ABSTRACT: To report genotype-phenotype correlation in a large cohort of patients.
Study of the CYP21A2 gene in 866 unrelated chromosomes of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Argentinean patients with classic and nonclassic (NC) forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
Eleven most common mutations were analysed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or southern blot analysis. Gene sequencing was performed when no mutation was detected in one allele or the genotype-phenotype correlation was lacking.
The 11-most-common-mutation screening allowed for the detection of 88·1% of affected alleles (80·3% in the NC and 95·2% in the classic forms). p.V281L, IVS2-13A/C>G (In2) and gene deletions and large gene conversions were the most prevalent mutations. In2 (35·2%) in salt wasting (SW), p.I172N (37·3%) in simple virilizing and p.V281L (54·1%) in NC CAH were the most prevalent mutations within the clinical forms. In 7/15 p.P30L mutation alleles, a chimeric CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 gene [PromCYP21A1P; p.P30L] was detected, while 6/15 represented a single-nucleotide substitution, and in 2/15 linkage with mutations, p.[P30L; V281L] and [p.P30L; IVS2-13A/C > G; p.Q318X] was found. In two SW patients, a novel nonsense mutation, p.Q41X, was observed. In three p.V281L mutation patients, the phenotype was more severe than predicted by genotype. Sequence analysis revealed an intronic alteration in the allele carrying the p.V281L mutation [IVS2 + 5G > A; p.V281L]. An aberrant splicing in this p.V281L mutated allele explains the clinical phenotype.
A high percentage of CYP21A2 affected alleles is detected by the 11-mutation screening study. Genotype-phenotype correlation was high, but when the phenotype is more severe than predicted by genotype, presence of two alterations in one allele should be ruled out.
Clinical Endocrinology 05/2011; 75(4):427-35. · 3.17 Impact Factor