Jay H Shore

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (51)100.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Many Native veterans-including American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (NHPI)-have served in the United States Armed Forces. Most of these veterans are eligible for medical care from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), but research examining the determinants of their service use is needed to inform policy and allocate appropriate resources for these unique groups. In a retrospective cohort study, we examined the impact of Native veterans' personal demographics on their outpatient utilization of VA-based primary care and mental health services. AIAN (n = 37,687) and NHPI (n = 46,582) veterans were compared with a non-Native reference (N = 262,212) using logistic and binomial regression. AIAN and NHPIs were more likely to be female, report military sexual trauma, and utilize the VA for posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, depression, addiction, anxiety, hypertension, and diabetes care. More AIAN and urban NHPI veterans served in Iraq and Afghanistan, and Native women reported more military sexual trauma than their non-Native counterparts. Primary care and mental health services were associated with race, number of diagnoses, and disability ratings. For mental health services, service era, military sexual trauma, and marital status were related to service utilization. Native veterans' medical need was elevated for primary and mental health care. Rural residence was associated with less mental health use. The findings underscore the need for additional specialized services in rural areas, more targeted outreach to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Native veterans, and additional care directed toward Native women's health care needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Services 05/2015; 12(2):134-140. DOI:10.1037/a0038687 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a national shortage of psychiatrists, and according to nationally available data, it is projected to get worse. Locum tenens psychiatry and telepsychiatry are two ways to fill the shortages of psychiatric providers that exist in many areas in the United States. Employment and salary data in these areas can be used to illuminate current trends and anticipate future solutions to the problem of increasing demand for, and decreasing supply of, psychiatrists in the United States. A search was conducted of the literature and relevant Web sites, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and www.google.com , as well as information obtained from locum tenens and telepsychiatry organizations. There is a dearth of data on the use of locum tenens in the field of psychiatry, with little available prior to 2000 and few published studies since then. The majority of the data available are survey data from commercial entities. These data show trends toward increasing demand for psychiatry along with increasing salaries and indicate the utilization of telepsychiatry and locum tenens telepsychiatry is increasing. The published academic data that are available show that although locum tenens psychiatry is slightly inferior to routine psychiatric care, telepsychiatry is generally equivalent to face-to-face care. One can anticipate that as the national shortage of psychiatrists is expected to accelerate, use of both locum tenens and telepsychiatry may also continue to increase. Telepsychiatry offers several possible advantages, including lower cost, longer-term services, quality of care, and models that can extend psychiatric services. If current trends continue, systems that demand face-to-face psychiatry may find themselves paying higher fees for locum tenens psychiatrists, whereas others may employ psychiatrists more efficiently with telepsychiatry.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 03/2015; 21(6). DOI:10.1089/tmj.2014.0159 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has incentivized electronic health records (EHRs) implementation through meaningful use (MU) to improve healthcare quality and efficacy. Telemedicine is a key tool that has shown its ability to facilitate MU through technological innovation with cost savings and has shown promise in the area of integrated behavioral healthcare. The purpose of this article is to propose a model of MU to frame the incentivized implementation of an integrated telemedicine (ITM)-specific model to effect system-level change. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the background, principles, and a justification for the ITM Model including cost issues, the development and structure of MU in the context of EHRs, the benefits of integrated behavioral healthcare and telemedicine, and the case for their combined implementation in the form of ITM. Results: The model proposed, the ITM Incentive Program, parallels the current MU program and is composed of three stages. Stage 1 focuses on incentivizing current and new Medicaid providers to adapt, implement, and upgrade technology needed to conduct virtual meetings with patients and other healthcare professionals. Stage 2 is a tiered incentive system with process-focused and track metrics related to increasing the number of consultations with patients. In Stage 3, providers are encouraged to continue use of ITM by meeting thresholds for several objectives focused on clinical outcomes. Recommendations for implementing this model within a payment waiver system are discussed. Conclusions: The ITM Model offers a needed union of integrated care and telemedicine through the combination of technology, business, and clinical processes. The success of MU as a tiered incentive program for EHRs, as well as the precedent of using waiver opportunities for incentive funding repayments, sets forth a strategic framework to successful implementation of ITM to address cost issues and improve quality and access to care in the healthcare system.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 01/2015; 21(5). DOI:10.1089/tmj.2014.0142 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We conducted an exploratory study to determine what organizational characteristics predict the provision of culturally competent services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) veterans in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health facilities. Methods. In 2011 to 2012, we adapted the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) for a survey of 27 VA facilities in the Western Region to assess organizational readiness and capacity to adopt and implement native-specific services and to profile the availability of AI/AN veteran programs and interest in and resources for such programs. Results. Several ORCA subscales (Program Needs, Leader's Practices, and Communication) statistically significantly predicted whether VA staff perceived that their facilities were meeting the needs of AI/AN veterans. However, none predicted greater implementation of native-specific services. Conclusions. Our findings may aid in developing strategies for adopting and implementing promising native-specific programs and services for AI/AN veterans, and may be generalizable for other veteran groups.
    American Journal of Public Health 09/2014; 104 Suppl 4:S548-54. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302140 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health problems pose challenges for military veterans, returning service members, and military family members including spouses and children. Challenges to meeting mental health needs include improving access to care and improving quality of care. Mobile Health, or "mHealth," can help meet these needs in the garrison and civilian environments. mHealth brings unique capabilities to health care provision through the use of mobile device technologies. This report identifies high-priority mHealth technology development considerations in two categories. First, priority considerations specific to mental health care provision include safety, privacy, evidence-based practice, efficacy studies, and temperament. Second, priority considerations broadly applicable to mHealth include security, outcomes, ease of use, carrier compliance, hardware, provider perspectives, data volume, population, regulation, command policy, and reimbursement. Strategic planning for the advancement of these priority considerations should be coordinated with stated Department of Defense capability needs to maximize likelihood of adoption. This report also summarizes three leading, military programs focused on mHealth projects in mental health, The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, The Military Operational Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and The National Center for Telehealth and Technology.
    Military medicine 08/2014; 179(8):865-878. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00429 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined predictors associated with readmission to detoxification in a sample of adult Alaska Native patients admitted to inpatient alcohol detoxification. Even though Alaska Native people diagnosed with alcoholism have been identified as frequent utilizers of the health care system and at elevated risk of death, little is known about factors associated with readmission to detoxification for this group.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 04/2014; 140. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.04.018 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While many women choose to live in rural areas after retiring from active military duty, a paucity of studies examine rural women veterans' health care needs. This report is the first of its kind to describe the population demographics and health care utilization of rural female veteran patients enrolled in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Using the National Patient Care Datasets (n = 327,785), we ran adjusted regression analyses to examine service utilization between (1) urban and rural and (2) urban and highly rural women veterans. Rural and highly rural women veterans were older and more likely to be married than their urban counterparts. Diagnostic rates were generally similar between groups for several mental health disorders, hypertension, and diabetes, with the exception of nonposttraumatic stress anxiety that was significantly lower for highly rural women veterans. Rural and highly rural women veterans were less likely to present to the VA for women's specific care than urban women veterans; highly rural women veterans were less likely to present for mental health care compared to urban women veterans. Among the users of primary care, mental health, women's specific, and all outpatient services, patients' annual utilization rates were similar. Improved service options for women's specific care and mental health visits may help rural women veterans access care. Telehealth technologies and increased outreach, perhaps peer-based, should be considered. Other recommendations for VA policy and planning include increasing caregiver support options, providing consistency for mental health services, and revising medical encounter coding procedures.
    The Journal of Rural Health 04/2014; 30(2):146-52. DOI:10.1111/jrh.12037 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American Indians and Alaska Natives serve at the highest rate of any US race or ethnic group, yet are the most underserved population of Veterans and do not take advantage of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) benefits and services. Barriers to seeking care include stigma, especially for mental health issues; distance to care; and lack of awareness of benefits and services they are entitled to receive. In response to this underutilization of the VA, an innovative program-the Tribal Veterans Representative (TVR) program-was developed within the VA to work with American Indians and Alaska Natives in rural and remote areas. The TVR goes through extensive training every year; is a volunteer, a Veteran and tribal community member who seeks out unenrolled Native Veterans, provides them with information on VA health care services and benefits, and assists them with enrollment paperwork. Being from the community they serve, these outreach workers are able to develop relationships and build rapport and trust with fellow Veterans. In place for over a decade in Montana, this program has enrolled a countless number of Veterans, benefiting not only the individual, but their family and the community as well. Also resulting from this program, are the implementation of Telemental Health Clinics treating Veterans with PTSD, a transportation program helping Veterans get to and from distant VA facilities, a Veteran Resource Center, and a Veteran Tribal Clinic. This program has successfully trained over 800 TVRs, expanded to other parts of the country and into remote areas of Alaska.
    Journal of Community Health 03/2014; 39(5). DOI:10.1007/s10900-014-9846-6 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The purpose of this document is to provide initial recommendations to telemental health (TMH) professionals for the selection of assessment and outcome measures that best reflect the impacts of mental health treatments delivered via live interactive videoconferencing. Materials and Methods: The guidance provided here was created through an expert consensus process and is in the form of a lexicon focused on identified key TMH outcomes. Results: Each lexical item is elucidated by a definition, recommendations for assessment/measurement, and additional commentary on important considerations. The lexicon is not intended as a current literature review of the field, but rather as a resource to foster increased dialogue, critical analysis, and the development of the science of TMH assessment and evaluation. The intent of this lexicon is to better unify the TMH field by providing a resource to researchers, program managers, funders, regulators and others for assessing outcomes. Conclusions: This document provides overall context for the key aspects of the lexicon.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 01/2014; 20(3). DOI:10.1089/tmj.2013.0357 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Telemental Health, 12/2013: pages 83-107; , ISBN: 9780124160484
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared common deployment-related health issues and correlates of mental health service utilization among rural and urban veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) living in Hawaii. Frequency of utilization of a broad range of mental health resources, including clergy/spiritual leaders, videoconference/online programs, and traditional/alternative healers, was also characterized. A random sample of 116 rural and 117 urban ethnoracially diverse veterans completed a mail survey. Rural veterans were more likely than urban veterans to meet screening criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), deployment-related concussion with persistent postconcussive symptoms, and alcohol use problems. Over one third of veterans who desired help for a mental health problem reported no current use of any services. Rural veterans were more likely than urban veterans to have accessed Veteran Readjustment Centers, but they did not differ with respect to utilization of other services. Correlates of mental health service utilization included higher education, PTSD, and lower mental-health-related quality of life. Results of this study underscore the need for dissemination efforts to enable OEF/OIF/OND veterans to access mental health resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Services 10/2013; DOI:10.1037/a0032782 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Table of Contents PREAMBLE SCOPE INTRODUCTION Internet-Based Telemental Health Models of Care Today CLINICAL GUIDELINES A. Professional and Patient Identity and Location 1. Provider and Patient Identity Verification 2. Provider and Patient Location Documentation 3. Contact Information Verification for Professional and Patient 4. Verification of Expectations Regarding Contact Between Sessions B. Patient Appropriateness for Videoconferencing-Based Telemental Health 1. Appropriateness of Videoconferencing in Settings Where Professional Staff Are Not Immediately Available C. Informed Consent D. Physical Environment E. Communication and Collaboration with the Patient's Treatment Team F. Emergency Management 1. Education and Training 2. Jurisdictional Mental Health Involuntary Hospitalization Laws 3. Patient Safety When Providing Services in a Setting with Immediately Available Professionals 4. Patient Safety When Providing Services in a Setting Without Immediately Available Professional Staff 5. Patient Support Person and Uncooperative Patients 6. Transportation 7. Local Emergency Personnel G. Medical Issues H. Referral Resources I. Community and Cultural Competency TECHNICAL GUIDELINES A. Videoconferencing Applications B. Device Characteristics C. Connectivity D. Privacy ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES A. Qualification and Training of Professionals B. Documentation and Record Keeping C. Payment and Billing REFERENCES.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 08/2013; DOI:10.1089/tmj.2013.9989 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Indian Health Service (IHS) signed a Memo of Understanding in 2010 to strengthen their partnership in improving health care services for Native veterans, who are disproportionately rural. This paper describes the demographic and service use profile of rural Native veterans who access VA health care. Data were abstracted from the 2008 Veteran Health Administration (VHA) medical dataset, and the characteristics of rural Native veterans were compared to rural non-Native veterans. Rural Native veterans were more rural (41% vs 35%) and more highly rural (8% vs 2%) compared to non-Native veterans. Rural Native veterans were younger, more likely to be female, and earned about the same median income compared to rural non-Native veterans. Although rural Native veterans had fewer diagnoses on average, they were more likely to have served in combat areas and to have higher levels of service-connected disability compared to other rural veterans. Demographic and service-related characteristics of rural Native veterans who accessed VA care differ from those of rural non-Native veterans. Identifying specific health care and service use characteristics will assist in the development of appropriate policy and programs to serve rural Native veterans.
    The Journal of Rural Health 06/2013; 29(3):304-310. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2012.00450.x · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Physician health programmes (PHPs) are peer-assistance organizations that provide support to physicians struggling with addiction or with physical or mental health challenges. While the services they offer are setting new standards for recovery and care, they are not immune to public debate and criticism since some have concerns about those who are enrolled in, or have completed, such programmes and their subsequent ability to practice medicine safely.AimsTo examine whether medical malpractice claims were associated with monitoring by a PHP using a retrospective examination of administrative data.Methods Data on PHP clients who were insured by the largest malpractice carrier in the state were examined. First, a business-model analysis of malpractice risk examined relative risk ratings between programme clients and a matched physician cohort. Second, Wilcoxon analysis examined differences in annual rates of pre- and post-monitoring claims for PHP clients only.ResultsData on 818 clients was available for analysis. After monitoring, those enrolled in the programme showed a 20% lower malpractice risk than the matched cohort. Furthermore physicians' annual rate of claims were significantly lower after programme monitoring among PHP clients (P < 0.01).Conclusions This is the only study examining this issue to date. While there are a variety of reasons why physicians present to PHPs, this study demonstrates that treatment and monitoring is associated with a lowered risk of malpractice claims and suggests that patient care may be improved by PHP monitoring.
    Occupational Medicine 04/2013; 63(4). DOI:10.1093/occmed/kqt036 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of a collaboration science process used to develop recommendations for the field of telemental health (TMH) in the selection of outcome measures that best reflect programmatic impacts. A common use of group development techniques in medicine is the development of clinical guidelines, which typically occurs using one of two methods: the nominal group or the Delphi method. Both processes have been faulted for limited transparency, reliability, and sustainability. Recommendations to improve the traditional process include making goals explicit, making disagreements transparent, and publicly displaying levels of agreement. A group of 26 TMH experts convened during the American Telemedicine Association's 2012 Fall Forum in New Orleans, LA to participate in a 1-day, interactive, consensus-building workshop to initiate the development of a shared lexicon of outcomes. The workshop method was designed to improve on traditional methods of guideline development by focusing on clarity of expectations, transparency, and timeliness of group development work. Results suggest that, compared with other traditional methods, the current process involved more people, occurred more rapidly, was more transparent, and resulted in a comparable deliverable. Recommendations for further process development, both within and external to TMH, as well as an initial overview of defined outcome measures are discussed.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 04/2013; DOI:10.1089/tmj.2013.0069 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Providing specialized healthcare to rural communities can be extremely difficult, and consequently many health organizations are turning to the use of telehealth technologies for care delivery. One such technology, remote monitoring, has been successfully implemented with patients suffering from chronic and other medical conditions. A drawback, however, is that remote monitoring devices are programmed to reach a broad audience, and consequently the content may not be suitable for all patients-especially those who are not a part of the dominant culture. Subjects and Methods: This report provides a model for adapting remote monitoring to specific populations who are undergoing care for posttraumatic stress disorder. Adaptation changes focus on (1) information gathering, (2) process and dialogue changes, (3) testing, and (4) patient and administrative feedback. Data for such modifications were gathered through a series of community meetings, patient interviews, and provider feedback. A case example highlights the successful implementation of the adaptation model for a rural American Indian Veteran population. Results: Patients showed high acceptability of both the programmatic and cultural adaptations. Feasibility of the program also appeared positive, with most patients reporting that the readability of the program was appropriate, the dialogue duration was not burdensome, and technical problems were rare. Conclusions: Remote monitoring provides the ability to be modified for use with certain subpopulations. Procedural recommendations in this report highlight special considerations for working with American Indians living on or near reservation areas, although the model can be broadly adapted to several groups.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 03/2013; DOI:10.1089/tmj.2012.0117 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, in conjunction with the American Telemedicine Association's Annual Mid-Year Meeting, conducted a 1-day workshop on how maturing and emerging processes and applications in the field of telemental health (TMH) can be expanded to enhance access to behavioral health services in the Pacific Rim. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together experts in the field of TMH from the military, federal agencies, academia, and regional healthcare organizations serving populations in the Pacific Rim. The workshop reviewed current technologies and systems to better understand their current and potential applications to regional challenges, including the Department of Defense and other federal organizations. The meeting was attended by approximately 100 participants, representing military, government, academia, healthcare centers, and tribal organizations. It was organized into four sessions focusing on the following topic areas: (1) Remote Screening and Assessment; (2) Post-Deployment Adjustment Mental Health Treatment; (3) Suicide Prevention and Management; and (4) Delivery of Training, Education, and Mental Health Work Force Development. The meeting's goal was to discuss challenges, gaps, and collaborative opportunities in this area to enhance existing or create new opportunities for collaborations in the delivery of TMH services to the populations of the Pacific Rim. A set of recommendations for collaboration are presented.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 10/2012; 18(8):654-60. DOI:10.1089/tmj.2012.0123 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that physician health programs (PHPs) are an important component in physicians' recovery from substance disorders, although we do not know how variations in treatment and monitoring affect physician recovery. This study was designed to understand how programmatic differences impact clients' overall program completion. This study was part of a larger investigation, the Blueprint Project, which evaluated outcomes for clients enrolled in PHPs nationally. Here we compared physicians presenting to a Colorado-based PHP for substance use to a nationally based referent, contrasting treatment, monitoring, and outcomes (Colorado n = 72, National n = 730). The samples were similar demographically although more Colorado physicians were polysubstance users. We found variations in treatment and monitoring patterns with Colorado physicians participating in more types of primary treatment and monitoring services and were allowed to work more at some point during monitoring. There was greater relapse among Colorado physicians, but these differences disappeared when we controlled for prior treatment. The great majority of clients in both samples showed successful recovery. This data provides a foundation on which to understand population characteristics, contractual differences, and outcome variations among PHPs and serves to inform internal PHP programmatic structures and regulatory agencies.
    American Journal on Addictions 07/2012; 21(4):327-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2012.00239.x · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widespread among veterans, but many veterans with PTSD use few health services. This study examined how individual characteristics influenced use of outpatient visits by veterans with PTSD. The study assessed number of annual visits by 414,748 veterans with PTSD who sought care from October 2007 through September 2008 at U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) facilities. Negative binomial regression and adjusted risk ratios assessed the relationship of number of visits and demographic characteristics as well as place of residence, era of service, extent to which disability was connected to service history, and having comorbid illnesses. Veterans from rural or highly rural areas had 19% (confidence interval [CI]=.80-.82) and 25% (CI=.72-.79), respectively, fewer visits than urban-dwelling veterans. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans had 21% fewer visits than veterans of prior eras (CI=.78-.81). Veterans with comorbid conditions had 64% more visits than veterans with only PTSD (CI=1.62-1.66). Veterans from rural or highly rural areas had 22% (CI=.87-.89) and 33% (CI=.64-.71), respectively, fewer visits to PTSD specialty clinics than veterans from urban areas. Service use by veterans is lower in rural areas. The VA should build on existing efforts to provide more outreach and care opportunities, including telemental health and specialized PTSD services, in rural areas and for veterans of the current service era. Future research should investigate the impact of fewer visits on aspects of functioning, such as interpersonal factors, and the impact of system-level variables on service utilization. (Psychiatric Services 63:862-867, 2012; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100444).
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 06/2012; 63(9):862-7. DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.201100444 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB) or full-blown obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) afflict more than 50% of patients with Tourette’s syndrome (TS) and often are more debilitating than the tic disorder itself. Medications for OCD, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), help patients with TS and OCD, particularly in combination with low-dose antipsychotic drugs, but seldom eliminate OCD entirely. Behavioral therapies are more effective as medications for the treatment of OCD. A combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medication is the treatment of choice for most patients with TS and OCD.
    Current Treatment Options in Neurology 04/2012; 2(2):125-139. DOI:10.1007/s11940-000-0014-1 · 2.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

467 Citations
100.18 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2015
    • University of Colorado
      • • Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health
      • • Department of Community and Behavioral Health
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2012
    • National Center for Telehealth and Technology
      Spanaway, Washington, United States
  • 2009
    • Brown University
      • Alpert Medical School
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States