[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), in particular, type III, also called infibulation, can cause various long-term complications. However, posttraumatic neuroma of the clitoris is extremely rare; only one case was previously reported in the literature.
The aim of this study was to describe the case of a patient presenting a clitoral neuroma post-FGM/C in detail and her successful multidisciplinary treatment.
We report the case of a 24-year-old woman originating from Somalia presenting a type III a-b FGM/C who attended our outpatient clinic at the Geneva University Hospitals complaining of primary dysmenorrhea and a post-mutilation painful clitoral mass. The mass was clinically diagnosed as a cyst and surgically removed. Histopathological analysis revealed that it was a posttraumatic neuroma and a foreign body granuloma around the ancient surgical thread. Our patient was also offered a multidisciplinary counseling by a specialized gynecologist on FGM/C, a sexologist, and a reproductive and sexual health counselor.
One month after surgical treatment, the vulvar pain was over.
This is the second case of clitoral neuroma after FGM/C reported and the first with complete clinical, as well as histopathological documentation and multidisciplinary care. Considering the high frequency of clitoral cysts in case of infibulation, clitoral neuroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this case, if symptomatic, the treatment should be surgery, clinical follow-up, and counseling. If necessary, appropriate sexual therapy should be offered too.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 12/2011; 9(4):1220-5. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery is an attempt to enhance cosmetic benefits and reduce morbidity of minimally invasive surgery. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy through single-port access has been reported. Supracervical hysterectomy is an alternative to total hysterectomy but requires morcellation, which is challenging through a single umbilical incision. Herein we report and illustrate with a video supracervical hysterectomy performed via single-site laparoscopic surgery with transcervical morcellation after endocervical resection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of our study was to estimate the incidence and to identify the risk factors for reoperation of surgically treated pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
We conducted a nested case-control study among 1,811 women who underwent POP surgery from January 1988 to June 2007. Cases (n = 102) were women who required reoperation for POP following the first intervention through December 2008. Controls (n = 226) were women randomly selected from the same cohort who did not require reoperation.
The incidence of POP reoperation was 5.1 per 1,000 women-years. The cumulative incidence was 5.6%. Risk factors included preoperative prolapse in more than two vaginal compartments (adjusted OR 5.2; 95% CI 2.8-9.7), history of surgery for POP and/or urinary incontinence (adjusted OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.5-7.1), and sexual activity (adjusted OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-3.7).
The risk of POP reoperation is relatively low and is associated with preexisting weakness of pelvic tissues.
International Urogynecology Journal 06/2011; 23(1):35-41. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women presenting an increased risk of venous thromboembolism can present quite a challenge when it comes to choosing a contraceptive method. Taking a complete personal and familial history is mandatory for the correct identification of these women and of contraceptives for which there is a formal contraindication. Combined hormonal contraceptive methods containing estrogens and a progestogens increase the risk of venous thrombosis and their use is contra-indicated in women at risk for thromboembolism. Non hormonal contraceptives are good options but can present with other inconveniences. Progesterone only contraceptives can all be used by these women and can present specific advantages and disadvantages.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with early-stage cervical cancer may be treated appropriately with either radical surgery or radiation therapy. As most patients will be cured of their disease, side-effects of therapy and quality of life become of great importance. Individualization of treatment to reduce therapy-associated morbidity should be the main goal in cervical cancer management. Recent developments in surgical techniques, such as laparoscopy, nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, trachelectomy and 'less radical' hysterectomy, have contributed to reduce the morbidity of the surgical treatment. The use of postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiation leads to more pronounced side effects than after either surgery or irradiation alone. Therefore, prognostic factors should be used to select patients for either surgery or radiotherapy alone to minimize the increased toxicities associated with the combination. The objectives of this review are to discuss the evidence supporting radical surgery, 'less radical' surgery and radiotherapy with regard to complication rate and quality of life.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transobturator tape procedure (TOT) is an effective surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. However data concerning safety are rare, follow-up is often less than two years, and complications are probably underreported. The aim of this study was to describe early and late complications associated with TOT procedures and identify risk factors for erosions.
It was a 27 months follow-up of a cohort of 233 women who underwent TOT with three different types of slings (Aris, Obtape, TVT-O). Follow-up information was available for 225 (96.6%) women.
There were few per operative complications. Forty-eight women (21.3%) reported late complications including de novo or worsening of preexisting urgencies (10.2%), perineal pain (2.2%), de novo dyspareunia (9%), and vaginal erosion (7.6%). The risk of erosion significantly differed between the three types of slings and was 4%, 17% and 0% for Aris, Obtape and TVT-O respectively (P = 0.001). The overall proportion of women satisfied by the procedure was 72.1%. The percentage of women satisfied was significantly lower in women who experienced erosion (29.4%) compared to women who did not (78.4%) (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05-0.38, P < 0.001).
Late post operative complications are relatively frequent after TOT and can impair patient's satisfaction. Women should be informed of these potential complications preoperatively and require careful follow-up after the procedure. Choice of the safest sling material is crucial as it is a risk factor for erosion.
BMC Women s Health 09/2009; 9:28. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The challenges of imaging posterior deeply infiltrating endometriosis with MRI are to image a small anatomic area encompassing several thin fibromuscular anatomic structures such as uterosacral ligaments, and the vaginal and rectal walls; and to image endometriotic lesions, which are fibromuscular structures and have an MRI signal intensity very close to those of surrounding fibromuscular anatomic structures. CONCLUSION: We show the capability and potential of MRI in diagnosing and staging of posterior deeply infiltrating endometriosis after vaginal and rectal gel opacification.
American Journal of Roentgenology 07/2009; 192(6):1625-31. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis, prognostic factors, and optimal management of primary breast lymphomas (PBL) is difficult. Seven patients recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1973-1998 were reviewed. Five patient had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, one a follicular lymphoma and one a MALT-lymphoma. All patients had clinical and radiological findings consistent with breast cancer and underwent mastectomy, which is not indicated in PBL. Diagnosis should be established prior to operative interventions, as fine needle aspiration missed the diagnosis for one patient and intra-operative frozen sections for 3 patients in our study. Five-year and 10-year overall survivals were 57% and 15%, respectively. Of the 3 patients who died from PBL, 2 had tumors that were Bcl-2 positive but Bcl-6 negative. All 3 surviving patients have positive Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunostaining, which could be important prognostic factors if confirmed by a larger study.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify endometrial cancer patients at risk of lymph node metastasis.
Retrospective review of data from 108 patients with clinical stage I endometrial cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and were treated surgically. Patients at risk of lymph node metastasis were defined as those who had more than 50% myometrial infiltration or cervical invasion. Preoperative MRI reports were compared with final pathologic results.
The mean age of the patients was 69.5 years and most patients had endometrioid cancer. On final pathologic analysis, 59 patients had deep myometrial infiltration or cervical invasion. For diagnosis of deep myometrial infiltration, cervical invasion, or both, MRI sensitivity and specificity were 56% and 85%; 47% and 83%; and 67% and 77%, respectively.
MRI has limited value in identifying patients with endometrial cancer who are at risk of lymph node metastasis. Minimally invasive laparoscopic lymph node staging should be undertaken when it is feasible.
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 12/2008; 104(3):233-5. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) is the most frequent sexual transmitted disease (STI) in Switzerland but its prevalence in undocumented migrants is unknown. We aimed to compare CTI prevalence among undocumented migrants undergoing termination of pregnancy (ToP) to the prevalence among women with residency permit.
This prospective cohort study included all pregnant, undocumented women presenting from March 2005 to October 2006 to the University hospital for ToP. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit coming to the same hospital during the same time period for ToP.
One hundred seventy five undocumented women and 208 women with residency permit (controls) were included in the study. Mean ages were 28.0 y (SD 5.5) and 28.2 y (SD 7.5), respectively (p = 0.77). Undocumented women came primarily from Latin-America (78%). Frequently, they lacked contraception (23%, controls 15%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.04;2.9). Thirteen percent of undocumented migrants were found to have CTI (compared to 4.4% of controls; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4;7.3).
This population of undocumented, pregnant migrants consisted primarily of young, Latino-American women. Compared to control women, undocumented migrants showed higher prevalence rates of genital CTI, which indicates that health professionals should consider systematic screening for STI in this population. There is a need to design programs providing better access to treatment and education and to increase migrants' awareness of the importance of contraception and transmission of STI.
BMC Public Health 12/2008; 8:391. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous pathologies and their treatments may alter ovarian reserve in women and girls and may harm their future fertility. Oocytes cryopreservation techniques may be used in a limited number of cases, excluding young patients. We hereby report results obtained with our and other teams' ovarian tissue vitrification techniques. This new approach can be offered to young patients before puberty and should not delay both chemotherapy and radiotherapy when needed. Major drawbacks include potential alteration of ovarian reserve, as well as recurrence of the original malignancy. The later can be circumvented using in vitro maturation techniques. It is important to discuss fertility preservation opportunities with every woman or girls facing potential premature ovarian failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to estimate the incidence and identify the risk factors for vaginal vault prolapse repair after hysterectomy. We conducted a case control study among 6,214 women who underwent hysterectomy from 1982 to 2002. Cases (n = 32) were women who required vaginal vault suspension following the hysterectomy through December 2005. Controls (n = 236) were women, randomly selected from the same cohort, who did not require pelvic organ prolapse surgery. The incidence of vaginal vault prolapse repair was 0.36 per 1,000 women-years. The cumulative incidence was 0.5%. Risk factors included preoperative prolapse (odds ratio (OR) 6.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-28.4) and sexual activity (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.5). Vaginal hysterectomy was not a risk factor when preoperative prolapse was taken into account (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.5-1.8).Vaginal vault prolapse repair after hysterectomy is an infrequent event and is due to preexisting weakness of pelvic tissues.
International Urogynecology Journal 10/2008; 19(12):1623-9. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) hold enormous potential for regenerative medicine. So far, the majority of hESC lines have been derived from the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts of variable quality, and several of them from low-grade embryos. Moreover, most of the lines have been obtained in media containing animal components such as foetal bovine serum. We aimed to derive hESC lines in xeno-free conditions using spare embryos frozen in Switzerland before 2001.
In cooperation with Swiss IVF centres we collected up to 199 donated embryos frozen between 1988 and 2000 at different stages of development.
Embryo quality at thawing showed wide variability, reduced quality and low survival upon culture. Using early arrested embryos (n=46), we report here the first Swiss hESC line, called CH-ES1, derived from a single blastomere of an arrested four-cell-stage embryo. Despite its polyploidy, already present at the third passage, CH-ES1 expressed ESC markers of pluripotency and differentiated into all three germ layers in embryoid bodies in vitro and in teratomas in vivo.
As the destruction of viable developing embryos, even spare ones, raises serious ethical concerns, deriving hESC lines from arrested embryos may be an alternative approach to avoid embryo destruction. However, given the reduced derivation efficiency they should not be considered a unique and/or selective source of hESC lines.
Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology 10/2008; 138(37-38):540-50. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic lateral suspension using mesh in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP).
A prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2).
A tertiary referral center for operative laparoscopy.
In all, 73 patients with POP were assessed in the preoperative and postoperative stages. The assessment included a description of their functional symptoms and the degree of their POP condition, established according to the Baden-Walker prolapse classification system. The patients were followed in the postoperative stage for a median of 19 (range 12-41) months.
Laparoscopic lateral suspension of pelvic organs using mesh carried out from January 2004 through September 2006.
Satisfactory anatomic results were obtained in 64 (87.7%) patients. Neither major complications, nor postoperative pelvic infection were reported. None of the operations required laparotomy.
Laparoscopic lateral suspension using mesh effectively treats POP with low morbidity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Illegal migration is an increasing problem worldwide and the so-called undocumented migrants encounter major problems in access to prevention and health care. The objective of the study was to compare the use of preventive measures and pregnancy care of undocumented pregnant migrants with those of women from the general population of Geneva, Switzerland.
Prospective cohort study including pregnant undocumented migrants presenting to the University hospital from February 2005 to October 2006. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit wishing to deliver at the same public hospital during the same time period.
161 undocumented and 233 control women were included in the study. Mean ages were 29.4 y (SD 5.8) and 31.1 y (SD 4.8) (p < 0.02), respectively. 61% of undocumented women (controls 9%) were unaware of emergency contraception (OR 15.7 (8.8;28.2) and 75% of their pregnancies were unintended (controls 21%; OR 8.0 (4.7;13.5)). Undocumented women consulted for an initial pregnancy visit more than 4 weeks later than controls and only 63% had their first visit during the first trimester (controls 96%, p < 0.001); 18% had never or more than 3 years ago a cervical smear test (controls 2%, OR 5.7 (2.0;16.5)). Lifetime exposure to violence was similar in both groups, but undocumented migrants were more exposed during their pregnancy (11% vs 1%, OR 8.6 (2.4;30.6)). Complications during pregnancy, delivery and post-partum were similar in both groups.
Compared to women who are legal residents of Geneva, undocumented migrants have more unintended pregnancies and delayed prenatal care, use fewer preventive measures and are exposed to more violence during pregnancy. Not having a legal residency permit therefore suggests a particular vulnerability for pregnant women. This study underscores the need for better access to prenatal care and routine screening for violence exposure during pregnancy for undocumented migrants. Furthermore, health care systems should provide language- and culturally-appropriate education on contraception, family planning and cervical cancer screening.
BMC Public Health 01/2008; 8:93. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the incidence and identify the risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse repair after hysterectomy.
We conducted a case-control study. We identified 6,214 women who underwent hysterectomy in our gynecology department from 1982 to 2002. Cases (n=114) were women who required pelvic organ prolapse surgery after hysterectomy from January 1982 through December 2005. Controls (n=236) were women randomly selected from the same cohort who did not require pelvic organ surgery during the same period. We performed a univariable and a multivariable analysis among 104 cases and 190 controls to identify the variables associated with prolapse repair after hysterectomy.
The incidence of pelvic organ prolapse that required surgical correction after hysterectomy was 1.3 per 1,000 women-years. The risk of prolapse repair was 4.7 times higher in women whose initial hysterectomy was indicated by prolapse and 8.0 times higher if preoperative prolapse grade 2 or more was present. Risk factors included preoperative prolapse grade 2 or more (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 12.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6-34.7), previous pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence surgery (adjusted OR 7.9, 95% CI 1.3-48.2), history of vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.3-19.7), and sexual activity (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.7-14.5). Vaginal hysterectomy was not a risk factor when preoperative prolapse was taken into account (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1).
Preoperative pelvic organ prolapse and other factors related to pelvic floor weakness were significantly associated with subsequent pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy. Vaginal hysterectomy was not a risk factor.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2007; 110(3):625-32. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) not only hold great promise for the treatment of degenerative diseases but also provide a valuable tool for developmental studies. However, the clinical applications of hESC are at present limited by xeno-contamination during the in vitro derivation and propagation of these cells. In this review, we summarize the current methodologies for the derivation and the propagation of hESC in conditions that will eventually enable the generation of clinical-grade cells for future therapeutic applications.
Cell Research 09/2007; 17(8):682-8. · 10.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retroperitoneal approach is a minimally invasive surgery than can be performed through direct access or through indirect access, with abdominal penetration. The choice of indirect transabdominal approach is appropriate when additional abdominal surgery is indicated (radical hysterectomy, pelviabdominal exploration). The advantages of the direct retroperitoneal access are the absence of risk of creating intra-abdominal adhesions associated with those of intraperitoneal operative laparoscopy.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 1092:187-98. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pudendal neuropathy is common. The diagnosis is clinical and the confirmation is electrophysiological. Distal pudendal nerve latencies have been used but they are unspecific and do not allow to localize the site of compression. A preliminary electrophysiological study has suggested separate innervations of the anterior and the posterior anal sphincter quadrants, so diverging from what main anatomy textbooks teach. By detailed dissections of pudendal nerve region we can confirm a dichotomy in the innervation of the two quadrants. Therefore, it seems feasible, by using the differences of staged sacral reflexes, to better localize the compressive neuropathy, with a stimulation of the clitoris and by recording latencies of different muscles.