[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer show better tumor response to radiation or chemotherapy than patients with HPV-negative cancer. HPV oncoprotein E6 binds and degrades a typically wild-type p53 protein product. However, HPV16 infection and p53 mutation infrequently coexist in a subset of HNSCCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms through which tumor biology and molecular genetic mechanisms change when two HPV-negative, p53-mutated oropharyngeal cell lines (YD8, non-disruptive p53 mutation; YD10B, disruptive p53 mutation) derived from patients with a history of heavy smoking are transfected with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in vitro. Transfection with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in YD8, reduced the abundance of proteins encoded by tumor suppressor genes, such as p-p53 and p-Rb. Cell proliferative activity was increased in the cells transfected with E6E7 compared to cells transfected with vector alone (P=0.09), whereas the invasiveness of E6E7-transfected cells was significantly reduced (P=0.02). cDNA microarray of the transfected cells with E6E7 showed significant changes in mRNA expression in several signaling pathways, including focal adhesion, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway. Regarding the qPCR array for the p53 signaling pathway, the mRNA expression of STAT1 was remarkably upregulated by 6.47-fold (P<0.05); in contrast, IGF-1R was significantly downregulated by 2.40-fold in the YD8-vector compared toYD8-E6E7 (P<0.01). Finally, data collected from these two array experiments enabled us to select two genes, STAT1 and IGF-1R, for further study. In immunohistochemical study, nuclear STAT1 expression was slightly higher in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative oropharyngeal tumors (P=0.18); however, cytoplasmic STAT1 was significantly lower in HPV-positive cases (P=0.03). IGF-1R expression levels were remarkably lower in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative cases (P=0.01). Our data suggest that upregulated STAT1 and interferon signals by HPV16 E6 and E7 genes may play a major role in the relatively favorable prognosis for HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases with non-disruptive p53 mutations.
International Journal of Oncology 05/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The KRAS gain-of-function mutation confers intrinsic resistance to targeted anti-cancer drugs and cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, ultimately leading to treatment failure. KRAS mutation frequency in lung adenocarcinoma is ~15-30%. Novel therapeutic strategies should be developed to improve clinical outcomes in these cases. Deregulation of the p16/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway is frequently observed in various cancers and it represents an attractive therapeutic target. We compared the anti-tumor efficacy of genetically knocked-down CDK4 and a pharmacological inhibitor of CDK4/6, CINK4, in KRAS mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma cells. We also investigated changes in anti-proliferative activity and down-stream molecules with these treatments in combination with paclitaxel. CDK4 short interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased paclitaxel sensitivity in KRAS mutation-positive H23 cells. CINK4 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative activity in 5 adenocarcinoma lines. CINK4 induced G 1 arrest by downregulating the p16/cyclin D1/Rb pathway, resulting in apoptotic induction via increased expression of cleaved caspase3, cleaved PARP and Bax. Combined CINK4 and paclitaxel produced synergistic anti-proliferative activity and increased apoptosis through reduced cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 in KRAS mutation-positive cancer cells. These data suggest CDK4 is a promising target for development of anti-cancer drugs and CINK4 combined with paclitaxel may be an effective therapeutic strategy for enhancing anti-tumor efficacy in KRAS mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer biology & therapy 05/2013; 14(7). · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct sequencing remains the most widely used method for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer; however, its relatively low sensitivity limits its clinical use. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of detecting an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation from peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PNA-LNA PCR) clamp and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) techniques compared to that by direct sequencing. Furthermore, the predictive efficacy of EGFR mutations detected by PNA-LNA PCR clamp was evaluated. EGFR mutational status was assessed by direct sequencing, PNA-LNA PCR clamp, and Ion Torrent PGM in 57 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the predictive efficacy of PNA-LNA PCR clamp on the EGFR-TKI treatment in 36 patients with advanced NSCLC retrospectively. Compared to direct sequencing (16/57, 28.1%), PNA-LNA PCR clamp (27/57, 47.4%) and Ion Torrent PGM (26/57, 45.6%) detected more EGFR mutations. EGFR mutant patients had significantly longer progressive free survival (14.31 vs. 21.61 months, P = 0.003) than that of EGFR wild patients when tested with PNA-LNA PCR clamp. However, no difference in response rate to EGFR TKIs (75.0% vs. 82.4%, P = 0.195) or overall survival (34.39 vs. 44.10 months, P = 0.422) was observed between the EGFR mutations by direct sequencing or PNA-LNA PCR clamp. Our results demonstrate firstly that patients with EGFR mutations were detected more frequently by PNA-LNA PCR clamp and Ion Torrent PGM than those by direct sequencing. EGFR mutations detected by PNA-LNA PCR clamp may be as a predicative factor for EGFR TKI response in patients with NSCLC.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81975. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with KRAS or BRAF mutations are urgently needed to improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the cytotoxicities of paclitaxel and sorafenib alone and in combination in NSCLC cell lines with KRAS or BRAF mutations and investigated the mechanism of the interaction between the drugs. We found synergistic antitumor efficacy with paclitaxel followed by sorafenib in in vitro and in vivo models of NSCLC. And, we determined that downregulation of the phosphorylated ERK and Rb, and Mcl-1 plays a critical role in the synergistic activity of the drugs. Further clinical trials are needed to verify the antitumor efficacy of this combination.
Cancer letters 03/2012; 322(2):213-22. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is the most prevalent chronic neurological disorder and can be controlled by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in up to 70% of patients. We performed an association study between adverse drug reactions and the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, ABCB1, and SCN1A. The clinical data of 83 epilepsy patients who had received AEDs containing carbamazepine (CBZ) were collected. We extracted genomic DNA from peripheral blood and then genotyped CYP2C9 (, ), CYP2C19 (, ), ABCB1 (C3435T), and SCN1A (IVS5N+5 G>A) using direct sequencing. The allele frequencies of , , , ABCB1 (3435C>T), and SCN1A (IVS5N+5 G>A) were 0.93, 0.72, 0.91, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively. Statistically significant differences were indicated from the data obtained. Patients with SCN1A genotype CC or CT were compared with patients with SCN1A genotype TT while using more than 500mg of carbamazepine. We have associated functional polymorphisms with the dose used in regular clinical practice for Korean epilepsy patients who had received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) containing carbamazepine. For AEDs, we found that one of the SCN1A genotypes is associated with a 500 mg dose. There was no association found with CNS ADR caused by AEDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant drug for the prevention of thromboembolic disorders. We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of four genes and clinical factors to warfarin dose requirement and provided a warfarin-dosing algorithm based on genetic and clinical variables in Korean patients. We recruited 564 Korean patients on stable anticoagulation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and GGCX were analyzed. Using multiple regression analysis, we developed a model to predict the warfarin requirement. The SNPs of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and GGCX showed significant correlation with warfarin dose. Patients with the 3730AA genotype received significantly higher doses of warfarin than those with the 3730GG (P=0.0001). For CYP2C9, the highest maintenance dose was observed in the patients with wild-type genotype compared with the variant allele carriers (P<0.0001). The multiple regression model including age, gender, body surface area (BSA), international normalized ratio (INR) and four genetic polymorphisms accounted for 35% of total variations in warfarin dose (R(2)=0.3499; P<0.0001). This study shows that age, gender, BSA, INR and VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 polymorphism affect warfarin dose requirements in Koreans. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription may contribute to improve the efficacy and safety of warfarin treatment for Korean patients.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2011; 56(4):290-5. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of genetic variations and the expression of the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) on the drug sensitivity to methotrexate (MTX) in different cancer cell lines.
We examined the six human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, AGS, A549, NCI-H23, HCT-116 and Saos-2). The cytotoxicity of MTX was measured by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The expressions of the DHFR and RFC were evaluated by real-time PCR and western blotting. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DHFR and two SNPs of the RFC were genotyped.
The IC₅₀s of MTX was in an extensively broad range from 6.05±0.81 nM to>1,000 nM in the cell lines. The Saos-2 (>1,000 nM) and MCF-7 (114.31±5.34 nM) cells were most resistant to MTX; in contrast, the AGS and HCT-116 cells were highly sensitive to MTX with an IC(50) of 6.05±0.81 nM and 13.56±3.76 nM, respectively. A reciprocal change of the RFC and DHFR mRNA expression was found between the MTX-sensitive AGS and MTX-resistant Saos-2 cells. There was no significant difference in the expression levels of RFC protein in both the AGS and Saos-2 cells, whereas DHFR protein was more increased in the MTX-resistant Saos-2 cells treated with MTX. The genotype of the MTX-sensitive AGS cells were mutant variants of the DHFR; in contrast, the Saos-2 cells had the wild-type of the DHFR.
In conclusion, this study showed that inverse change of the RFC and DHFR mRNA and protein expression was associated with RFC and DHFR polymorphisms and it is postulated that this phenomenon might play an important role in sensitivity of certain cancers to MTX.
Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2010; 42(3):163-71. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As EBV-associated gastric cancer has unique features that are different from EBV (-) gastric cancer, EBV is considered to have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. It has been reported that viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) in EBV-transformed tumor cells activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which provides a survival signal and chemo-resistance to cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. This study was to evaluate anti-proliferative effect and cell cycle change when 5-FU and LY294002 (LY), a selective inhibitor of PI3K, were treated separately or combined with different schedules in EBV positive gastric cancer cell line, SNU-719.
After single treatment and sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, cytotoxic activity was measured by MTS assay. When 5-FU and LY were treated in single and sequential combinations, the expression of p-AKT, p-NFkB, p-p53 and bcl-2 was observed on different concentrations by Western blot analysis. We also investigated the effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution using flow cytometry. The LMP2A siRNA inhibition was done to confirm the reversal of decreased 5-FU activity and p-AKT.
When 5-FU was sequentially combined with LY, the combination index (CI) value indicated synergistic anti-proliferative effect. The expression of p-AKT and p-NF kappaB was upregulated by 5-FU alone but sequential treatment of 5-FU and LY decreased the expression of both p-AKT and p-NF kappaB. When 5-FU was combined with LY, G0/G1 and sub G1 cell population (%) increased. When 5-FU was added to the cells transfected with LMP2A siRNA, its anti-proliferative effect increased and the expression of p-AKT decreased. In sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, the expression of p-p53 was increased and bcl-2 expression was diminished compared to 5-FU alone.
These data suggest that sequential combination of 5-FU and LY induce synergistic cytotoxicity and overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance of 5-FU via downregulation of activated p-AKT and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in EBV gastric cancer cell line, SNU-719.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pemetrexed has demonstrated clinical activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as other solid tumors. It transports into the cells via reduced folate carrier (RFC) and is polyglutamated by folypolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS). Pemetrexed directly inhibits several folate-dependent enzymes such as thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT). We investigated the effects of genetic variations and the expression of RFC, FPGS, TS and DHFR enzymes on drug sensitivity to pemetrexed in NSCLC cells. Polymorphisms in RFC, FPGS, and DHFR were genotyped in four NSCLC cells - A549, PC14, HCC-1588, and H226. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot was performed to evaluate mRNA transcripts and protein of these genes. The cytotoxicity of pemetrexed was measured by SRB assay. In PC14 and H226 cells, increased mRNA expressions of RFC and FPGS were associated with higher cytotoxicity to pemetrexed. 2R/2R genotype of TS and its increased mRNA expression were associated with drug resistance to pemetrexed in A549 cells, whereas 3R/3R genotype in TS with decreased mRNA expression was associated with higher sensitivity in H226 cells. After pemetrexed treatment, an inverse change of DHFR mRNA and protein expression was found. The strongest linkage disequilibrium (LD) was discovered between-1726C>T and -1188A>C SNP of DHFR gene. Our findings suggest the cytotoxic effect of pemetrexed may be associated with genetic polymorphisms and the expression level of genes involved in pemetrexed metabolisms in NSCLC cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucuronidation by the uridine diphosphateglucuronosy-ltransferase 1A enzymes (UGT1As) is a major pathway for elimination of particular drugs and endogenous substances, such as bilirubin. We examined the relation of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the UGT1A gene with their clinical factors. For association analysis, we genotyped the variants by direct sequencing analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 218 healthy Koreans. The frequency of UGT1A1 polymorphisms, -3279T>G, -3156G>A, -53 (TA) 6>7 , 211G>A, and 686C> A, was 0.26, 0.12, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.01, respectively. The frequency of -118 (T) 9>10 of UGT1A9 was 0.62, which was significantly higher than that in Caucasians (0.39). Neither the -2152C>T nor the -275T>A polymorphism was observed in Koreans or other Asians in comparison with Caucasians. The -3156G>A and -53 (TA) 6>7 polymorphisms of UGT1A were significantly associated with platelet count and total bilirubin level (p=0.01, p=0.01, respectively). Additionally, total bilirubin level was positively correlated with occurrence of the UGT1A9-118 (T) 9>10 rare variant. Common haplotypes encompassing six UGT1A polymorphisms were significantly associated with total bilirubin level (p=0.01). Taken together, we suggest that determination of the UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 genotypes is clinically useful for predicting the efficacy and serious toxicities of particular drugs requiring glucuronidation.