ABSTRACT: To estimate the cost-benefit of endoscopic screening strategies of esophageal cancer (EC) in high-risk areas of China.
Markov model-based analyses were conducted to compare the net present values (NPVs) and the benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of 12 EC endoscopic screening strategies. Strategies varied according to the targeted screening age, screening frequencies, and follow-up intervals. Model parameters were collected from population-based studies in China, published literatures, and surveillance data.
Compared with non-screening outcomes, all strategies with hypothetical 100,000 subjects saved life years. Among five dominant strategies determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, screening once at age 50 years incurred the lowest NPV (international dollar-I$55 million) and BCR (2.52). Screening six times between 40-70 years at a 5-year interval [i.e., six times(40)f-strategy] yielded the highest NPV (I$99 million) and BCR (3.06). Compared with six times(40)f-strategy, screening thrice between 40-70 years at a 10-year interval resulted in relatively lower NPV, but the same BCR.
EC endoscopic screening is cost-beneficial in high-risk areas of China. Policy-makers should consider the cost-benefit, population acceptance, and local economic status when choosing suitable screening strategies.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2012; 18(20):2493-501. · 2.47 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer (EC) in some rural areas with poor health resources in China are the highest around the world. In these areas, screening programs for EC are conducted for prevention and control. However, costs associated with esophageal cancer screening have not been characterized in detail. This study is aimed to estimate the screening, early diagnosis and treatment costs of EC using micro-costing methods, which could provide basic cost inputs for further systematic health economic evaluation.
Micro-costing methods were adopted to collect data on quantity and unit cost of used resources. Data was obtained from face-to-face interview with medical staff, local hospitals' database, and experts' input. We used 80% capacity utilization and 3% discount rate to annualize capital investments, and all costs were adjusted to year 2008 using the gross domestic production deflator, and then converted from Chinese currency unit to international dollars (I$) using purchasing power parity.
Screening costs per case were around I$60. For severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and intramucosal carcinoma, the costs per capita of endoscopic mucosal resection were I$1292~I$1620, and around I$450 for argon plasma coagulation. For submucosal carcinoma (T1N0M0), and invasive carcinoma treated by esophagectomy, the treatment costs ranged from I$1485 to I$2171. The costs of treatment of invasive carcinoma were: I$497~I$685.2 for radiotherapy; I$4652~I$7966.15 for chemotherapy; I$1928~I$2805 for combination of esophagectomy and radiotherapy; I$6632~I$8082 for esophagectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in combination.
The cost analysis found screening, early diagnosis and treatment for EC could provide great cost savings. The results provide important information for further health economic evaluation, and to help the local policy makers on updating such screening program in high risk areas in China.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(5):1245-50. · 0.66 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the contribution of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms to the risk of esophageal cancer.
Nineteen articles were included by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Database, 13 on ADH1B and 18 on ALDH2. We performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies including 13 studies on ADH1B (cases/controls: 2390/7100) and 18 studies on ALDH2 (2631/6030).
The crude odds ratio [OR (95% confidence interval)] was 2.91 (2.04-4.14) for ADH1B*1/*1 (vs ADH1B*2/*2) and 1.32 (1.17-1.49) for ADH1B*1/*2. The crude OR for ALDH2*1/*2 (vs ALDH2*1/*1) was 2.52 (1.76-3.61). ADH1B*1/*1 increased the risk of esophageal cancer among never/rare [1.56 (0.93-2.61)], moderate [2.71 (1.37-5.35)], and heavy drinkers [3.22 (2.27-4.57)]. ADH1B*1/*2 was associated with a modest risk among moderate drinkers [1.43 (1.09-1.87)]. ALDH2*1/*2 increased the risk among never/rare [1.28 (0.91-1.80)], moderate [3.12 (1.95-5.01)], and heavy [7.12 (4.67-10.86)] drinkers, and among ex-drinkers [5.64 (1.57-20.25)]. ALDH2*2/*2 increased the risk among drinkers [4.42 (1.72-11.36)]. ADH1B*1/*1 plus ALDH2*1/*2 was associated with the highest risk for heavy drinkers [12.45 (2.9-53.46)]. The results of the meta-regression analysis showed that the effects of ADH1B*1/*1 and ALDH2*1/*2 increased with the level of alcohol consumption. ALDH2*1/*2 was associated with a high risk among Taiwan Chinese and Japanese drinkers, as opposed to a moderate risk among drinkers in high-incidence regions of Mainland China. ADH1B*1/*1 in heavy drinkers and ALDH2*1/*2 in moderate-to-heavy drinkers was associated with similarly high risk among both men and women.
ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes affect the risk of esophageal cancer, and the risk is modified by alcohol consumption, ethnicity, and gender.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2010; 16(33):4210-20. · 2.47 Impact Factor