[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the long arm of chromosome 16 occurs in at least half of all breast tumors and is considered to target one or more tumor suppressor genes. Despite extensive studies by us and by others, a clear consensus of the boundaries of the smallest region of overlap (SRO) could not be identified. To find more solid evidence for SROs, we tested a large series of 712 breast tumors for LOH at 16q using a dense map of polymorphic markers. Strict criteria for LOH and retention were applied, and results that did not meet these criteria were excluded from the analysis. We compared LOH results obtained from samples with different DNA isolation methods, ie., from microdissected tissue versus total tissue blocks. In the latter group, 16% of the cases were excluded because of noninterpretable LOH results. The selection of polymorphic markers is clearly influencing the LOH pattern because a chromosomal region seems more frequently involved in LOH when many markers from this region are used. The LOH detection method, i.e., radioactive versus fluorescence detection, has no marked effect on the results. Increasing the threshold window for retention of heterozygosity resulted in significantly more cases with complex LOH, i.e., several alternating regions of loss and retention, than seen in tumors with a small window for retention. Tumors with complex LOH do not provide evidence for clear-cut SROs that are repeatedly found in other samples. On disregarding these complex cases, we could identify three different SROs, two at band 16q24.3 and one at 16q22.1. In all three tumor series, we found cases with single LOH regions that designated the distal region at 16q24.3 and the region at 16q22.1. Comparing histological data on these tumors did not result in the identification of a particular subtype with LOH at 16q or a specific region involved in LOH. Only the rare mucinous tumors had no 16q LOH at all. Furthermore, a positive estrogen content is prevalent in tumors with 16q LOH, but not in tumors with LOH at 16q24.3 only.
Cancer Research 03/2001; 61(3):1171-7. · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel G-protein-coupled receptors, one from human, GPR72, and one from mouse, GPR73 have been isolated, sequenced and their genomic organisation determined. Non-isotopic in situ hybridisation and radiation hybrid mapping have identified GPR72 to be localised on human chromosome 11q21.1, and GPR73 on human chromosome 2p14. Interspecific mouse backcross mapping has localised the genes to mouse chromosomes 9 and 6, respectively. Northern analysis reveals GPR72 mRNA expression only in brain tissue. However, GPR73 mRNA can be found in heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas. Both receptors are closely related with 36 and 33% overall amino acid identity, respectively, to the Y-receptor family. However, although successful cell surface expression in a heterologous expression system can be achieved no specific binding to this ligand family can be detected, indicating that perhaps additional factors are required for binding.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2000; 1491(1-3):369-75. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPG7 is a newly identified gene involved in an autosomal recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. This gene encodes a protein characterized as a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial metalloprotease. The present report describes the genomic structure of the SPG7 gene. It is organized into 17 exons ranging from 78 to 242 bp and spans approximately 52 kb within three overlapping cosmids. The exon/intron boundaries and all splice junctions are consistent with the published consensus sequences for donor and acceptor sites. The provided genomic structure of SPG7 should facilitate the screening for mutations in this gene in patients with HSP and other related mitochondrial disease syndromes. SPG7 has been mapped to chromosome 16q24.3, a region of frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) seen in sporadic breast and prostate cancer. We have performed single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of ten exons of this gene in a number of sporadic breast cancer samples showing LOH at 16q24.3. No mutations were detected; only single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in exon 11, intron 7, intron 10 and intron 12. An expression analysis study has revealed the differential expression of SPG7 mRNA in various tissues and at different developmental stages.
Human Genetics 07/1999; 105(1-2):139-44. DOI:10.1007/s004390051076 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differential display polymerase chain reaction has been used to isolate genes regulated in vascular endothelial cells by the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Analysis of one of the bands consistently up-regulated by VEGF led us to the identification of a cDNA from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell library that is 77% identical to the human K+-Cl- cotransporter1 (KCC1). We have referred to the predicted protein as K+-Cl- cotransporter 3 (KCC3). Hydrophobicity analysis of the KCC3 amino acid sequence showed an almost identical pattern to KCC1, suggesting 12 membrane-spanning segments, a large extracellular loop with potential N-glycosylation sites, and cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal regions. The KCC3 mRNA was highly expressed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and kidney, showing a distinct pattern and size from KCC1 and KCC2. The KCC3 mRNA level in endothelial cells increased on treatment with VEGF and decreased with the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas KCC1 mRNA levels remained unchanged. Stable overexpression of KCC3 cDNA in HEK293 cells produced a glycoprotein of approximately 150 kDa, which was reduced to 120 kDa by glycosidase digestion. An increased initial uptake rate of 86Rb was seen in clones with high KCC3 expression, which was dependent on extracellular Cl- but not Na+ and was inhibitable by the loop diuretic agent furosemide. The KCC3 genomic localization was shown to be 15q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Radiation hybrid analysis placed KCC3 within an area associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. These results suggest KCC3 is a new member of the KCC family that is under distinct regulation from KCC1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently identified Fanconi anaemia A (FAA) gene is located on chromosomal band 16q24.3 within a region that has been frequently reported to show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in breast cancer. FAA mutation analysis of 19 breast tumours with specific LOH at 16q24.3 was performed. Single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis on cDNA and genomic DNA, and Southern blotting failed to identify any tumour-specific mutations. Five polymorphisms were identified, but frequencies of occurrence did not deviate from those in a normal control population. Therefore, the FAA gene is not the gene targeted by LOH at 16q24.3 in breast cancer. Another tumour suppressor gene in this chromosomal region remains to be identified.
British Journal of Cancer 04/1999; 79(7-8):1049-52. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690168 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of localizations for the putative susceptibility gene(s) have been identified for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In a genome wide scan, Hugot et al. (1996) identified a region on chromosome 16 which appeared to be responsible for the inheritance of inflammatory bowel disease in a small proportion of families. Subsequent work has suggested that this localization is important for susceptibility to Crohn's disease rather than ulcerative colitis (Ohmen et al. 1996; Parkes et al. 1996). We investigated the contribution of this localization to the inheritance of inflammatory bowel disease in 54 multiplex Australian families, and confirmed its importance in a significant proportion of Crohn's disease families; we further refined the localization to a region near to D16S409, obtaining a maximum LOD score of 6.3 between D16S409 and D16S753.
Annals of Human Genetics 08/1998; 62(Pt 4):291-8. DOI:10.1046/j.1469-1809.1998.6240291.x · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the relative contributions of trans-acting factors (replication and repair functions) and cis-acting elements (repeat and flanking DNA composition) to the mechanism of trinucleotide repeat sequence mutation we have analysed the distribution of copy number polymorphisms at 12 loci associated with dynamic mutations in 15 populations of different ethnic origins. Genome wide instability of repeats in a particular population would be evidence of trans-acting factor instigation of the mutation process, whereas instability at a particular locus (perhaps even in several populations) would be evidence that the composition of the particular locus was the most significant factor contributing to mutation. The FRA16A locus is highly polymorphic in only the European population. Some other loci exhibit distinct distributions of alleles between different populations. Therefore sequences in the vicinity of the repeat -- the cis component of a particular locus -- appear(s) to be more important in the mutation mechanism than sporadic genome-wide instability induced by trans-acting factors such as the DNA mismatch repair enzymes.
Annals of Human Genetics 10/1996; 60(Pt 5):391-400. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1996.tb00437.x · 2.21 Impact Factor