Johannes Pfeilschifter

Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (28)123.21 Total impact

  • 09/2014;
  • Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 02/2014; 29(2). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Several fracture prediction models that combine fractures at different sites into a composite outcome are in current use. However, to the extent individual fracture sites have differing risk factor profiles, model discrimination is impaired. Objective. To improve model discrimination by developing a 5-yr composite fracture prediction model for fracture sites that display similar risk profiles. Design. Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting. Primary care practices in 10 countries. Patients. Women aged ≥55 years. Intervention. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on patient characteristics, fracture risk factors and previous fractures. Main Outcome Measure. Main outcome is time to first clinical fracture of hip, pelvis, upper leg, clavicle, or spine, each of which exhibits a strong association with advanced age. Results. Of four composite fracture models considered, model discrimination (c index) is highest for an age-related fracture model (c index 0.75, 47,066 women), and lowest for FRAX major fracture and a 10-site model (c indices 0.67 and 0.65). The unadjusted increase in fracture risk for an additional 10 yr of age ranges from 80% to 180% for the individual bones in the age-associated model. Five other fracture sites not considered for the age-associated model (upper arm/shoulder, rib, wrist, lower leg, and ankle) have age associations for an additional 10 yr of age from a 10% decrease to a 60% increase. Conclusions. After examining results for 10 different bone fracture sites, advanced age appeared the single best possibility for uniting several different sites, resulting in an empirically based composite fracture risk model.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2014; · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fractures may be associated with higher morbidity in obese postmenopausal women than in nonobese women. We compared health-care utilization, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese, nonobese, and underweight women with fractures. Information from the GLOW study, started in 2006, was collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. In this subanalysis, self-reported incident clinical fractures, health-care utilization, HRQL, and functional status were recorded and examined. Women in GLOW (n = 60,393) were aged ≥55 years, from 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. Complete data for fracture and body mass index were available for 90 underweight, 3,270 nonobese, and 941 obese women with one or more incident clinical fractures during the 3-year follow-up. The median hospital length of stay, adjusted for age, comorbidities, and fracture type, was significantly greater in obese than nonobese women (6 vs. 5 days, p = 0.017). Physical function and vitality score were significantly worse in obese than in nonobese women, both before and after fracture; but changes after fracture were similar across groups. Use of antiosteoporosis medication was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese or underweight women. In conclusion, obese women with fracture undergo a longer period of hospitalization for treatment and have poorer functional status and HRQL than nonobese women. Whether these differences translate into higher economic costs and adverse effects on longer-term outcomes remains to be established.
    Calcified Tissue International 09/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate patient risk perception of adverse health events promotes greater autonomy over, and motivation towards, health-related lifestyles. Introduction We compared self-perceived fracture risk and 3-year incident fracture rates in postmenopausal women with a range of morbidities in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Methods GLOW is an international cohort study involving 723 physician practices across ten countries (Europe, North America, Australasia); 60,393 women aged ≥55 years completed baseline questionnaires detailing medical history and self-perceived fracture risk. Annual follow-up determined self-reported incident fractures. Results In total 2,945/43,832 (6.8 %) sustained an incident fracture over 3 years. All morbidities were associated with increased fracture rates, particularly Parkinson's disease (hazard ratio [HR]; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 3.89; 2.78–5.44), multiple sclerosis (2.70; 1.90–3.83), cerebrovascular events (2.02; 1.67–2.46), and rheumatoid arthritis (2.15; 1.53–3.04) (all p < 0.001). Most individuals perceived their fracture risk as similar to (46 %) or lower than (36 %) women of the same age. While increased self-perceived fracture risk was strongly associated with incident fracture rates, only 29 % experiencing a fracture perceived their risk as increased. Under-appreciation of fracture risk occurred for all morbidities, including neurological disease, where women with low self-perceived fracture risk had a fracture HR 2.39 (CI 1.74–3.29) compared with women without morbidities. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with morbidities tend to under-appreciate their risk, including in the context of neurological diseases, where fracture rates were highest in this cohort. This has important implications for health education, particularly among women with Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, or cerebrovascular disease.
    Osteoporosis International 07/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-osteoporosis medication (AOM) does not abolish fracture risk, and some individuals experience multiple fractures while on treatment. Therefore, criteria for treatment failure have recently been defined. Using data from the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed risk factors for treatment failure, defined as sustaining ≥2 fractures while on AOM. GLOW is a prospective, observational cohort study of women aged ≥55 years sampled from primary care practices in 10 countries. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on patient characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, AOM use, and health status. Data were analyzed from women who used the same class of AOM continuously over 3 survey-years and had data available on fracture occurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of treatment failure. Data from 26,918 women were available, of whom 5550 were on AOM. During follow-up, 73/5550 women in the AOM group (1.3%) and 123/21,368 in the non-AOM group (0.6%) reported occurrence of ≥2 fractures. The following variables were associated with treatment failure: lower SF-36 score (physical function and vitality) at baseline, higher FRAX score, falls in the past 12 months, selected comorbid conditions, prior fracture, current use of glucocorticoids, need of arms to assist to standing, and unexplained weight loss ≥10 lb (≥4.5 kg). Three variables remained predictive of treatment failure after multivariable analysis: worse SF-36 vitality score (odds ratio [OR] per 10-point increase 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.95; p = 0.004), ≥2 falls in the past year (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.34-4.29; p = 0.011), and prior fracture (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.81-4.75; p < 0.0001). The C statistic for the model was 0.712. Specific strategies for fracture prevention should therefore be developed for this subgroup of patients.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2013; · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied 7,897 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis to assess factors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL). An increased number of comorbidities, fear of falling, and previous vertebral fracture were associated with significant reductions in HRQoL. Understanding the factors that affect HRQoL may improve management of these patients. INTRODUCTION: HRQoL is impaired in women treated for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between clinical characteristics, comorbidities, medical history, patient demographics, and HRQoL in women with PMO. METHODS: Baseline data were obtained and combined from two large and similar multinational observational studies: Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) and in the US (POSSIBLE US™) including postmenopausal women in primary care settings initiating or switching bone loss treatment, or who had been on bone loss treatment for some time. HRQoL measured by health utility scores (EQ-5D™) were available for 7,897 women (94 % of study participants). The relationship between HRQoL and baseline clinical characteristics, medical history and patient demographics was assessed using parsimonious, multivariable, mixed-model analyses. RESULTS: Median health utility score was 0.80 (interquartile range 0.69-1.00). In multivariable analyses, young age, low body mass index, previous vertebral fracture, increased number of comorbidities, high fear of falling, and depression were associated with reduced HRQoL. Regression-based model estimates showed that previous vertebral fracture was associated with lower health utility scores by 0.08 (10.3 %) and demonstrated the impact of multiple comorbidities and of fear of falling on HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: In this large observational study of women with PMO, there was substantial interindividual variability in HRQoL. An increased number of comorbidities, fear of falling, and previous vertebral fracture were associated with significant reductions in HRQoL.
    Osteoporosis International 06/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To test whether women aged 55 and older with increasing evidence of a frailty phenotype would have greater risk of fractures, disability, and recurrent falls than women who were not frail, across geographic areas (Australia, Europe, and North America) and age groups. DESIGN: Multinational, longitudinal, observational cohort study. SETTING: Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). PARTICIPANTS: Women (N = 48,636) aged 55 and older enrolled at sites in Australia, Europe, and North America. MEASUREMENTS: Components of frailty (slowness and weakness, poor endurance and exhaustion, physical activity, and unintentional weight loss) at baseline and report of fracture, disability, and recurrent falls at 1 year of follow-up were investigated. Women also reported health and demographic characteristics at baseline. RESULTS: Women younger than 75 from the United States were more likely to be prefrail and frail than those from Australia, Canada, and Europe. The distribution of frailty was similar according to region for women aged 75 and older. Odds ratios from multivariable models for frailty versus nonfrailty were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.42) for fracture, 2.29 (95% CI = 2.09-2.51) for disability, and 1.68 (95% CI = 1.54-1.83) for recurrent falls. The associations for prefrailty versus nonfrailty were weaker but still indicated statistically significantly greater risk of each outcome. Overall, associations between frailty and each outcome were similar across age and geographic region. CONCLUSION: Greater evidence of a frailty phenotype is associated with greater risk of fracture, disability, and falls in women aged 55 and older in 10 countries, with similar patterns across age and geographic region.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 01/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine when, where and how fractures occur in postmenopausal women. We analyzed data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), including women aged ≥55 years from the United States of America, Canada, Australia and seven European countries. Women completed questionnaires including fracture data at baseline and years 1, 2 and 3. Among 60,393 postmenopausal women, 4122 incident fractures were reported (86% non-hip, non-vertebral [NHNV], 8% presumably clinical vertebral and 6% hip). Hip fractures were more likely to occur in spring, with little seasonal variation for NHNV or spine fractures. Hip fractures occurred equally inside or outside the home, whereas 65% of NHNV fractures occurred outside and 61% of vertebral fractures occurred inside the home. Falls preceded 68-86% of NHNV and 68-83% of hip fractures among women aged ≤64 to ≥85 years, increasing with age. About 45% of vertebral fractures were associated with falls in all age groups except those ≥85 years, when only 24% occurred after falling. In this multi-national cohort, fractures occurred throughout the year, with only hip fracture having a seasonal variation, with a higher proportion in spring. Hip fractures occurred equally within and outside the home, spine fractures more often in the home, and NHNV fractures outside the home. Falls were a proximate cause of most hip and NHNV fractures. Postmenopausal women at risk for fracture need counseling about reducing potentially modifiable fracture risk factors, particularly falls both inside and outside the home and during all seasons of the year.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83306. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among 50,461 postmenopausal women, 1,822 fractures occurred (57% minor non-hip, non-vertebral [NHNV], 26% major NHNV, 10% spine, 7% hip) over 1 year. Spine fractures had the greatest detrimental effect on EQ-5D, followed by major NHNV and hip fractures. Decreases in physical function and health status were greatest for spine or hip fractures. Introduction There is growing evidence that NHNV fractures result in substantial morbidity and healthcare costs. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effect of these NHNV fractures on quality of life. Methods We analyzed the 1-year incidences of hip, spine, major NHNV (pelvis/leg, shoulder/arm) and minor NHNV (wrist/hand, ankle/foot, rib/clavicle) fractures among women from the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was analyzed using the EuroQol EQ-5D tool and the SF-36 health survey. Results Among 50,461 women analyzed, there were 1,822 fractures (57% minor NHNV, 26% major NHNV, 10% spine, 7% hip) over 1 year. Spine fractures had the greatest detrimental effect on EQ-5D summary scores, followed by major NHNV and hip fractures. The number of women with mobility problems increased most for those with major NHNV and spine fractures (both +8%); spine fractures were associated with the largest increases in problems with self care (+11%), activities (+14%), and pain/discomfort (+12%). Decreases in physical function and health status were greatest for those with spine or hip fractures. Multivariable modeling found that EQ-5D reduction was greatest for spine fractures, followed by hip and major/minor NHNV. Statistically significant reductions in SF-36 physical function were found for spine fractures, and were borderline significant for major NHNV fractures. Conclusion This prospective study shows that NHNV fractures have a detrimental effect on HRQL. Efforts to optimize the care of osteoporosis patients should include the prevention of NHNV fractures.
    Osteoporosis International 12/2012; 23(12). · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Many women at risk of fracture do not receive anti-osteoporosis medication (AOM), while others may be receiving unnecessary treatment. PURPOSE: To examine the characteristics associated with AOM use among women at low and high risks of fracture. METHODS: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is a prospective cohort study in which data were collected, via self-administered questionnaires, from 60,393 non-institutionalized women aged ≥55years in 10 countries between October 1, 2006 and April 30, 2008. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline USA data, in which women were classified as having low fracture risk (<65years; no FRAX risk factors) or high fracture risk (≥65years; prior fracture or ≥2 other FRAX risk factors). RESULTS: Of 27,957 women, 3013 were at low risk of fracture and 3699 were at high risk. Only 35.7% of high-risk women reported AOM treatment, rising to 39.5% for those with self-reported osteopenia and 65.4% for those with self-reported osteoporosis. Conversely, 13.4% of low-risk women reported AOM, rising to 28.7% for osteopenia and 62.4% for osteoporosis. Characteristics associated with significantly higher AOM treatment rates among low- and high-risk women were: osteoporosis (odds ratios 75.3 and 18.1, respectively), osteopenia (17.9 and 6.3), concern about osteoporosis (2.0 and 1.8), higher perceived risk of fracture (2.3 and 1.6), and higher vitality score (1.7 and 1.6). CONCLUSION: Use of AOM is frequently inconsistent with published guidelines in both high- and low-risk women. Characteristics other than FRAX fracture risk appear to influence this use, particularly the presence of self-reported osteoporosis.
    Bone 09/2012; 51(6):975-980. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Patients with osteoarthritis have increased bone mass but no decrease in fractures. The association between self-reported osteoarthritis and incident falls and fractures was studied in postmenopausal women. METHODS: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women is a prospective multinational cohort of 60 393 non-institutionalised women aged ≥55 years who had visited primary care practices within the previous 2 years. Questionnaires were mailed at yearly intervals. Patients were classified as having osteoarthritis if they answered yes to the question, 'Has a doctor or other health provider ever said that you had osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease?', and this was validated against primary care records in a subsample. Information on incident falls, fractures and covariates was self-reported. Cox and Poisson models were used for incident fractures and number of falls, respectively, to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and rate ratios (RRs) for baseline osteoarthritis status. RESULTS: Of 51 386 women followed for a median of 2.9 years (interquartile range 2.1-3.0), 20 409 (40%) reported osteoarthritis. The adjusted HR for osteoarthritis predicting fracture was 1.21 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.30; p<0.0001) and the adjusted RR for falls was 1.24 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.26; p<0.0001). However, the association between osteoarthritis and fracture was not significant after adjustment for incident falls (HR 1.06 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.15; p=0.13)). CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis have a 20% increased risk of fracture and experience 25% more falls than those without osteoarthritis. These data suggest that increased falls are the causal pathway of the association between osteoarthritis and fractures.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2012; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to examine fracture risk profiles at specific bone sites, and to understand why model discrimination using clinical risk factors is generally better in hip fracture models than in models that combine hip with other bones. Using 3-year data from the GLOW study (54,229 women with more than 4400 total fractures), we present Cox regression model results for 10 individual fracture sites, for both any and first-time fracture, among women aged ≥55 years. Advanced age is the strongest risk factor in hip (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.3 per 10-year increase), pelvis (HR = 1.8), upper leg (HR = 1.8), and clavicle (HR = 1.7) models. Age has a weaker association with wrist (HR = 1.1), rib (HR = 1.2), lower leg (not statistically significant), and ankle (HR = 0.81) fractures. Greater weight is associated with reduced risk for hip, pelvis, spine, and wrist, but higher risk for first lower leg and ankle fractures. Prior fracture of the same bone, although significant in nine of 10 models, is most strongly associated with spine (HR = 6.6) and rib (HR = 4.8) fractures. Past falls are important in all but spine models. Model c indices are ≥0.71 for hip, pelvis, upper leg, spine, clavicle, and rib, but ≤0.66 for upper arm/shoulder, lower leg, wrist, and ankle fractures. The c index for combining hip, spine, upper arm, and wrist (major fracture) is 0.67. First-time fracture models have c indices ranging from 0.59 for wrist to 0.78 for hip and pelvis. The c index for first-time major fracture is 0.63. In conclusion, substantial differences in risk profiles exist among the 10 bones considered.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 05/2012; 27(9):1907-15. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated healthcare utilization associated with treating fracture types in >51,000 women aged ≥55 years. Over the course of 1 year, there were five times more non-hip, non-spine fractures than hip or spine fractures, resulting in twice as many days of hospitalization and rehabilitation/nursing home care for non-hip, non-spine fractures. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to evaluate medical healthcare utilization associated with treating several types of fractures in women ≥55 years from various geographic regions. METHODS: Information from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) was collected via self-administered patient questionnaires at baseline and year 1 (n = 51,491). Self-reported clinically recognized low-trauma fractures at year 1 were classified as incident spine, hip, wrist/hand, arm/shoulder, pelvis, rib, leg, and other fractures. Healthcare utilization data were self-reported and included whether the fracture was treated at a doctor's office/clinic or at a hospital. Patients were asked if they had undergone surgery or been treated at a rehabilitation center or nursing home. RESULTS: During 1-year follow-up, there were 195 spine, 134 hip, and 1,654 non-hip, non-spine fractures. Clinical vertebral fractures resulted in 617 days of hospitalization and 512 days of rehabilitation/nursing home care; hip fractures accounted for 1,306 days of hospitalization and 1,650 days of rehabilitation/nursing home care. Non-hip, non-spine fractures resulted in 3,805 days in hospital and 5,186 days of rehabilitation/nursing home care. CONCLUSIONS: While hip and vertebral fractures are well recognized for their associated increase in health resource utilization, non-hip, non-spine fractures, by virtue of their 5-fold greater number, require significantly more healthcare resources.
    Osteoporosis International 04/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Greater awareness of the relationship between co-morbidities and fracture risk may improve fracture-prediction algorithms such as FRAX. We used a large, multinational cohort study (GLOW) to investigate the effect of co-morbidities on fracture risk. Women completed a baseline questionnaire detailing past medical history, including co-morbidity history and fracture. They were re-contacted annually to determine incident clinical fractures. A co-morbidity index, defined as number of baseline co-morbidities, was derived. The effect of adding the co-morbidity index to FRAX risk factors on fracture prevention was examined using chi-squared tests, the May-Hosmer test, c index and comparison of predicted versus observed fracture rates. Of 52,960 women with follow-up data, enrolled between October 2006 and February 2008, 3224 (6.1%) sustained an incident fracture over 2 years. All recorded co-morbidities were significantly associated with fracture, except for high cholesterol, hypertension, celiac disease, and cancer. The strongest association was seen with Parkinson's disease (age-adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6-3.1; P<0.001). Co-morbidities that contributed most to fracture prediction in a Cox regression model with FRAX risk factors as additional predictors were: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis, and heart disease. Co-morbidities, as captured in a co-morbidity index, contributed significantly to fracture risk in this study population. Parkinson's disease carried a particularly high risk of fracture; and increasing co-morbidity index was associated with increasing fracture risk. Addition of co-morbidity index to FRAX risk factors improved fracture prediction.
    Bone 03/2012; 50(6):1288-93. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the proportion of untreated women who reported receiving treatment after incident fracture and to identify factors that predict treatment across an international spectrum of individuals. Prospective observational study. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed at baseline and 1 year. Multinational cohort of noninstitutionalized women recruited from 723 primary physician practices in 10 countries. Sixty thousand three hundred ninety-three postmenopausal women aged 55 and older were recruited with a 2:1 oversampling of women aged 65 and older. Data collected included participant demographics, medical history, fracture occurrence, medications, and risk factors for fracture. Anti-osteoporosis medications (AOMs) included estrogen, selective estrogen receptor modulators, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, and strontium. After the first year of follow-up, 1,075 women reported an incident fracture. Of these, 17% had started AOM, including 15% of those with a single fracture and 35% with multiple fractures. Predictors of treatment included baseline calcium use (P = .01), baseline diagnosis of osteoporosis (P < .001), and fracture type (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, women taking calcium supplements at baseline (odds ratio (OR) = 1.67) and with a baseline diagnosis of osteoporosis (OR = 2.55) were more likely to be taking AOM. Hip fracture (OR = 2.61), spine fracture (OR = 6.61), and multiple fractures (OR = 3.79) were associated with AOM treatment. Age, global region, and use of high-risk medications were not associated with treatment. More than 80% of older women with new fractures were not treated, despite the availability of AOM. Important factors associated with treatment in this international cohort included diagnosis of osteoporosis before the incident fracture, spine fracture, and to a lesser degree, hip fracture.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 02/2012; 60(3):455-61. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women aged ≥55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures, respectively, since age 45 years. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no previous fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.3) and hip (HR = 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, and previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture. Women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 11/2011; 27(3):645-53. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined variations in proportions of hip fractures and major fractures among postmenopausal women using the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). The proportion of major fractures that were hip fractures varied with age and region, whereas variations in the proportion of fractures that were major fractures appeared modest. In many countries, the World Health Organization fracture risk assessment tool calculates the probability of major fractures by assuming a uniform age-associated proportion of major fractures that are hip fractures in different countries. We further explored this assumption, using data from the GLOW. GLOW is an observational population-based study of 60,393 non-institutionalized women aged ≥55 years who had visited practices within the previous 2 years. Main outcome measures were self-reported prevalent fractures after the age of 45 years and incident fractures during the 2 years of follow-up. The adjusted proportion of prevalent and incident major fractures after the age of 45 years that were hip fractures was higher in North America (16%, 17%) than in northern (13%, 12%) and southern Europe (10%, 10%), respectively. The proportion of incident major fractures that were hip fractures increased more than five-fold with age, from 6.6% among 55-59-year-olds to 34% among those aged ≥85 years. Regional and age-associated variations in the proportion of all incident fractures that were major fractures were less marked, not exceeding 16% and 28%, respectively. The data suggest that there may be regional differences in the proportion of major fractures that are hip fractures in postmenopausal women. In contrast, the regional and age-related variations in the proportion of fractures that are major fractures appear to be modest. However, because of the limited number of fractures in our sample, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
    Osteoporosis International 11/2011; 23(8):2179-88. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and incidence of clinical fractures in obese, postmenopausal women enrolled in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). This was a multinational, prospective, observational, population-based study carried out by 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. A total of 60,393 women aged ≥ 55 years were included. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires that covered domains that included patient characteristics, fracture history, risk factors for fracture, and anti-osteoporosis medications. Body mass index (BMI) and fracture history were available at baseline and at 1 and 2 years in 44,534 women, 23.4% of whom were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Fracture prevalence in obese women at baseline was 222 per 1000 and incidence at 2 years was 61.7 per 1000, similar to rates in nonobese women (227 and 66.0 per 1000, respectively). Fractures in obese women accounted for 23% and 22% of all previous and incident fractures, respectively. The risk of incident ankle and upper leg fractures was significantly higher in obese than in nonobese women, while the risk of wrist fracture was significantly lower. Obese women with fracture were more likely to have experienced early menopause and to report 2 or more falls in the past year. Self-reported asthma, emphysema, and type 1 diabetes were all significantly more common in obese than nonobese women with incident fracture. At 2 years, 27% of obese women with incident fracture were receiving bone protective therapy, compared with 41% of nonobese and 57% of underweight women. Our results demonstrate that obesity is not protective against fracture in postmenopausal women and is associated with increased risk of ankle and upper leg fractures.
    The American journal of medicine 11/2011; 124(11):1043-50. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical risk factors are associated with increased probability of fracture in postmenopausal women. We sought to compare prediction models using self-reported clinical risk factors, excluding BMD, to predict incident fracture among postmenopausal women. The GLOW study enrolled women aged 55 years or older from 723 primary-care practices in 10 countries. The population comprised 19,586 women aged 60 years or older who were not receiving antiosteoporosis medication and were followed annually for 2 years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, and health status. The main outcome measure compares the C index for models using the WHO Fracture Risk (FRAX), the Garvan Fracture Risk Calculator (FRC), and a simple model using age and prior fracture. Over 2 years, 880 women reported incident fractures including 69 hip fractures, 468 "major fractures" (as defined by FRAX), and 583 "osteoporotic fractures" (as defined by FRC). Using baseline clinical risk factors, both FRAX and FRC showed a moderate ability to correctly order hip fracture times (C index for hip fracture 0.78 and 0.76, respectively). C indices for "major" and "osteoporotic" fractures showed lower values, at 0.61 and 0.64. Neither algorithm was better than the model based on age + fracture history alone (C index for hip fracture 0.78). In conclusion, estimation of fracture risk in an international primary-care population of postmenopausal women can be made using clinical risk factors alone without BMD. However, more sophisticated models incorporating multiple clinical risk factors including falls were not superior to more parsimonious models in predicting future fracture in this population.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 09/2011; 26(11):2770-7. · 6.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

297 Citations
123.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus
      Essen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2013
    • Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2013
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2012
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Center for Outcomes Research
      Worcester, MA, United States
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • School of Medicine
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2010
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Medicine
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada