[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF), defined as medically unexplained chronic fatigue, is common these days. To date, there is no definite cure for ICF, and alternative therapies are being investigated. Oriental medicine music therapy (OMMT), a novel music therapy that occurs through an active behavioral process, has been applied to various chronic diseases, including ICF. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of OMMT on ICF.
Randomized controlled trial of OMMT compared with the waitlist control (6 sessions each) during a 2-week period.
Thirty participants who had had ICF for at least 6 months before the experiments were recruited.
We evaluated fatigue severity scale (FSS), visual analog scale (VAS) for overall fatigue, revised Chalder fatigue scale (RCFS), World Health Organization quality of life scale abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), Buzhongyiqi-Tang questionnaire (BZTQ), and salivary cortisol level at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the study (week 2) in the two groups.
FSS, VAS, and RCFS scores were significantly lower, and WHOQOL-BREF scores were significantly higher in the OMMT group than in the waitlist group (p=0.006, p=0.004, p=0.002, and p=0.002, respectively). In contrast, salivary cortisol level and BZTQ scores were not significantly different between the OMMT group and the waitlist group.
The present study suggests that OMMT may be an alternative treatment for ICF. Based on this result, further studies including possible mechanisms are needed.
Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 05/2015; 21(7). DOI:10.1089/acm.2014.0271 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional medicine has been used worldwide in recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in traditional medicine hospitals and investigate patient and health-care utilization factors associated with AE occurrence.
A 2-stage review of 1152 randomly sampled charts in 2 teaching Korean traditional medicine hospitals was conducted. Three physicians and a quality improvement specialist identified AE occurrence, severity, and preventability using the Global Trigger Tool (Appendix 1, Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/JPS/A19). Two traditional Korean medicine professors validated the findings. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with AE occurrence.
One hundred twenty-two admissions (10.6%) had at least one AE (7.39 events per 1000 patient days and 14.5 events per 100 admissions). Among 167 AEs, 73.7% were mild and 70.7% were judged preventable. Procedure-related AEs were most common. After considering other patient and health-care utilization characteristics, factors associated with AE occurrence were altered mental status on admission (OR, 3.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-12.44), use of various traditional medicine therapies (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.32-2.15), length of stay (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and number of unique triggers (OR, 6.35; 95% CI, 4.54-8.89).
Approximately 11% of inpatients in traditional medicine hospitals experienced AEs. Because patients have a higher risk of AEs, special attention should be paid to those with altered mental status on admission, receiving various traditional medicine therapies, staying for a longer period, and having various positive triggers.
Journal of Patient Safety 05/2015; DOI:10.1097/PTS.0000000000000190 · 1.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal examination (AE) is the evaluation of the status of illness by examining the abdominal region in traditional Korean medicine (TKM). Although AE is currently considered an important diagnostic method in TKM, owing to its clinical usage, no studies have been conducted to objectively assess its accuracy and develop standards.
Twelve healthy subjects and 21 patients with functional dyspepsia have participated in this study. The patients were classified into epigastric discomfort group (n=11) and epigastric discomfort with tenderness group (n=10) according to the clinical diagnosis by AE. After evaluating the subjective epigastric discomfort in all subjects, two independent clinicians measured the pressure pain threshold (PPT) two times at an acupoint (CV 14) using an algometer. We then assessed the interrater and intrarater reliability of the PPT measurements and evaluated the validity (sensitivity and specificity) via a receiver operating characteristic plot and optimal cutoff value.
The results of the interrater reliability test showed a very strong correlation (correlation coefficient range: 0.82-0.91). The results of intrarater reliability test also showed a higher than average correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.58-0.70). The optimal cutoff value of PPT in the epigastric area was 1.8 kg/cm(2) with 100% sensitivity and 54.54% specificity.
PPT measurements in the epigastric area with an algometer demonstrated high reliability and validity for AE, which makes this approach potentially useful in clinical applications as a new quantitative measurement in TKM.
Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 05/2015; 21(6). DOI:10.1089/acm.2014.0185 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Tongue diagnosis is a significant procedure to examine the physiological and pathological changes of the human body in oriental medicine. However, the conventional method of tongue diagnosis including direct observation of tongue has limitations because of various external factors and subjective factors. Therefore, the current study investigated the usefulness of the tongue diagnosis system (TDS) as a diagnostic tool for evaluating tongue coating thickness (TCT) by assessing the agreement between the TDS and a gold standard established by assessors using the conventional method.
Materials and methods:
The present study was designed as a prospective clinical trial including 60 patients with functional dyspepsia. The TDS was used to capture tongue images twice within a 30-min interval to assess its reproducibility. Tongue coating percentage was measured by the TDS, and TCT was classified as either no coating, thin coating, or thick coating according to the existing diagnostic criteria. After both TDS examinations, the weight of tongue coating was quantitatively measured, and the correlation between the actual quantity of tongue coating and the percentage of the coating measured by the TDS was analyzed using Pearson׳s correlation. After collecting tongue images in all 60 patients, tongue coating was evaluated using a conventional method by 5 well-trained assessors to establish the gold standard for evaluating TCT, which allowed us to assess the diagnostic agreement between the TDS and the gold standard. After 2 weeks, TCT evaluation was repeated by the same assessors using the same images but in a random order.
The agreement between the TDS and the gold standard for evaluating TCT was almost perfect (weighted kappa, 0.840), as was the reproducibility of the TDS (weighted kappa, 0.851). The percentage of tongue coating measured by the TDS was significantly correlated with the weight of tongue coating (r=0.442, p <0.001). The levels of intra-rater reliability ranged from substantial to almost perfect (range of weighted kappa, 0.777-0.923). The inter-rater reliability of 5 assessors was moderate (weighted kappa, 0.563).
The present study demonstrated that the TDS can be used as a diagnostic tool for the objective and standardized evaluation of TCT in actual clinical practice.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 06/2014; 155(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.010 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ) is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE) at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN- γ , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40), IL-12 (P70), IL-17, and TNF- α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1 β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1 β , IL-6, and IL-12 (P40) but not IFN- γ , IL-10, and IL-12 (P70). In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.
Mediators of Inflammation 05/2014; 2014:417814. DOI:10.1155/2014/417814 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common health problem currently without any optimal treatments. Acupuncture has been traditionally sought as a treatment for FD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture treatment helps improve symptoms of FD.Methods/design: A two-center, randomized, waitlist-controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate whether acupuncture treatment improves FD symptoms. Seventy six participants aged 18 to 75 years with FD as diagnosed by Rome III criteria will be recruited from August 2013 to January 2014 at two Korean hospitals. They will be randomly allocated either into eight sessions of partially individualized acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks or a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will then be followed-up for 3 weeks with six telephone visits and a final visit will be paid at 8 weeks. The waitlist group will receive the identical acupuncture treatment after a 4-week waiting period. The primary outcome is the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief and the secondary outcomes include Nepean dyspepsia index, EQ-5D, FD-related quality of life, Beck's depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire, and level of ghrelin hormone. The protocol was approved by the participating centers' Institutional Review Boards.
Results of this trial will help clarify not only whether the acupuncture treatment is beneficial for symptom improvement in FD patients but also to elucidate the related mechanisms of how acupuncture might work.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01921504.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Laminaria japonica--a widely used ingredient in seaweed kimchi--and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)--a main component of traditional fermented Korean food--may alter human intestinal microbiota composition and have a positive effect on various digestive problems. However, few clinical trials have investigated the potential benefits of L. japonica when combined with LAB for human intestinal microbiota. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of L. japonica and representative LAB on the human intestine. Forty participants with no known digestive diseases were randomly assigned to one of the two combination groups: (1) L. japonica with LAB and (2) L. japonica with placebo LAB. The study agents were administered for 4 weeks with a 2-week follow-up period. The primary outcome measure was the number of each of the seven LAB species in the human intestine, and the secondary outcome measures included the Korean version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life, and bowel functions. The primary outcome was evaluated before and after administration of the study agents (0 and 4 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were evaluated at 0, 4, and 6 weeks. Four of the seven LAB species were found to be significantly increased in the L. japonica with the LAB group and five species were significantly different from those of the placebo group. The secondary outcome measures did not change significantly. In conclusion, L. japonica with LAB facilitated the proliferation of beneficial human intestinal microbiota. (
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) gene as a risk factor in Korean patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). To investigate the genetic association, two coding SNPs (rs8190315, Ser10Gly; rs2072392, Asp60Asp) of BID were genotyped in 157 OPLL patients and 209 control subjects. SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer Pro, Helixtree, and Haploview 4.2 programs were used for association analysis. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant, dominant, and recessive) were calculated for the odds ratios (ORs), 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), and corresponding P values. For multiple testing, Bonferroni correction was performed. After Bonferroni correction, genotype analysis of both rs8190315 and rs2072392 showed association between the OPLL group and the control group in the codominant model (P = 0.042, OR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.10-3.15). A complete linkage disequilibrium block was estimated between the two SNPs. Both of the G allele of rs8190315 and C allele of rs2072392 were strongly associated with an increased risk in the development of OPLL (P = 0.0052, OR 2.66, 95 % CI 1.51-4.68). These results suggest that BID is associated with OPLL, and both the G allele of a missense SNP (rs8190315, Ser10Gly) and C allele of a synonymous SNP (rs2072392, Asp60Asp) are risk factors for the development of OPLL in Korean population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Although combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics is gaining popularity for controlling diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) symptoms, few studies have investigated its clinical effects. Materials and Methods. Fifty-three patients with D-IBS were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 4 groups: herbal medicine (Gwakhyangjeonggisan; GJS) plus probiotics (Duolac7S; DUO), GJS plus placebo DUO, placebo GJS plus DUO, and placebo GJS plus placebo DUO. The study period consisted of a 2-week run-in, 8 weeks of administration, and 2 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcomes were weekly adequate relief (AR) of overall IBS symptoms and the proportion of responders (PR) during the administration period. The secondary outcomes included individual IBS symptoms, stool assessment, and quality of life. Changes of intestinal microbiota and intestinal permeability were also analyzed. Results and Discussion. Weekly AR was not different among the 4 groups throughout the treatment period. However, the 3 treatment groups exhibited significant improvements in PR compared to the findings in the placebo group. In the intestinal microbiota assessment, herbal medicine and probiotics synergistically increased beneficial bacteria counts. Conclusion. Combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics appears to relieve overall IBS symptoms by synergistically increasing beneficial intestinal microbe counts.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2013; 2013:824605. DOI:10.1155/2013/824605 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) models induced by ovalbumin. Materials and Methods. AR was induced by 1% ovalbumin in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into 4 groups: normal, control, low, and high dose irradiation. Low and high dose LLLT were irradiated once a day for 7 days. Total IgE, cytokines concentrations (IL-4 and IFN- γ ), and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) were measured. Histological changes in the nasal mucosal tissue by laser irradiation were examined. Results. LLLT significantly inhibited total IgE, IL-4, and TARC expression in ovalbumin-induced mice at low dose irradiation. The protein expression level of IL-4 in spleen was inhibited in low dose irradiation significantly. IL-4 expression in EL-4 cells was inhibited in a dose dependent manner. Histological damages of the epithelium in the nasal septum were improved by laser irradiation with marked improvement at low dose irradiation. Conclusion. These results suggest that LLLT might serve as a new therapeutic tool in the treatment of AR with more effectiveness at low dose irradiation. To determine the optimal dose of laser irradiation and action mechanisms of laser therapy, further studies will be needed.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 2013:753829. DOI:10.1155/2013/753829 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tongue diagnosis is an important procedure in traditional Korean medicine (TKM). In particular, tongue coating thickness (TCT) is deemed to show the progression of the disease. However, conventional tongue diagnosis has limitations because of various external factors. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the availability of tongue diagnosis system (TDS) in the assessment of TCT. This study has been designed as a prospective clinical trial involving 60 patients with functional dyspepsia. Tongue images will be obtained by TDS twice with a 30 min interval. The system will measure the percentage of TCT and classify it as either no coating, thin coating, or thick coating according to the existing diagnostic criteria. After finishing the collection of 60 patients' tongue images, TCT on the images will be simultaneously evaluated by the conventional method to establish the gold standard for assessing TCT by 5 well-trained clinicians. The evaluation will be repeated by the same clinicians after 2 weeks, but the order of the images will be changed. This trial is expected to provide clinical evidence for the availability of TDS as a diagnostic tool and to contribute to the standardization of the diagnosis system used in TKM. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864837.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2013; 2013(3):348272. DOI:10.1155/2013/348272 · 1.88 Impact Factor