity compared with LPPS. Using a coherent sum of the 6 LOFAR "Superterp" stations, we formed 19 tied-array beams, together covering 4 sq. deg per pointing. From LPPS we derive a limit on the occurrence, at 142 MHz, of dispersed radio bursts of < 150 /day/sky, for bursts brighter than S > 107 Jy for the narrowest searched burst duration of 0.66 ms. In LPPS, we re-detected 65 previously known pulsars. LOTAS discovered two pulsars, the first with LOFAR or any digital aperture array. LOTAS also re-detected 27 previously known pulsars. These pilot studies show that LOFAR can efficiently carry out all-sky surveys for pulsars and fast transients, and they set the stage for further surveying efforts using LOFAR and the planned low-frequency component of the Square Kilometer Array.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Here, the combined high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within 5 solar radii of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Over a period of 30 minutes, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high altitudes (4 solar radii from the solar center at 30 MHz) and to have non-radial trajectories. These bursts occurred at altitudes in excess of values predicted by 1D radial electron density models. The non-radial high altitude Type III bursts were found to be associated with the expanding flank of a CME. The CME may have compressed neighbouring streamer plasma producing larger electron densities at high altitudes, while the non-radial burst trajectories can be explained by the deflection of radial magnetic fields as the CME expanded in the low corona.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to characterise the polarized foreground emission in the ELAIS-N1 field and to address its possible implications for the extraction of the cosmological 21-cm signal from the Low-Frequency Array - Epoch of Reionization (LOFAR-EoR) data. We use the high band antennas of LOFAR to image this region and RM-synthesis to unravel structures of polarized emission at high Galactic latitudes. The brightness temperature of the detected Galactic emission is on average 4 K in polarized intensity and covers the range from -10 to +13rad m^-2 in Faraday depth. The total polarized intensity and polarization angle show a wide range of morphological features. We have also used the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at 350 MHz to image the same region. The LOFAR and WSRT images show a similar complex morphology, at comparable brightness levels, but their spatial correlation is very low. The fractional polarization at 150 MHz, expressed as a percentage of the total intensity, amounts to 1.5%. There is no indication of diffuse emission in total intensity in the interferometric data, in line with results at higher frequencies. The wide frequency range, good angular resolution and good sensitivity make LOFAR an exquisite instrument for studying Galactic polarized emission at a resolution of 1-2 rad m^-2 in Faraday depth. The different polarised patterns observed at 150 MHz and 350 MHz are consistent with different source distributions along the line of sight wring in a variety of Faraday thin regions of emission. The presence of polarised foregrounds is a serious complication for Epoch of Reionization experiments. To avoid the leakage of polarized emission into total intensity, which can depend on frequency, we need to calibrate the instrumental polarization across the field of view to a small fraction of 1%.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first detection of carbon radio recombination line absorption along the line of sight to Cygnus A. The observations were carried out with the Low Frequency Array in the 33-57 MHz range. These low-frequency radio observations provide us with a new line of sight to study the diffuse, neutral gas in our Galaxy. To our knowledge this is the first time that foreground Milky Way recombination line absorption has been observed against a bright extragalactic background source. By stacking 48 carbon α lines in the observed frequency range we detect carbon absorption with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 5. The average carbon absorption has a peak optical depth of 2 × 10-4, a line width of 10 km s-1 and a velocity of +4 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest. The associated gas is found to have an electron temperature Te ˜ 110 K and density ne ˜ 0.06 cm-3. These properties imply that the observed carbon α absorption likely arises in the cold neutral medium of the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Hydrogen and helium lines were not detected to a 3σ peak optical depth limit of 1.5 × 10-4 for a 4 km s-1 channel width. Radio recombination lines associated with Cygnus A itself were also searched for, but are not detected. We set a 3σ upper limit of 1.5 × 10-4 for the peak optical depth of these lines for a 4 km s-1 channel width.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2014; 437:3506-3515. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first detection of carbon radio recombination line absorption along the line of sight to Cygnus A. The observations were carried out with the LOw Frequency ARray in the 33 to 57 MHz range. These low frequency radio observations provide us with a new line of sight to study the diffuse, neutral gas in our Galaxy. To our knowledge this is the first time that foreground Milky Way recombination line absorption has been observed against a bright extragalactic background source. By stacking 48 carbon $\alpha$ lines in the observed frequency range we detect carbon absorption with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 5. The average carbon absorption has a peak optical depth of 2$\times$10$^{-4}$, a line width of 10 km s$^{-1}$ and a velocity of +4 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the local standard of rest. The associated gas is found to have an electron temperature $T_{e}\sim$ 110 K and density $n_{e}\sim$ 0.06 cm$^{-3}$. These properties imply that the observed carbon $\alpha$ absorption likely arises in the cold neutral medium of the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Hydrogen and helium lines were not detected to a 3$\sigma$ peak optical depth limit of 1.5$\times$10$^{-4}$ for a 4 km s$^{-1}$ channel width. Radio recombination lines associated with Cygnus A itself were also searched for, but are not detected. We set a 3$\sigma$ upper limit of 1.5$\times$10$^{-4}$ for the peak optical depth of these lines for a 4 km s$^{-1}$ channel width.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: -In Press. Submitted to A&A. See http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014arXiv1406.7242G -. Context. The LOFAR Radio Telescope is a giant digital phased array interferometer with multiple antennas gathered in stations placed throughout Europe. As other interferometers, it provides a discrete set of measured Fourier components of the sky brightness. With these samples, recovering the original brightness distribution with aperture synthesis forms an inverse problem that can be solved by different deconvolution and minimization methods. Aims. Recent papers have established a clear link between the discrete nature of radio interferometry measurement and "compressed sensing" theory, which supports sparse recovery methods to reconstruct an image from the measured visibilities. We aimed at the implementation and at the scientific validation of one of these methods. Methods. We evaluated the photometric and resolution performance of the sparse recovery method in the framework of the LOFAR instrument on simulated and real data. Results. We have implemented a sparse recovery method in the standard LOFAR imaging tools, allowing us to compare the reconstructed images from both simulated and real data with images obtained from classical methods such as CLEAN or MS-CLEAN. Conclusions.We show that i) sparse recovery performs as well as CLEAN in recovering the flux of point sources, ii) performs much better on extended objects (the root mean square error is reduced by a factor up to 10), and iii) provides a solution with an effective angular resolution 2-3 times better than the CLEAN map. Applied to a real LOFAR dataset, the sparse recovery has been validated with the correct photometry and realistic recovered structures of Cygnus A, as compared to other methods. Sparse recovery has been implemented as an image recovery method for the LOFAR Radio Telescope and it can be used for other radio interferometers.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The low frequency array (LOFAR), is the first radio telescope designed with the capability to measure radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers in parallel with interferometric observations. In the first $\sim 2\,\mathrm{years}$ of observing, 405 cosmic-ray events in the energy range of $10^{16} - 10^{18}\,\mathrm{eV}$ have been detected in the band from $30 - 80\,\mathrm{MHz}$. Each of these air showers is registered with up to $\sim1000$ independent antennas resulting in measurements of the radio emission with unprecedented detail. This article describes the dataset, as well as the analysis pipeline, and serves as a reference for future papers based on these data. All steps necessary to achieve a full reconstruction of the electric field at every antenna position are explained, including removal of radio frequency interference, correcting for the antenna response and identification of the pulsed signal.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2013; 560:14. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristic outer scale of turbulence and the ratio of the random to ordered components of the magnetic field are key parameters to characterise magnetic turbulence in the interstellar gas, which affects the propagation of cosmic rays within the Galaxy. We provide new constraints to those two parameters. We use the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) to image the diffuse continuum emission in the Fan region at (l,b) (137.0,+7.0) at 80"x70" resolution in the range [146,174] MHz. We detect multi-scale fluctuations in the Galactic synchrotron emission and compute their power spectrum. Applying theoretical estimates and derivations from the literature for the first time, we derive the outer scale of turbulence and the ratio of random to ordered magnetic field from the characteristics of these fluctuations . We obtain the deepest image of the Fan region to date and find diffuse continuum emission within the primary beam. The power spectrum of the foreground synchrotron fluctuations displays a power law behaviour for scales between 100 and 8 arcmin with a slope of (-1.84+/-0.19). We find an upper limit of about 20 pc for the outer scale of the magnetic interstellar turbulence toward the Fan region. We also find a variation of the ratio of random to ordered field as a function of Galactic coordinates, supporting different turbulent regimes. We use power spectra fluctuations from LOFAR as well as earlier GMRT and WSRT observations to constrain the outer scale of turbulence of the Galactic synchrotron foreground, finding a range of plausible values of 10-20 pc. Then, we use this information to deduce lower limits of the ratio of ordered to random magnetic field strength. These are found to be 0.3, 0.3, and 0.5 for the LOFAR, WSRT and GMRT fields considered respectively. Both these constraints are in agreement with previous estimates.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2013; 558:72. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report 1.7 GHz Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of IRAS F10214+4724, a lensed z=2.3 obscured quasar with prodigious star formation. We detect what we argue to be the obscured active nucleus with an effective angular resolution of < 50 pc at z = 2.3 . The S_{1.7} = 210 micro-Jy (9-\sigma) detection of this unresolved source is located within the HST rest-frame ultraviolet/optical arc, however, >~100 mas northward of the arc centre of curvature. This leads to a source plane inversion that places the European VLBI Network detection to within milli-arcseconds of the modelled cusp caustic, resulting in a very large magnification (\mu ~70), over an order of magnitude larger than the CO (1-0) derived magnification of a spatially resolved JVLA map, using the same lens model. We estimate the quasar bolometric luminosity from a number of independent techniques and with our X-ray modelling find evidence that the AGN may be close to Compton-thick, with an intrinsic bolometric luminosity log(L_{bol,QSO} / L_sun) = 11.34 +- 0.27 dex. We make the first black hole mass estimate of IRAS F10214+4724 and find log(M_{BH}/M_sun) = 8.36 +- 0.56 which suggests a low black hole accretion rate (\lambda = \dot{M} / \dot{M}_{Edd} ~ 3\pm^7_2 percent). We find evidence for a M_{BH}/M_{spheroid} ratio that is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than that of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) at z~2. At face value, this suggests IRAS F10214+4724 has undergone a different evolutionary path compared to SMGs at the same epoch. A primary result of this work is the demonstration that emission regions of differing size and position can undergo significantly different magnification boosts (> 1 dex) and therefore distort our view of high-redshift, gravitationally lensed galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 434(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Faint undetected sources of radio-frequency interference (RFI) might become visible in long radio observations when they are consistently present over time. Thereby, they might obstruct the detection of the weak astronomical signals of interest. This issue is especially important for Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) projects that try to detect the faint redshifted HI signals from the time of the earliest structures in the Universe. We explore the RFI situation at 30-163 MHz by studying brightness histograms of visibility data observed with LOFAR, similar to radio-source-count analyses that are used in cosmology. An empirical RFI distribution model is derived that allows the simulation of RFI in radio observations. The brightness histograms show an RFI distribution that follows a power-law distribution with an estimated exponent around -1.5. With several assumptions, this can be explained with a uniform distribution of terrestrial radio sources whose radiation follows existing propagation models. Extrapolation of the power law implies that the current LOFAR EoR observations should be severely RFI limited if the strength of RFI sources remains strong after time integration. This is in contrast with actual observations, which almost reach the thermal noise and are thought not to be limited by RFI. Therefore, we conclude that it is unlikely that there are undetected RFI sources that will become visible in long observations. Consequently, there is no indication that RFI will prevent an EoR detection with LOFAR.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435:584. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some radio pulsars show clear drifting subpulses, in which subpulses are seen to drift in pulse longitude in a systematic pattern. Here we examine how the drifting subpulses of PSR B0809+74 evolve with time and observing frequency. We show that the subpulse period (P3) is constant on timescales of days, months and years, and between 14-5100 MHz. Despite this, the shapes of the driftbands change radically with frequency. Previous studies have concluded that, while the subpulses appear to move through the pulse window approximately linearly at low frequencies (< 500 MHz), a discrete step of 180 degrees in subpulse phase is observed at higher frequencies (> 820 MHz) near to the peak of the average pulse profile. We use LOFAR, GMRT, GBT, WSRT and Effelsberg 100-m data to explore the frequency-dependence of this phase step. We show that the size of the subpulse phase step increases gradually, and is observable even at low frequencies. We attribute the subpulse phase step to the presence of two separate driftbands, whose relative arrival times vary with frequency - one driftband arriving 30 pulses earlier at 20 MHz than it does at 1380 MHz, whilst the other arrives simultaneously at all frequencies. The drifting pattern which is observed here cannot be explained by either the rotating carousel model or the surface oscillation model, and could provide new insight into the physical processes happening within the pulsar magnetosphere.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; 552:A61. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; Volume 552(A58). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ionFR calculates the amount of ionospheric Faraday rotation for a specific epoch, geographic location, and line-of-sight. The code uses a number of publicly available, GPS-derived total electron content maps and the most recent release of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. ionFR can be used for the calibration of radio polarimetric observations; its accuracy had been demonstrated using LOFAR pulsar observations.
    Astrophysics Source Code Library. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Cassiopeia A was observed using the Low-Band Antennas of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) with high spectral resolution. This allowed a search for radio recombination lines (RRLs) along the line-of-sight to this source. Five carbon-alpha RRLs were detected in absorption between 40 and 50 MHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of > 5 from two independent LOFAR datasets. The derived line velocities (v_LSR ~ -50 km/s) and integrated optical depths (~ 13 s^-1) of the RRLs in our spectra, extracted over the whole supernova remnant, are consistent within each LOFAR dataset and with those previously reported. For the first time, we are able to extract spectra against the brightest hotspot of the remnant at frequencies below 330 MHz. These spectra show significantly higher (15-80 %) integrated optical depths, indicating that there is small-scale angular structure on the order of ~1 pc in the absorbing gas distribution over the face of the remnant. We also place an upper limit of 3 x 10^-4 on the peak optical depths of hydrogen and helium RRLs. These results demonstrate that LOFAR has the desired spectral stability and sensitivity to study faint recombination lines in the decameter band.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; 551(L11). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulsars emit from low-frequency radio waves up to high-energy gamma-rays, generated anywhere from the stellar surface out to the edge of the magnetosphere. Detecting correlated mode changes across the electromagnetic spectrum is therefore key to understanding the physical relationship among the emission sites. Through simultaneous observations, we detected synchronous switching in the radio and x-ray emission properties of PSR B0943+10. When the pulsar is in a sustained radio-"bright" mode, the x-rays show only an unpulsed, nonthermal component. Conversely, when the pulsar is in a radio-"quiet" mode, the x-ray luminosity more than doubles and a 100% pulsed thermal component is observed along with the nonthermal component. This indicates rapid, global changes to the conditions in the magnetosphere, which challenge all proposed pulsar emission theories.
    Science 01/2013; 339(6118):436-439. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the LOFAR Epoch of Reionization (EoR) project is to detect the spectral fluctuations of the redshifted HI 21cm signal. This signal is weaker by several orders of magnitude than the astrophysical foreground signals and hence, in order to achieve this, very long integrations, accurate calibration for stations and ionosphere and reliable foreground removal are essential. One of the prospective observing windows for the LOFAR EoR project will be centered at the North Celestial Pole (NCP). We present results from observations of the NCP window using the LOFAR highband antenna (HBA) array in the frequency range 115 MHz to 163 MHz. The data were obtained in April 2011 during the commissioning phase of LOFAR. We used baselines up to about 30 km. With about 3 nights, of 6 hours each, effective integration we have achieved a noise level of about 100 microJy/PSF in the NCP window. Close to the NCP, the noise level increases to about 180 microJy/PSF, mainly due to additional contamination from unsubtracted nearby sources. We estimate that in our best night, we have reached a noise level only a factor of 1.4 above the thermal limit set by the noise from our Galaxy and the receivers. Our continuum images are several times deeper than have been achieved previously using the WSRT and GMRT arrays. We derive an analytical explanation for the excess noise that we believe to be mainly due to sources at large angular separation from the NCP.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; 550. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed spatial and spectral analysis of the large-scale X-ray emission associated with the cluster of galaxies surrounding Cygnus A. Using a 235 ksec archival Chandra exposure, we have mapped the large-scale structure, temperature and abundance of the intracluster gas in a 1 Mpc x 1 Mpc region surrounding the bright radio galaxy Cygnus A. This deep exposure coupled with Chandra's excellent spatial resolution reveals complex and dramatic temperature, pressure, entropy and metallicity structure in the system. We confirm the presence of large-scale X-ray emission associated with the two merging cluster components seen previously in lower resolution data. Mass estimates for the two merger components indicate a nearly equal mass merger while the temperature maps clearly resolve shock heated gas associated with the NW in-falling sub-cluster. In addition to the well-studied cocoon shock surrounding Cygnus A itself, we find evidence for 3 additional surface brightness features indicative of previous outburst activity in Cygnus A over the past 400 Myr. Based on the location and strength of these features, we can derive the energy associated with these previous outbursts and place constraints on the growth of the back hole in Cygnus A. Taken all together, these data suggest a system where the ongoing major merger has triggered a period of strong, episodic outbursts. In this contribution, we will present the detailed results of this analysis and place it in context with current theories for AGN feedback in clusters.
    01/2013;

Publication Stats

784 Citations
345.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2010–2014
    • Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Dwingelo, Drenthe, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2007–2009
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • The University of Manchester
      • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States