[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop, pilot, and evaluate a curriculum for teaching clinical risk communication skills to medical students.
A new experience-based curriculum, "Risk Talk," was developed and piloted over a 1-year period among students at Tufts University School of Medicine. An experimental study of 2nd-year students exposed vs. unexposed to the curriculum was conducted to evaluate the curriculum's efficacy. Primary outcome measures were students' objective (observed) and subjective (self-reported) risk communication competence; the latter was assessed using an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) employing new measures.
Twenty-eight 2nd-year students completed the curriculum, and exhibited significantly greater (p<.001) objective and subjective risk communication competence than a convenience sample of 24 unexposed students. New observational measures of objective competence in risk communication showed promising evidence of reliability and validity. The curriculum was resource-intensive.
The new experience-based clinical risk communication curriculum was efficacious, although resource-intensive. More work is needed to develop the feasibility of curriculum delivery, and to improve the measurement of competence in clinical risk communication.
Risk communication is an important advanced communication skill, and the Risk Talk curriculum provides a model educational intervention and new assessment tools to guide future efforts to teach and evaluate this skill.
Patient Education and Counseling 09/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether physicians' attitudes regarding the impact of ADHD on healthrelated quality of life (HRQL) explain differences in practices for prescribing psychostimulants in children. Method: In a cross-sectional survey, U.S.-based pediatricians and psychiatrists ("physicians") used the Paper-Standard Gamble-a widely used preference-based assessment of HRQL-to rate four vignettes describing ADHD health states of varying severity. Associations between standard gamble scores and questions about prescribing practices were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Results: Surveys were mailed to 291 physicians; 127 (44%) returned complete forms. Lower standard gamble scores were associated with more emphasis on children's ADHD symptoms (p = .03) and less emphasis on parents' concerns about stimulant side effects (p = .03) when prescribing psychostimulants. Conclusion: Differences in physician perceptions of the severity of ADHD symptoms and in their emphasis on parental concerns about side effects may help explain variations in ADHD psychostimulant prescription patterns. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX).
Journal of Attention Disorders 11/2012; · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine psychiatrists' barriers, attitudes, and practices regarding cardiac screening prior to initiating stimulants in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Background: Professional and federal oversight organizations recently have debated the evidence regarding sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk with stimulants, and have published guidelines recommending cardiac screening. It is not known how psychiatrists have responded. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of 1,600 randomly-selected U.S. members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Response rate was 40%; 96% met eligibility criteria. Barriers to identifying cardiac disorders in general included ability to perform a routine physical examination (74%) and care coordination with primary care providers (35%). Only 27% agreed that SCD risk warranted cardiac assessment. Prior to starting a patient on stimulants, 95% of psychiatrists obtained a routine history. The majority either conducted (9%), or relied on primary care providers to conduct (67%) a physical examination; 26% did not obtain a physical examination. Nineteen percent of psychiatrists ordered an electrocardiogram (ECG), of those, non-mutually exclusive reasons for ordering an ECG included standard practice procedure (62%), clinical findings (27%), medicolegal considerations (25%), and guideline adherence (24%). On multivariate modeling, psychiatrists were less likely to conduct cardiac screening themselves if in private practice (referent: academic medical center), if >50% of their patients had private insurance, or if they believed their ability to perform a physical examination to be a barrier. When modeling cardiac screening performed by any healthcare professional (e.g., psychiatrist, primary care practitioner), screening was less likely if the psychiatrist was practicing in a community mental health center (referent: academic medical center), was male, or if >50% of that psychiatrist's patients had private insurance. Conclusion: Findings suggest the tacit interplay between primary care and psychiatry for the assessment and management of medical risks associated with psychotropic medications should be improved, and solutions prioritized.
Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 10/2012; 22(5):375-84. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trust and confidence are critical to the success of health care models. There are two main methods for achieving this: transparency (people can see how the model is built) and validation (how well it reproduces reality). This report describes recommendations for achieving transparency and validation, developed by a task force appointed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the Society for Medical Decision Making (SMDM). Recommendations were developed iteratively by the authors. A nontechnical description should be made available to anyone-including model type and intended applications; funding sources; structure; inputs, outputs, other components that determine function, and their relationships; data sources; validation methods and results; and limitations. Technical documentation, written in sufficient detail to enable a reader with necessary expertise to evaluate the model and potentially reproduce it, should be made available openly or under agreements that protect intellectual property, at the discretion of the modelers. Validation involves face validity (wherein experts evaluate model structure, data sources, assumptions, and results), verification or internal validity (check accuracy of coding), cross validity (comparison of results with other models analyzing same problem), external validity (comparing model results to real-world results), and predictive validity (comparing model results with prospectively observed events). The last two are the strongest form of validation. Each section of this paper contains a number of recommendations that were iterated among the authors, as well as the wider modeling task force jointly set up by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research and the Society for Medical Decision Making.
Medical Decision Making 09/2012; 32(5):733-743. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sudden cardiac death in children is a rare but devastating event. Experts have debated the merits of community-based screening programs using an ECG and targeting 2 potential high-risk groups: school-aged children initiating stimulant medications to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adolescents participating in sports.
Simulation models incorporating detailed prevalence, sensitivity and specificity, and treatment algorithms were built to determine the cost-effectiveness of targeted sudden cardiac death screening. Clinical care algorithms were constructed for asymptomatic children initiating stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (8 years of age) or participating in sports (14 years of age) and presenting with a positive ECG finding suggestive of 1 of the 3 most common pediatric disorders causing sudden cardiac death and identifiable by ECG. Information to develop simulation model assumptions was drawn from the existing literature, Medicaid fees, and expert judgment. Sensitivity analyses examined parameter ranges to identify influential sources of uncertainty. Outcomes included costs and lost life-years caused by condition-related mortality. Our models estimate that screening for all 3 conditions simultaneously would reduce sudden death risk by 3.6 to 7.5 × 10(-5) with projected life expectancy increases of 0.8 to 1.6 days per screened individual. The incremental cost-effectiveness of screening is $91,000 to $204,000 per life-year. Sensitivity analysis showed that assumed disease prevalence, baseline mortality, and the relative risk of mortality resulting from stimulant medication use and sports participation had the greatest impact on estimated cost-effectiveness.
Results based on assumptions favoring sudden cardiac death screening indicated that its cost is high relative to its health benefits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs in an estimated 0.8 to 6.2 per 100 000 children annually. Screening for cardiac disorders causing SCD in asymptomatic children has public appeal because of its apparent potential to avert tragedy; however, performance of the electrocardiogram (ECG) as a screening tool is unknown. We estimated (1) phenotypic (ECG- or echocardiogram [ECHO]-based) prevalence of selected pediatric disorders associated with SCD, and (2) sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ECG, alone or with ECHO.
We systematically reviewed literature on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), long QT syndrome (LQTS), and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the 3 most common disorders associated with SCD and detectable by ECG.
We identified and screened 6954 abstracts, yielding 396 articles, and extracted data from 30. Summary phenotypic prevalences per 100 000 asymptomatic children were 45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10-79) for HCM, 7 (95% CI: 0-14) for LQTS, and 136 (95% CI: 55-218) for Wolff-Parkinson-White. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for ECG were 0.91 for detecting HCM and 0.92 for LQTS. The negative predictive value of detecting either HCM or LQTS by using ECG was high; however, the positive predictive value varied by different sensitivity and specificity cut-points and the true prevalence of the conditions.
Results provide an evidence base for evaluating pediatric screening for these disorders. ECG, alone or with ECHO, was a sensitive test for mass screening and negative predictive value was high, but positive predictive value and false-positive rates varied.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine pediatricians' attitudes, barriers, and practices regarding cardiac screening before initiating treatment with stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
A survey of 1600 randomly selected, practicing US pediatricians with American Academy of Pediatrics membership was conducted. Multivariate models were created for 3 screening practices: (1) performing an in-depth cardiac history and physical (H & P) examination, (2) discussing potential stimulant-related cardiac risks, and (3) ordering an electrocardiogram (ECG).
Of 817 respondents (51%), 525 (64%) met eligibility criteria. Regarding attitudes, pediatricians agreed that both the risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) (24%) and legal liability (30%) were sufficiently high to warrant cardiac assessment; 75% agreed that physicians were responsible for informing families about SCD risk. When identifying cardiac disorders, few (18%) recognized performing an in-depth cardiac H & P as a barrier; in contrast, 71% recognized interpreting a pediatric ECG as a barrier. When asked about cardiac screening practices before initiating stimulant treatment for a recent patient, 93% completed a routine H & P, 48% completed an in-depth cardiac H & P, and 15% ordered an ECG. Almost half (46%) reported discussing stimulant-related cardiac risks. Multivariate modeling indicated that ≥1 of these screening practices were associated with physicians' attitudes about SCD risk, legal liability, their responsibility to inform about risk, their ability to perform an in-depth cardiac H & P, and family concerns about risk.
Variable pediatrician attitudes and cardiac screening practices reflect the limited evidence base and conflicting guidelines regarding cardiac screening. Barriers to identifying cardiac disorders influence practice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine components of family-centered care in families' stories about treatment decision making for their child with ADHD. Method: Twenty-eight families participated in qualitative interviews that addressed families' perspectives on (a) the treatment decision-making process, (b) the cause and impact of their child's symptoms, and (c) treatment goals and preferences. Results: The majority of families preferred to be primary or shared decision makers regarding treatment decisions. Families' perspectives on the cause of the child's symptoms varied and often were not consistent with a biomedical framework. Families described multiple areas of impairment on child, family relationships, and family functioning. Perspectives toward evidence-based treatments were mixed, with families also expressing interest in and pursuing interventions not delineated in current treatment guidelines. Conclusion: These findings reinforce the importance of eliciting families' perspectives and involving these important stakeholders in shared decision making as critical components of family-centered care for children with ADHD.
Journal of Attention Disorders 10/2011; 16(8):675-84. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) contemplating brain surgery must make a complex treatment decision involving trade-offs. Patient decision aids, containing information on the risks and benefits of treatment interventions, increase patient knowledge and facilitate shared decision making between patients and physicians. We conducted five focus groups to describe the information patients need to make informed decisions about TLE surgery. Twenty patients who had undergone TLE surgery described the information used in their decision-making process, and evaluated the potential for a patient decision aid to assist other patients who are considering surgery. Thematic analysis revealed information needs that were both experiential (i.e., learning about other patients' experiences through testimonials) and factual (i.e., individualized statistical information). Patients also made suggestions on how this information should be delivered to patients. These data will accelerate the development of a patient decision aid designed to assist TLE patients in their decision making about epilepsy surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon (IFN) and pegylated-IFN treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in hemodialysis patients result in sustained virological response (SVR) rates of 45% and 37%, respectively. Although most nonhemodialysis patients who achieve SVR remain persistently viral negative, the durability of SVR in hemodialysis patients is unknown. We analyzed the rate of long-term virological negativity in hemodialysis patients who achieved SVR after IFN or pegylated-IFN through analysis of patient-level data.
After performing a systematic literature review for IFN-based treatment of hemodialysis patients with chronic HCV infection, we extracted patient-level data on patients who achieved SVR. We performed life table analysis to estimate long-term virological negativity rates after SVR in patients who continued on hemodialysis or subsequently underwent kidney transplantation.
Long-term HCV RNA outcomes following SVR were available for 121 hemodialysis patients (20 studies) and 45 patients who subsequently underwent transplantation (11 studies). The probability of remaining HCV RNA negative was 86% (95% confidence interval, 77% to 96%) for patients followed on hemodialysis 48 months after SVR and 95% (95% confidence interval, 89% to 100%) for kidney recipients followed 48 months after transplant.
Viral negativity from IFN-based HCV treatment in hemodialysis patient appears durable during extended follow-up, including after kidney transplantation. The certainty of the viral negativity estimate is limited by the small number with follow-up beyond 48 months or longer. Transplantation does not confer an increased risk of relapse. Future research should investigate whether IFN-based treatment improves clinical outcomes for hemodialysis patients.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/2011; 6(9):2226-34. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early living-donor transplantation improves patient- and graft-survival compared with possible cadaveric renal transplantation (RTx), but the magnitude of the survival gain is unknown. For patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT), we aimed to quantify the survival benefit of early living-donor transplantation compared with dialysis and possible cadaveric transplantation and to estimate the population benefit from increasing the early transplantation rate.
We used a decision-analytic computer-simulation model, with a lifetime time horizon, simulating patients starting RRT, using data from the Dutch End-Stage Renal Disease Registry and published data. We compared the (quality adjusted) life expectancy (LE) of 'early living-donor RTx' and 'dialysis' (with possible cadaveric RTx if available).
LE and quality-adjusted LE benefits of the early living-donor RTx compared with the dialysis strategy for 40-year-old patients ranged from 7.5 to 9.9 life years (LYs) [6.7-8.8 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)] depending on the primary renal disease. For 70-year-old patients, the benefit was 4.3-6.0 LYs (4.3-6.0 QALYs). Increasing the early transplantation rate from currently 5.8 to 22.2% (the highest in Europe) would increase average LE by 1.2 LYs and total LE for annual incident cases in the Netherlands by >1800 LYs.
Efforts to increase early living-donor RTx could potentially substantially increase LE for patients starting RRT, especially in younger patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Milk contains calcium, phosphorus, and protein and is fortified with vitamin D in the United States. All these ingredients may improve bone health. However, the potential benefit of milk on hip fracture prevention is not well established. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk intake with risk of hip fracture based on a meta-analysis of cohort studies in middle-aged or older men and women. Data sources for this study were English and non-English publications via Medline (Ovid, PubMed) and EMBASE search up to June 2010, experts in the field, and reference lists. The idea was to compare prospective cohort studies on the same scale so that we could calculate the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture per glass of milk intake daily (approximately 300 mg calcium per glass of milk). Pooled analyses were based on random effects models. The data were extracted by two independent observers. The results show that in women (6 studies, 195,102 women, 3574 hip fractures), there was no overall association between total milk intake and hip fracture risk (pooled RR per glass of milk per day = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.02; Q-test p = .37). In men (3 studies, 75,149 men, 195 hip fractures), the pooled RR per daily glass of milk was 0.91 (95% CI 0.81-1.01). Our conclusion is that in our meta-analysis of cohort studies, there was no overall association between milk intake and hip fracture risk in women but that more data are needed in men.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 04/2011; 26(4):833-9. · 6.04 Impact Factor