Janet Royalty

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, MI, United States

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Publications (20)67.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among US men and women. Screening rates have been slow to increase, and disparities in screening remain. To address the disparity in screening for this high burden but largely preventable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed and established a 4-year Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) in 2005 for low-income, under-insured or uninsured men and women aged 50 to 64 years in 5 participating US program sites. In this report, the authors describe the design of the CRCSDP and the overall clinical findings and screening test performance characteristics, including the positive fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rate; the rates of polyp, adenoma, and cancer detection with FOBTs and colonoscopies; and the positive predicative value for polyps, adenomas, and cancers. In total, 5233 individuals at average risk and increased risk were screened for colorectal cancer across all 5 sites, including 44% who underwent screening FOBT and 56% who underwent screening colonoscopy. Overall, 77% of all individuals screened were women. The FOBT positivity rate was 10%. Results from all screening or diagnostic colonoscopies indicated that 75% had negative results and required a repeat screening colonoscopy in 10 years, 16% had low-risk adenomas and required surveillance colonoscopy in 5 to 10 years, 8% had high-risk adenomas and required surveillance colonoscopy in 3 years, and 0.6% had invasive cancers. This report documents the successes and challenges in implementing the CDC's CRCSDP and describes the clinical outcomes of this 4-year initiative, the patterns in program uptake and test choice, and the comparative test performance characteristics of FOBT versus colonoscopy. Patterns in final outcomes from the follow-up of positive screening tests were consistent with national registry data. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2820-33. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2820-33. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established and supported a 4-year Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) from 2005 to 2009 for low-income, under- or uninsured men and women aged 50-64 at 5 sites in the United States. A multiple methods evaluation was conducted including 1) a longitudinal, comparative case study of program implementation, 2) the collection and analysis of client-level screening and diagnostic services outcome data, and 3) the collection and analysis of program- and patient-level cost data. Several themes emerged from the results reported in the series of articles in this Supplement. These included the benefit of building on an existing infrastructure, strengths and weakness of both the 2 most frequently used screening tests (colonoscopy and fecal occult blood tests), variability in costs of maintaining this screening program, and the importance of measuring the quality of screening tests. Population-level evaluation questions could not be answered because of the small size of the participating population and the limited time frame of the evaluation. The comprehensive evaluation of the program determined overall feasibility of this effort. Critical lessons learned through the implementation and evaluation of the CDC's CRCSDP led to the development of a larger population-based program, the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP). Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2940-6. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2940-6. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To the authors's knowledge, there are few published prospective cohort studies of colonoscopy complications in patients at average risk for colorectal cancer who received colorectal cancer screening from a community-based program. In this article, the authors report the rate of colonoscopy complications in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP), which provided colorectal cancer screening to a medically underserved population aged 50 years to 64 years for screening, diagnostic follow-up after positive stool blood tests, and surveillance purposes. Clinical data were collected prospectively from 5 community-based colorectal cancer screening programs. Complications were identified by reviewing the standardized clinical data and medical complication reporting forms submitted by the programs to the CDC. Serious complications were defined as conditions or symptoms that resulted in hospital admission within 30 days after the procedure, including perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding requiring or not requiring blood transfusion, cardiopulmonary events, postpolypectomy syndrome, excessive abdominal pain, or death. A total of 3215 individuals underwent 3355 colonoscopies. Of these, 89% of the colonoscopies were conducted for screening, 9% were conducted for diagnostic follow-up, and 2% were conducted for surveillance purposes. The mean age of the individuals was 55.9 years. Eight individuals experienced serious complications, for an incidence of 2.38 per 1000 colonoscopies. Three patients experienced bowel perforations that required surgery, 1 patient was hospitalized for postpolypectomy bleeding, 3 patients experienced cardiopulmonary events, and 1 patient visited the emergency room for excessive abdominal pain and underwent surgery for an identified colorectal mass. No deaths were reported. In the CDC's CRCSDP, in which a total of 3215 individuals underwent 3355 colonoscopies, the overall incidence of serious complications from colonoscopy was found to be low. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2849-54. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2849-54. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gaps in screening quality in community practice have been well documented. The authors examined recommended indicators of screening quality in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP), which provided colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic services between 2005 and 2009 for asymptomatic, low-income, underinsured, or uninsured individuals at 5 sites around the United States. For each client screened in the CRCSDP, a standardized set of colorectal cancer clinical data elements was collected. Data regarding client age, screening history, risk level, screening test indication, results, and recommendation for the next test were analyzed. For colonoscopies, data were analyzed regarding whether the cecum was reached, bowel preparation was adequate, and identified lesions were completely removed. Overall, 53% of the fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) (2295 tests) distributed were completed and returned. At the 2 sites with adequate numbers of FOBTs, 77% and 97%, respectively, of clients with positive results received follow-up colonoscopies. Site-specific cecal intubation rates ranged from 90% to 98%. Adenoma detection rates were 32% for men and 21% for women. For approximately one-third of colonoscopies, the recommended interval to the next test was shorter than recommended by national guidelines. At some sites, endoscopists failed to report on the adequacy of bowel preparation and completeness of polyp removal. Cecal intubation rates and adenoma detection rates met recommended levels. The authors identified the need for improvements in the follow-up of positive FOBTs, documentation of important elements in colonoscopy reports, and recommendations for rescreening or surveillance intervals after colonoscopy. Monitoring quality indicators is important to improve screening quality. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2834-41. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2834-41. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to explore the feasibility of establishing a large-scale colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program for underserved populations in the United States. The authors of this report assessed the clinical costs incurred at each of the 5 participating sites during the demonstration period. By using data on payments to providers by each of the 5 CRCSDP sites, the authors estimated costs for specific clinical services and overall clinical costs for each of the 2 CRC screening methods used by the sites: colonoscopy and fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Among CRCSDP clients who were at average risk for CRC and for whom complete cost data were available, 2131 were screened by FOBT, and 1888 were screened by colonoscopy. The total average clinical cost per individual screened by FOBT (including costs for screening, diagnosis, initial surveillance, office visits, and associated clinical services averaged across all individuals who received screening FOBT) ranged from $48 in Nebraska to $149 in Greater Seattle. This compared with an average clinical cost per individual for all services related to the colonoscopy screening ranging from $654 in St. Louis to $1600 in Baltimore City. Variations in how sites contracted with providers and in the services provided through CRCSDP affected the cost of clinical services and the complexity of collecting cost data. Health officials may find these data useful in program planning and budgeting. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2863-9. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2863-9. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to explore the feasibility of establishing a large-scale colorectal cancer screening program for underserved populations in the United States. The authors of the current report provide a detailed description of the total program costs (clinical and nonclinical) incurred during both the start-up and service delivery (screening) phases of the 4-year program. Tailored cost questionnaires were completed by staff at the 5 CRCSDP sites. Cost data were collected for clinical services and nonclinical programmatic activities (program management, data collection, and tracking, etc). In-kind contributions also were measured and were assigned monetary values. Nearly $11.3 million was expended by the 5 sites over 4 years, and 71% was provided by the CDC. The proportion of funding spent on clinical service delivery and service delivery/patient support comprised the largest proportion of cost during the implementation phase (years 2-4). The per-person nonclinical cost comprised a substantial portion of total costs for all sites. The cost per person screened varied across the 5 sites and by screening method. Overall, economies of scale were observed, with lower costs resulting from larger numbers of individuals screened. Programs incur substantial variable costs related to clinical services and semivariable costs related to nonclinical services. Therefore, programs that serve large populations are likely to achieve a lower cost per person. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2855-62. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2855-62. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine time intervals from cervical cancer screening to diagnosis and treatment initiation among low-income and uninsured women in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) during two consecutive time periods. We analyzed NBCCEDP data for women with abnormal Pap tests (n=100,167), from which 1,417 invasive cervical cancers were diagnosed. We examined two time intervals for this study: diagnostic interval (time from abnormal Pap test to the date of definitive diagnosis) and treatment initiation interval (time from definitive diagnosis to treatment initiation) for two time periods: 1996-2002 and 2003-2009. We compared median time intervals for diagnostic and treatment initiation using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Adjusted proportions (predicted marginals) were calculated using logistic regression to examine diagnosis and treatment within program benchmarks (≤60 days). Median diagnostic intervals decreased overall by 6 days (54 vs. 48 days, p<0.001). This decrease in the median diagnostic interval was noted for all variables examined. The median treatment initiation intervals remained stable over the two time periods. Women screened by the NBCCEDP receive diagnostic follow-up and initiate treatment within preestablished program guidelines.
    Journal of Women s Health 07/2012; 21(7):776-82. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    Value in Health 05/2011; 14(3):A1. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast cancer screening to medically underserved, low-income women aged 40-64 years. No study has evaluated NBCCEDP's effect on breast cancer mortality. This study estimates life-years saved by NBCCEDP breast cancer screening compared with screening in the absence of NBCCEDP and with no screening. A breast cancer simulation model based on existing Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network models was constructed. The screening module from these models was modified to reflect screening frequency for NBCCEDP participants. Screening data for uninsured women represented what would have happened without the program. Separate simulations were performed for women who received NBCCEDP (Program) screening, women who potentially received screening without the program (No Program), and women who received no screening (No Screening). The impact of NBCCEDP was estimated as the difference in life-years between the Program and No Program, and the Program and No Screening scenarios. The analysis was performed in 2008-2009. Among 1.8 million women who were screened between 1991 and 2006, the Program saved 100,800 life-years compared with No Program and 369,000 life-years compared with No Screening. Per woman screened, the Program saved 0.056 life-years (95% CI=0.031, 0.081) compared with No Program and 0.206 life-years (95% CI=0.177, 0.234) compared with No Screening. Per woman with invasive breast cancer and screen-detected invasive cancer, the Program saved 0.41 and 0.71 life-years, respectively, compared with No Program. These estimates suggest that NBCCEDP breast cancer screening has reduced mortality among medically uninsured and underinsured low-income women.
    American journal of preventive medicine 04/2011; 40(4):397-404. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) in 2005 to explore the feasibility of establishing a colorectal cancer screening program for underserved US populations. We provide a detailed overview of the evaluation and an assessment of the costs incurred during the service delivery (screening) phase of the program. Tailored cost questionnaires were completed by staff at the five CRCSDP sites for the first 2 years of the program. We collected cost data for clinical and programmatic activities (program management, data collection and tracking, etc.). We also measured in-kind contributions and assigned values to them. During the first 2 years of the demonstration excluding the start-up cost, the average cost per person was $2569. Per person cost of clinical services alone ranged from $264 to $1385, while per person programmatic costs ranged from $545 to $3017. Colorectal cancer screening programs can incur substantial costs for some non-clinical activities, such as data collection/tracking, and these support activities should be managed carefully to control costs and ensure successful program implementation. Our findings highlight the importance of performing economic evaluation to guide the design of future colorectal cancer screening programs.
    Evaluation and program planning 10/2010; 34(2):147-53. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the extent to which the only national organized screening program in the US, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), has helped to meet the cervical cancer screening needs of underserved women. Low-income, uninsured women 18-64 years of age are eligible for free cervical cancer screening services through NBCCEDP. We used data from the US Census Bureau to estimate the number of eligible women, based on insurance status and income. The estimates were adjusted for hysterectomy status using the National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used administrative data from NBCCEDP to obtain the number of women receiving NBCCEDP-funded Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. We then calculated the percentage of NBCCEDP-eligible women who received free cervical cancer screening through NBCCEDP. We also used the NHIS to calculate the percentage of NBCCEDP-eligible women screened nationally and the percentage unscreened. In 2004-2006, nearly 9% (775,312 of 8.9 million) of NBCCEDP-eligible women, received NBCCEDP-funded Pap test. Rates varied substantially by age groups, race, and ethnicity. NBCCEDP-eligible women 40-64 years of age had a higher screening rate (22.6%) than eligible women 18-39 years of age (2.3%). Non-Hispanic women had a higher screening rate (9.3%) than Hispanic women (7.3%). Among non-Hispanics, the screening rate was highest among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women (36.1%) and lowest among women of different race combinations (4.6%), The percentage of eligible women screened in each state ranged from 2.0 to 38.4%. Although NBCCEDP provided cervical cancer screening services to 775,312 low-income, uninsured women, this number represented a small percentage of those eligible. In 2005, more than 34% of NBCCEDP-eligible women (3.1 million women) did not receive recommended Pap tests from either NBCCEDP or other sources.
    Cancer Causes and Control 04/2010; 21(7):1081-90. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information system mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registries, especially for comprehensive cancer control planning and evaluation purposes. In this 2-part series, we answer frequently asked questions about choropleth map design to display cancer incidence data. We recommend that future initiatives consider more advanced mapping, spatial analysis, and spatial statistics techniques and include usability testing with representatives of state and local programs and other cancer prevention partners.
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2010; 7(1):A24. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of program policy changes, we examined service delivery benchmarks for breast cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). We analyzed NBCCEDP data for women with abnormal mammogram or clinical breast examination (n=382 416) from which 23 701 cancers were diagnosed. We examined time to diagnosis and treatment for 2 time periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2001 to 2005. We compared median time for diagnostic, treatment initiation, and total intervals with the Kruskal-Wallis test. We calculated adjusted proportions (predicted marginals) with logistic regression to examine diagnosis and treatment within program benchmarks (<or=60 days) and time from screening to treatment (<or=120 days). Median diagnostic intervals decreased by 2 days (25 vs 23; P<.001). Median treatment initiation intervals increased by 2 days (12 vs 14; P<.001). Total intervals decreased by 3 days (43 vs 40; P<.001). Women meeting the 60-day benchmark for diagnosis improved the most for women with normal mammograms and abnormal clinical breast examinations from 77% to 82%. Women screened by the NBCCEDP received diagnostic follow-up and initiated treatment within preestablished program guidelines.
    American Journal of Public Health 12/2009; 100(9):1769-76. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify repeat Pap testing and colposcopic biopsies among women in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program between 2003 and 2006 (N=955,494). Rates of repeat Pap testing (two tests within 9 months) and colposcopic biopsies were estimated along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Odds ratios and 95% CIs for receipt of colposcopic biopsy compared with repeat Pap testing were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models. Finally, we estimated positive predictive values and 95% CIs of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or worse (CIN 3, carcinoma in situ, invasive cancer) for two strategies: 1) repeat Pap testing followed by colposcopic biopsy and 2) colposcopic biopsy alone. There were 39,583 and 53,880 women with repeat Pap testing and colposcopic biopsy, respectively, from 2003 to 2006. Overall, age-standardized rates of repeat Pap testing and colposcopic biopsies were 37.2 per 1,000 women and 39.3 per 1,000 women, respectively. Younger women, Hispanic women, and African-American women were more likely to receive colposcopic biopsies compared with repeat Pap tests. Positive predictive values of colposcopic biopsy were highest after abnormal Pap test results (27% after a result of atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 70% after a result of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/squamous cell cancer). Colposcopic biopsies are common among young women after being screened for cervical cancer and, except among those with the most severe Pap test results, may not be efficient in detecting serious disease. These results conflict with current recommendations for less aggressive follow-up for most young women. II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/2009; 114(5):1049-56. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) covers the direct clinical costs of breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic follow-up for medically underserved, low-income women. Personal costs are not covered. In this report, the authors estimated personal costs per woman participating in NBCCEDP mammography screening by race/ethnicity and also estimated lifetime personal costs (ages 50-74 years). A decision analysis model was constructed and parameterized by using empiric data from a retrospective cohort survey of mammography rescreening among women ages 50 years to 64 years who participated in the NBCCEDP. Data from 1870 women were collected from 1999 to 2000. The model simulated the flow of resources incurred by a woman participating in the NBCCEDP. The analysis was stratified by annual income into 2 scenarios: Scenario 1, <$10,000; and Scenario 2, from $10,000 to <$20,000. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to appraise uncertainty, and all costs were standardized to 2000 U.S. dollars. In Scenario 1, for all races/ethnicities, a woman incurred a 1-time cost of $17 and a discounted lifetime cost of $108 for 10 screens and $262 for 25 screens; in Scenario 2, these amounts were $31 and from $197 to $475, respectively. In both scenarios, a non-Hispanic white woman incurred the highest cost. The sensitivity analyses revealed that >70% of cost incurred was attributable to opportunity cost. Capturing and quantifying personal costs will help ascertain the total cost (ie, societal cost) of providing mammography screening to a medically underserved, low-income woman participating in a publicly funded cancer screening program and, thus, will help determine the true cost-effectiveness of such programs.
    Cancer 07/2008; 113(3):592-601. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among U.S. adults. In 2004, treatment costs for colorectal cancer were $8.4 billion. There is substantial evidence that colorectal cancer incidence and mortality are reduced with regular screening. The natural history of this disease is also well described: most colorectal cancers develop slowly from preexisting polyps. This slow development provides an opportunity to intervene with screening tests, which can either prevent colorectal cancer through the removal of polyps or detect it at an early stage. However, much less is known about how best to implement an effective colorectal cancer screening program. Screening rates are low, and uninsured persons, low-income persons, and persons who have not visited a physician within a year are least likely to be screened. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has 15 years of experience supporting the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program for the underserved population, a similar national program for colorectal cancer is not in place. To explore the feasibility of implementing a national program for the underserved U.S. population and to learn which settings and which program models are most viable and cost-effective, CDC began a 3-year colorectal cancer screening demonstration program in 2005. This article describes briefly this demonstration program and the process CDC used to design it and to select program sites. The multiple-methods evaluation now under way to assess the program's feasibility and describe key outcomes is also detailed. Evaluation results will be used to inform future activities related to organized screening for colorectal cancer.
    Preventing chronic disease 05/2008; 5(2):A64. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) started a 3-year colorectal cancer screening demonstration project and funded five programs to explore the feasibility of a colorectal cancer program for the underserved U.S. population. CDC is evaluating the five programs to estimate implementation cost, identify best practices, and determine the most cost-effective approach. The objectives are to calculate start-up costs and estimate funding requirements for widespread implementation of colorectal cancer screening programs. An instrument was developed to collect data on resource use and related costs. Costs were estimated for start-up activities, including program management, database development, creation of partnerships, public education and outreach, quality assurance and professional development, and patient support. Monetary value of in-kind contributions to start-up programs was also estimated. Start-up time ranged from 9 to 11 months for the five programs; costs ranged from $60,602 to $337,715. CDC funding and in-kind contributions were key resources for the program start-up activities. The budget category with the largest expenditure was labor, which on average accounted for 67% of start-up costs. The largest cost categories by activities were management (28%), database development (17%), administrative (17%), and quality assurance (12%). Other significant expenditures included public education and outreach (9%) and patient support (8%). To our knowledge, no previous reports detail the costs to begin a colorectal cancer screening program for the underserved population. Start-up costs were significant, an important consideration in planning and budgeting. In-kind contributions were also critical in overall program funding. Start-up costs varied by the infrastructure available and the unique design of programs. These findings can inform development of organized colorectal cancer programs.
    Preventing chronic disease 05/2008; 5(2):A47. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integrating one or more public health programs may improve the ability of programs to achieve common goals. Expanding knowledge on how program integration occurs, how it benefits each individual program, and how it contributes to the achievement of common goals is an important area of inquiry in public health. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and the Well-Integrated Screening and Evaluation for Women Across the Nation (WISEWOMAN) program combined data from 10 of their overlapping state or tribal programs to calculate prevalence estimates of repeat mammography at 18 months. The data were stratified by whether women attended the combined program or only the NBCCEDP. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that were thought to independently contribute to a greater likelihood of a woman receiving a repeat mammogram. Women who participated in both programs were 1.5 to 5.1 times as likely to be rescreened, depending on program location, as women who participated only in the NBCCEDP. WISEWOMAN participants who received a follow-up WISEWOMAN screening for chronic disease risk factors within a year of their initial WISEWOMAN screening were 5 times more likely to return for a follow-up mammogram through the NBCCEDP than were WISEWOMAN participants who did not. Participation in both the NBCCEDP and the WISEWOMAN program is associated with a greater likelihood of a woman returning for a follow-up mammogram within 18 months of her initial examination. Collecting more in-depth information on motivational factors and on the association between receipt of multiple services and a woman's engagement in a health program should be the subject of future research.
    Preventing chronic disease 11/2007; 4(4):A89. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the extent to which the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (Program) has helped to meet the mammography screening needs of underserved women. Low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 are eligible for free mammography screening through the Program. We used data from the U.S. Census Bureau to estimate the number of women eligible for services. We obtained the number of women receiving Program-funded mammograms from the Program. We then calculated the percentage of eligible women who received mammograms through the Program. In 2002-2003, of all U.S. women aged 40-64, approximately 4 million (8.5%) had no health insurance and had a family income below 250% of the federal poverty level, meeting Program eligibility criteria. Of these women, 528,622 (13.2%) received a Program-funded mammogram. Rates varied substantially by race and ethnicity. The percentage of eligible women screened in each state ranged from about 2% to approximately 79%. Although the Program provided screening services to over a half-million low-income, uninsured women for mammography, it served a small percentage of those eligible. Given that in 2003 more than 2.3 million uninsured, low-income, women aged 40-64 did not receive recommended mammograms from either the Program or other sources, there remains a substantial need for services for this historically underserved population.
    Cancer Causes and Control 12/2006; 17(9):1145-54. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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Publication Stats

129 Citations
16 Downloads
933 Views
67.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division Of Cancer Prevention and Control
      Atlanta, MI, United States
    • RTI International
      Durham, North Carolina, United States