Journal of Hypertension 01/2010; 28. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000378900.35954.9a · 4.22 Impact Factor
High and low blood pressure (BP) levels are common following acute stroke, with up to 60% of patients being hypertensive (SBP > 160 mmHg) and nearly 20% having relative hypotension (SBP < or = 140 mmHg), within the first few hours of ictus, both conditions being associated with an adverse prognosis. At present, the optimum management of blood pressure in the immediate post-stroke period is unclear.
The primary aim of the Controlling Hypertension and Hypotension Immediately Post-Stroke (CHHIPS) Pilot Trial is to assess whether hypertension and relative hypotension, manipulated therapeutically in the first 24 h following acute stroke, affects short-term outcome measures.
The CHHIPS Pilot Trial is a UK based multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, titrated dose trial.
Acute stroke and medical units in teaching and district general hospitals, in the UK.
The CHHIPS Pilot Study aims to recruit 2050 patients, with clinically suspected stroke, confirmed by brain imaging, who have no compelling indication or contraindication for BP manipulation.
The primary outcome measure will be the effects of acute pressor therapy (initiated < or = 12 h from stroke onset) or depressor therapy (started < or = 24 h post-ictus) on death and dependency at 14 days post-stroke. Secondary outcome measures will include the influence of therapy on early neurological deterioration, the effectiveness of treatment in manipulating BP levels, the influence of time to treatment and stroke type on response and a cost-effectiveness analysis.
Journal of Hypertension 03/2005; 23(3):649-55. · 4.22 Impact Factor
Genetic influences are important in multifactorial cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) and may act via endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a key mediator of endothelial function. We determined the role of 3 potentially functional eNOS polymorphisms (T-786C, intron 4ab, G894T) located toward the 5' flanking end of the gene as risk factors for SVD and different SVD subtypes: isolated lacunar infarction (n=137) and ischemic leukoaraiosis (n=160).
Three hundred patients with SVD and 600 community controls were studied. Genotypes were determined through polymerase chain reaction with or without restriction fragment digestion. Nitrate (NO(x)) levels were determined in a subgroup by use of a Griess method. Polymorphisms were tested individually and in combination with haplotype analysis.
The intron 4a variant was protective against SVD. This effect was confined to isolated lacunar infarction (odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.86; P=0.01). Haplotypes encountered were significantly different in this subtype compared with controls (P=0.001), with the -786C promoter/intron 4a combination particularly underrepresented. NO(x) levels were associated with the T-786C locus (P=0.03) but only in the presence of the intron 4a allele (P=0.07 for interaction).
The intron 4ab insertion/deletion genotype was associated with isolated lacunar infarction. Haplotype and functional studies suggested that the protective effect of the 4a variant could be mediated through changes in eNOS promoter activity and increased NO levels. The specific association with isolated symptomatic lacunar infarction and not ischemic leukoaraiosis may reflect different etiopathogeneses of the 2 subtypes. Lack of NO could predispose to localized microatheroma in proximal arterioles rather than diffuse arteriosclerosis affecting distal perforating vessels.
Stroke 04/2004; 35(3):654-9. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000117238.75736.53 · 6.02 Impact Factor