Joe Quadrilatero

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (45)137.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis and autophagy are critical in normal skeletal muscle homeostasis; however, dysregulation can lead to muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Lipotoxicity and/or lipid accumulation may promote apoptosis, as well as directly or indirectly influence autophagic signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 16-week high-fat diet on morphological, apoptotic, and autophagic indices in oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle of female rats. High-fat feeding resulted in increased fat pad mass, altered glucose tolerance, and lower muscle pAKT levels, as well as lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation in soleus muscle; however, muscle weights, fiber type-specific cross-sectional area, and fiber type distribution were not affected. Moreover, DNA fragmentation and LC3 lipidation as well as several apoptotic (ARC, Bax, Bid, tBid, Hsp70, pBcl-2) and autophagic (ATG7, ATG4B, Beclin 1, BNIP3, p70 s6k, cathepsin activity) indices were not altered in soleus or plantaris following high-fat diet. Interestingly, soleus muscle displayed small increases in caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activity, as well as higher ATG12-5 and p62 protein, while both soleus and plantaris muscle showed dramatically reduced Bcl-2 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) levels. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that 16 weeks of high-fat feeding does not affect tissue morphology or induce a global autophagic or apoptotic phenotype in skeletal muscle of female rats. However, high-fat feeding selectively influenced a number of apoptotic and autophagic indices which could have implications during periods of enhanced muscle stress.
    Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.). 10/2014;
  • Darin Bloemberg, Joe Quadrilatero
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle differentiation requires activity of the apoptotic protease caspase-3. We attempted to identify the source of caspase activation in differentiating C2C12 skeletal myoblasts. In addition to caspase-3, caspase-2 was transiently activated during differentiation; however, no changes were observed in caspase-8 or -9 activity. Although mitochondrial Bax increased, this was matched by Bcl-2, resulting in no change to the mitochondrial Bax:Bcl-2 ratio early during differentiation. Interestingly, mitochondrial membrane potential increased on a timeline similar to caspase activation and was accompanied by an immediate, temporary reduction in cytosolic Smac and cytochrome c. Since XIAP protein expression dramatically declined during myogenesis, we investigated whether this contributes to caspase-3 activation. Despite reducing caspase-3 activity by up to 57%, differentiation was unaffected in cells overexpressing normal or E3-mutant XIAP. Furthermore, a XIAP mutant which can inhibit caspase-9 but not caspase-3 did not reduce caspase-3 activity or affect differentiation. Administering a chemical caspase-3 inhibitor demonstrated that complete enzyme inhibition was required to impair myogenesis. These results suggest neither mitochondrial apoptotic signaling nor XIAP degradation is responsible for transient caspase-3 activation during C2C12 differentiation.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 09/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effect of concurrent exercise training and daily resveratrol (RSV) supplementation (150 mg) on training-induced adaptations following low-dose high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen recreationally active (∼22 years, ∼51 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) men were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either the RSV or placebo group with both groups performing 4 weeks of HIIT 3 days per week. Before and after training, participants had a resting muscle biopsy taken, completed a peak oxygen uptake test, a Wingate test, and a submaximal exercise test. A main effect of training (p < 0.05) and interaction effect (p < 0.05) on peak aerobic power was observed; post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that a significant (p < 0.05) increase occurred in the placebo group only. Main effects of training (p < 0.05) were observed for both peak oxygen uptake (placebo - pretraining: 51.3 ± 1.8, post-training: 54.5 ± 1.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), effect size (ES) = 0.93; RSV - pretraining: 49.6 ± 2.2, post-training: 52.3 ± 2.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), ES = 0.50) and Wingate peak power (placebo: pretraining: 747 ± 39, post-training: 809 ± 31 W, ES = 0.84; RSV - pretraining: 679 ± 39, post-training: 691 ± 43 W, ES = 0.12). Fibre-type distribution was unchanged, while a main effect of training (p < 0.05) was observed for succinate dehydrogenase activity and glycogen content, but not α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity or intramuscular lipids in type I and IIA fibres. The fold change in PGC-1α, SIRT1, and SOD2 gene expression following training was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the RSV group than placebo. These results suggest that concurrent exercise training and RSV supplementation may alter the normal training response induced by low-volume HIIT.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 07/2014; 39(11):1-9. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Elliott M McMillan, Joe Quadrilatero
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    ABSTRACT: Several degradative systems assist in formation of multinucleated, terminally differentiated myotubes. However, the role of autophagy in this process has not been examined. GFP-LC3B puncta, LC3B-II protein, and LysoTracker fluorescence increased during C2C12 differentiation. Importantly, accumulation of LC3B-II protein occurred in chloroquine (CQ) treated cells throughout differentiation. Furthermore, BECN1, ATG7, and ATG12-5 protein increased, while SQSTM1/p62 protein was rapidly reduced during differentiation. A transient decrease in BECN1:BCL2 association was observed from D0.5 to D2 of differentiation. Chemical inhibition of JNK during differentiation reduced LC3B-II protein and GFP-LC3B puncta, and maintained BECN1:BCL2 association. Inhibition of autophagy by 3MA or shRNA against Atg7 (shAtg7) resulted in lower myosin heavy chain expression, as well as impaired myoblast fusion and differentiation. Interestingly, 3MA treatment during differentiation increased transient CASP3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. Similarly, shAtg7 cells had increased DNA fragmentation during differentiation compared to controls. Collectively, these data demonstrate that autophagy increases and is required during myoblast differentiation. Moreover, autophagy protects differentiating myoblast from apoptotic cell death.
    The Biochemical journal. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: AimThe purpose of this study was to determine whether 17β-Estradiol (E2) enhances the activation, proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells (SC) following eccentric exercise either via Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) or through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling.Methods This study used 64, nine-week old, ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats that were divided into eight treatments groups based on: estrogen status (0.25 mg estrogen pellet or sham), exercise status (90 min run @ 17 m/min, -13.5° or unexercised), PI3K signaling inhibition (0.7 mg Wortmannin·kg−1 Body Weight or DMSO control).ResultsSignificant increases in total SCs were found in both soleus and white gastrocnemius muscles (immunofluorescent co-localization of Pax7+ nuclei) 72 hr following eccentric exercise (p < 0.05). Estrogen-supplementation caused a further enhancement in total SCs in exercised rats (p < 0.05). In animals where the PI3K pathway was inhibited, regardless of estrogen or exercise status, there was no significant enhancement of SC number in both the soleus or white gastrocnemius muscles. Interestingly, estrogen-supplementation lowered muscle levels of IGF-1 with this effect being most prominent in the soleus muscle. While IGF-1 was increased following exercise (p < 0.05), estrogen-supplementation abrogated this increase back to sedentary levels.Conclusion This data suggests that the increase in SC population following exercise in estrogen-supplemented females may be mediated via PI3K pathway signaling and not IGF-1.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Physiologica 05/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify novel anti-cancer agents, we created and screened a unique nutraceutical library for activity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. From this screen, we determined that glucopsychosine was selectively toxic toward AML cell lines and primary AML patient samples with no effect toward normal hematopoietic cells. It delayed tumor growth and reduced tumor weights in mouse xenografts models without imparting toxicity. Glucopsychosine increased cytosolic calcium and induced apoptosis through calpain enzymes. Extracellular calcium was functionally important for glucopsychosine-induced AML cell death and surface calcium channel expression is altered in AML cells highlighting a unique mechanism of glucopsychosine's selectivity.
    Cancer letters 03/2014; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation is a component of age-related neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. Saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids are bioactive molecules that may play different extrinsic and intrinsic roles in neuroinflammation, serving as exogenous ligands for cellular receptors, or endogenous components of cell structural, energetic and signaling pathways. We determined the fatty acyl profile of BV2 microglial cells before and after acute activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also investigated the effect of SFA and MUFA pretreatment on the production of an invasive, neurotoxic phenotype in BV2 cells. Acute activation of BV2 microglia resulted in an increase in the relative content of SFA (12:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 increased significantly), and a relative decrease in the content of MUFA (16:1n7, 18:1n7, 18:1n9, 20:1n9, 24:1n9 decreased significantly). In agreement, the major stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) isoform in BV2 cells, SCD2, was significantly down-regulated by LPS. We next treated cells with SFA (16:0 or 18:0) or MUFA (16:1n7 or 18:1n9), and found that levels of secreted IL6 were increased, as was secreted MMP9-mediated proteolytic activity. To test the functional significance, we treated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells with conditioned medium from BV2 cells pretreated with fatty acids, and found a small but significant induction of cell death. Our findings suggest differential intrinsic roles for SFA and MUFA in activated microglial cells, but similar extrinsic roles for these fatty acid species in inducing activation. Expansion of SFA is important during microglial cell activation, but either supplemental SFA or MUFA may contribute to chronic low-grade neuroinflammation.
    Lipids 01/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study involved the completion of two distinct experiments. Experiment 1 compared fibre specific and whole muscle responses to acute bouts of either low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise (END) in a randomized crossover design. Experiment 2 examined the impact of a six-week training intervention (END or LV-HIT; 4 days/week), on whole body and skeletal muscle fibre specific markers of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Six recreationally active men (Age: 20.7±3.8 yrs; VO2peak: 51.9±5.1 mL/kg/min) reported to the lab on two separate occasions for experiment 1. Following a muscle biopsy taken in a fasted state, participants completed an acute bout of each exercise protocol (LV-HIT: 8, 20-second intervals at ∼170% of VO2peak separated by 10 seconds of rest; END: 30 minutes at ∼65% of VO2peak), immediately followed by a muscle biopsy. Glycogen content of type I and IIA fibres was significantly (p<0.05) reduced, while p-ACC was significantly increased (p<0.05) following both protocols. Nineteen recreationally active males (n = 16) and females (n = 3) were VO2peak-matched and assigned to either the LV-HIT (n = 10; 21±2 yrs) or END (n = 9; 20.7±3.8 yrs) group for experiment 2. After 6 weeks, both training protocols induced comparable increases in aerobic capacity (END: Pre: 48.3±6.0, Mid: 51.8±6.0, Post: 55.0±6.3 mL/kg/min LV-HIT: Pre: 47.9±8.1, Mid: 50.4±7.4, Post: 54.7±7.6 mL/kg/min), fibre-type specific oxidative and glycolytic capacity, glycogen and IMTG stores, and whole-muscle capillary density. Interestingly, only LV-HIT induced greater improvements in anaerobic performance and estimated whole-muscle glycolytic capacity. These results suggest that 30 minutes of END exercise at ∼65% VO2peak or 4 minutes of LV-HIT at ∼170% VO2peak induce comparable changes in the intra-myocellular environment (glycogen content and signaling activation); correspondingly, training-induced adaptations resulting for these protocols, and other HIT and END protocols are strikingly similar.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98119. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • 2013 CSEP Extreme Human Physiology: Pathology to Performance; 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a subcellular degradation mechanism important for muscle maintenance. Hypertension induces well-characterized pathological changes to the heart and is associated with impaired function and increased apoptotic signalling in skeletal muscle. We examined whether essential hypertension affects several autophagy markers in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR were used to measure autophagy-related proteins/mRNA in multiple skeletal muscles as well as left ventricle (LV) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). SHR skeletal muscles had decreased (p<0.01) cross sectional area of type I fibers (e.g., soleus WKY: 2952.9±64.4μm(2) vs SHR: 2579.9±85.8μm(2) ) and a fiber redistribution towards a "fast" phenotype. Immunoblot analysis revealed some SHR skeletal muscles displayed a decreased LC3II/I ratio (p<0.05), but none showed differences in p62 protein. LC3 and LAMP2 mRNA levels were increased approximately 2-3-fold in all skeletal muscles (p<0.05), while cathepsin activity, cathepsin L mRNA, and Atg7 protein were increased 16-17% (p<0.01), 2-3-fold (p<0.05), and 29-49% (p<0.01), respectively, in fast muscles of hypertensive animals. Finally, protein levels of BAG3, a marker of chaperone-assisted selective autophagy, were 18-25% lower (p<0.05) in SHR skeletal muscles. In the LV of SHR, LC3I and p62 protein were elevated 34% (p<0.05) and 47% (p<0.01), respectively. Furthermore, p62 mRNA was 68% higher (p<0.05) while LAMP2 mRNA was 45% lower (p<0.05) in SHR cardiac muscle. There was no difference in Beclin1, Atg7, Bnip3, or BAG3 protein in the LV between strains. These results suggest autophagy is altered in skeletal and cardiac muscle during hypertension. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Physiologica 10/2013; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) activation on estrogen-mediated regulation of heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70) and 27 (Hsp27) in soleus. Ovariectomized rats received estrogen (EST), an ERα agonist (propyl pyrazole triol, PPT), both (EST+PPT), or a sham, and they served as either unexercised controls or were subjected to exercise by having to run downhill (17 m/min, -13.5° grade) for 90 min. At 72 h postexercise, soleus muscles were removed and either immunohistochemically stained for Hsp70 and myosin heavy chain or homogenized for Western blotting for Hsp70 and Hsp27. Elevated (p < 0.05) basal Hsp70 in both type I and II fibres in the unexercised EST, PPT, and EST+PPT groups relative to unexercised sham animals was noted. Compared with Hsp70 levels in the unexercised animals, that in exercised animals was elevated (p < 0.05) in both sham and PPT groups but not in EST and EST+PPT groups. Western blot determined that Hsp27 levels were not significantly different between groups. Hence, the ability of estrogen to augment resting type I and type II muscle fibre Hsp70 content is primarily mediated via muscle ERα. However, the blunted Hsp70 response following damaging exercise in estrogen-supplemented animals does not appear to be fully accounted for by ERα-mediated effects.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 10/2013; 91(10):823-29. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weight gain in breast cancer patients during treatment is prevalent; the metabolic implications of this weight gain are poorly understood. We aimed to characterize glucose metabolism in breast cancer patients near the initiation of chemotherapy. Stage I-II breast cancer patients (n = 8) were evaluated near the initiation of chemotherapy and compared with a group of age- and body mass index-matched, as well as a group of young healthy, non-malignant females. Fasting blood samples (analyzed for lipids and cytokines) were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Body composition, waist circumference, diet, cardiovascular fitness and muscle strength were evaluated. Breast cancer patients were abdominally obese (mean ± SD: 94.6 ± 14.0 cm), overweight (28.8 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)) and dyslipidemic (triacylglycerides: 1.84 ± 1.17 mM; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: 1.08 ± 0.23 mM). Compared to non-malignant matched females, fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were similar but fasting c-peptide was greater in patients (2.6 ± 1.2 ng/mL vs. 1.9 ± 0.8 ng/mL, p = 0.005). Glucose was elevated to a greater extent in patients during the oral glucose tolerance test compared with all non-malignant females. During the glucose tolerance test, c-peptide, but not insulin, remained elevated in patients compared with all non-malignant females. No differences in body composition, serum cytokines, nutrition or exercise capacity between patients and matched, non-malignant females emerged. Breast cancer patients present with unhealthy metabolic features early in the disease trajectory. Future investigations need to examine the underlying mechanisms and the potential longitudinal changes following chemotherapy.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 08/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Aaron D Dam, Andrew S Mitchell, Joe Quadrilatero
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptotic signaling plays an important role in skeletal muscle degradation, atrophy, and dysfunction. Mitochondria are central executers of apoptosis by directly participating in caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death signaling. Given the important apoptotic role of mitochondria, altering mitochondrial content could influence apoptosis. Therefore, we examine the direct effect of modest, but physiological increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and content on skeletal muscle apoptosis using a cell culture approach. Treatment of L6 myoblasts with SNAP or AICAR (5 hours/day for 5 days) significantly increased PGC-1, AIF, cytochrome c, and MnSOD protein content as well as MitoTracker staining. Following induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, L6 myoblasts displayed decreased sensitivity to apoptotic cell death as well as reduced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation following exposure to staurosporine (STS) and C2-ceramide. L6 myoblasts with higher mitochondrial content also exhibited reduced apoptosis and AIF release following exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Analysis of several key apoptosis regulatory proteins (ARC, Bax, Bcl-2, XIAP), antioxidant proteins (catalase, MnSOD, CuZnSOD), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measures (DCF and MitoSOX fluorescence) revealed that these mechanisms were not responsible for the observed cellular protection. However, myoblasts with higher mitochondrial content were less sensitive to Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore formation (mPTP) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that increased mitochondrial content at physiological levels provides protection against apoptotic cell death by decreasing caspase-dependent and caspase-independent signaling through influencing mitochondrial Ca(2+)-mediated apoptotic events. Therefore, increased mitochondrial biogenesis/content may represent a potential therapeutic approach in skeletal muscle disorders displaying increased apoptosis.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in isometric twitch force observed in fast-twitch rodent muscles during or after activity, known universally as potentiation, is normally associated with myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation. Interestingly, fast muscles from mice devoid of detectable skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) retain a reduced ability to potentiate twitch force, indicating the presence of a secondary origin for this characteristic feature of the fast muscle phenotype. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in intracellular cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) after a potentiating stimulus in mouse lumbrical muscle (37°C). Lumbricals were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators fura-2 or furaptra to detect changes in resting and peak, respectively, intracellular Ca(2+) levels caused by 2.5 s of 20-Hz stimulation. Although this protocol produced an immediate increase in twitch force of 17 ± 3% (all data are n = 10) (P < 0.01), this potentiation dissipated quickly and was absent 30 s afterward. Fura-2 fluorescence signals at rest were increased by 11.1 ± 1.3% (P < 0.01) during potentiation, indicating a significant increase in resting [Ca(2+)](i). Interestingly, furaptra signals showed no change to either the amplitude or the duration of the intracellular Ca(2+) transients (ICTs) that triggered potentiated twitches during this time (P < 0.50). Immunofluorescence work showed that 77% of lumbrical fibers expressed myosin heavy chain isoform IIx and/or IIb, but with low expression of skMLCK and high expression of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 2. As a result, lumbrical muscles displayed no detectable RLC phosphorylation either at rest or after stimulation. We conclude that stimulation-induced elevations in resting [Ca(2+)](i), in the absence of change in the ICT, are responsible for a small-magnitude, short-lived potentiation of isometric twitch force. If operative in other fast-twitch muscles, this mechanism may complement the potentiating influence of myosin RLC phosphorylation.
    The Journal of General Physiology 03/2013; 141(3):297-308. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcolipin (SLN) and phospholamban (PLN) inhibit the activity of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) by reducing their apparent affinity for Ca(2+). A ternary complex between SLN, PLN, and SERCAs results in super-inhibition of SERCA activity. Analysis of skeletal muscle homogenate has limited our current understanding of whether SLN and PLN regulate SERCA1a, SERCA2a, or both in skeletal muscle and whether SLN and PLN are co-expressed in skeletal muscle fibers. Biopsies from human vastus lateralis were analyzed through single fiber Western blotting and immunohisto/fluorescence staining to circumvent this limitation. With a newly generated SLN antibody, we report for the first time that SLN protein is present in human skeletal muscle. Addition of the SLN antibody (50 µg) to vastus lateralis homogenates increased the apparent Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA (K Ca, pCa units) (-Ab, 5.85 ± 0.02 vs. +Ab, 5.95 ± 0.02) and maximal SERCA activity (μmol/g protein/min) (-Ab, 122 ± 6.4 vs. +Ab, 159 ± 11) demonstrating a functional interaction between SLN and SERCAs in human vastus lateralis. Specifically, our results suggest that although SLN and PLN may preferentially regulate SERCA1a, and SERCA2a, respectively, physiologically they both may regulate either SERCA isoform. Furthermore, we show that SLN and PLN co-immunoprecipitate in human vastus lateralis homogenate and are simultaneously expressed in 81% of the fibers analyzed with Western blotting which implies that super-inhibition of SERCA may exist in human skeletal muscle. Finally, we demonstrate unequivocally that mouse soleus contains PLN protein suggesting that super-inhibition of SERCA may also be important physiologically in rodent skeletal muscle.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e84304. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension are associated with a generalized skeletal myopathy including a proapoptotic phenotype. Current evidence suggests that exercise may alter apoptosis-related signaling in skeletal muscle; however, the effect of exercise on skeletal muscle DNA fragmentation and apoptotic signaling is unclear in hypertensive animals. Male normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY; n = 24) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 24) were assigned to a sedentary (SED) condition or exercise (EX) consisting of progressive treadmill running 5 days/wk for 6 wks. Consistent with our previous work we found that soleus muscle of hypertensive animals had significantly higher DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis), elevated proapoptotic factors (Bax, caspase-3 activity), and lower antiapoptotic proteins (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain, Bcl-2, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) compared with normotensive rats. In addition, soleus muscle of hypertensive animals displayed myosin accumulation and fragmentation, had elevated cytosolic cytochrome c, second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspase (Smac), apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), and endonuclease G protein levels, higher nuclear AIF content, and greater muscle reactive oxygen species generation compared with normotensive animals. Interestingly, exercise training significantly lowered DNA fragmentation and myosin accumulation/fragmentation in soleus muscle of hypertensive rats. Furthermore, exercise training significantly reduced cytosolic levels of cytochrome c as well as cytosolic and nuclear AIF in soleus muscle of hypertensive animals. This beneficial response is likely due to exercise-mediated elevations in Bcl-2, heat shock protein 70, and manganese superoxide dismutase protein content, as well as reductions in Bax protein levels and the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that regular exercise training provides protection against skeletal muscle apoptosis by altering a number of apoptosis regulatory proteins and by influencing mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling mechanisms.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 08/2012; 113(7):1048-57. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    Darin Bloemberg, Joe Quadrilatero
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue comprised of fibers with different morphological, functional, and metabolic properties. Different muscles contain varying proportions of fiber types; therefore, accurate identification is important. A number of histochemical methods are used to determine muscle fiber type; however, these techniques have several disadvantages. Immunofluorescence analysis is a sensitive method that allows for simultaneous evaluation of multiple MHC isoforms on a large number of fibers on a single cross-section, and offers a more precise means of identifying fiber types. In this investigation we characterized pure and hybrid fiber type distribution in 10 rat and 10 mouse skeletal muscles, as well as human vastus lateralis (VL) using multicolor immunofluorescence analysis. In addition, we determined fiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, and α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity. Using this procedure we were able to easily identify pure and hybrid fiber populations in rat, mouse, and human muscle. Hybrid fibers were identified in all species and made up a significant portion of the total population in some rat and mouse muscles. For example, rat mixed gastrocnemius (MG) contained 12.2% hybrid fibers whereas mouse white tibialis anterior (WTA) contained 12.1% hybrid fibers. Collectively, we outline a simple and time-efficient method for determining MHC expression in skeletal muscle of multiple species. In addition, we provide a useful resource of the pure and hybrid fiber type distribution, fiber CSA, and relative fiber type-specific SDH and GPD activity in a number of rat and mouse muscles.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35273. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has a well-established role in numerous intracellular signaling pathways, including apoptosis. Glutathione is an important cellular antioxidant and is the most abundant low molecular weight thiol in the cell. Although previous work has shown a link between glutathione and apoptosis, this relationship has not been defined in skeletal muscle. The present investigation examined the effect of glutathione depletion on skeletal muscle apoptotic signaling, and mitochondrial apoptotic-susceptibility. Administration of L: -buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO; 30 mM in drinking water for 10 days) caused glutathione depletion in whole muscle and isolated mitochondria, as well as elevated muscle catalase protein content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Glutathione depletion was associated with elevated DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial Bax levels, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and calpain activity; however, caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity were not altered. BSO administration was also associated with higher cytosolic and nuclear protein levels of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), but not cytochrome c, second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac), or endonuclease G (EndoG). In addition, isolated mitochondria from BSO animals demonstrated significantly lower membrane potential, increased Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore opening, and greater basal and ROS-induced AIF and cytochrome c release. These results demonstrate that glutathione depletion in skeletal muscle increases caspase-independent signaling, as well as augments mitochondrial-associated apoptotic events to subsequent cell death stimuli.
    Apoptosis 09/2011; 17(1):48-60. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is a highly conserved type of cell death that plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and disease-associated processes. Skeletal muscle is unique with respect to apoptotic processes, given its multinucleated morphology and its apoptosis-associated differences related to muscle and (or) fiber type as well as mitochondrial content and (or) subtype. Elevated apoptotic signaling has been reported in skeletal muscle during aging, stress-induced states, and disease; a phenomenon that plays a role in muscle dysfunction, degradation, and atrophy. Exercise is a strong physiological stimulus that can influence a number of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways, which may directly or indirectly influence apoptotic processes in skeletal muscle. In general, acute strenuous and eccentric exercise are associated with a proapoptotic phenotype and increased DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis), whereas regular exercise training or activity is associated with an antiapoptotic environment and reduced DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, the protective effect of regular activity on skeletal muscle apoptotic processes has been observed in healthy, aged, stress-induced, and diseased rodent models. Several mechanisms for this protective response have been proposed, including altered anti- and proapoptotic protein expression, increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial function, and reduced reactive oxygen species generation and (or) enhanced antioxidant status. Given the current literature, we propose that regular physical activity may represent an effective strategy to decrease apoptotic signaling, and possibly muscle wasting and dysfunction, during aging and disease.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 09/2011; 36(5):608-17. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcolipin (SLN) inhibits sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps. To evaluate the physiological significance of SLN in skeletal muscle, we compared muscle contractility and SERCA activity between Sln-null and wild-type mice. SLN protein expression in wild-type mice was abundant in soleus and red gastrocnemius (RG), low in extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and absent from white gastrocnemius (WG). SERCA activity rates were increased in soleus and RG, but not in EDL or WG, from Sln-null muscles, compared with wild type. No differences were seen between wild-type and Sln-null EDL muscles in force-frequency curves or maximum rates of force development (+dF/dt). Maximum relaxation rates (-dF/dt) of EDL were higher in Sln-null than wild type across a range of submaximal stimulation frequencies, but not during a twitch or peak tetanic contraction. For soleus, no differences were seen between wild type and Sln-null in peak tetanic force or +dF/dt; however, force-frequency curves showed that peak force during a twitch and 10-Hz contraction was lower in Sln-null. Changes in the soleus force-frequency curve corresponded with faster rates of force relaxation at nearly all stimulation frequencies in Sln-null compared with wild type. Repeated tetanic stimulation of soleus caused increased (-dF/dt) in wild type, but not in Sln-null. No compensatory responses were detected in analysis of other Ca(2+) regulatory proteins using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry or myosin heavy chain expression using immunofluorescence. These results show that 1) SLN regulates Ca(2+)-ATPase activity thereby regulating contractile kinetics in at least some skeletal muscles, 2) the functional significance of SLN is graded to the endogenous SLN expression level, and 3) SLN inhibitory effects on SERCA function are relieved in response to repeated contractions thus enhancing relaxation rates.
    AJP Cell Physiology 06/2011; 301(4):C841-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor