Janet Royalty

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, MI, United States

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Publications (28)99.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has played a critical role in providing cancer screening services to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/ANs) women and strengthening tribal screening capacity. Since 1991, the NBCCEDP has funded states, tribal nations, and tribal organizations to develop and implement organized screening programs. The ultimate goal is to deliver breast and cervical cancer screening to women who do not have health insurance and cannot afford to pay for these services. The delivery of clinical services is supported through complementary program efforts such as professional development, public education and outreach, and patient navigation. This article seeks to describe the growth of NBCCEDP's tribal commitment and the unique history and aspects of serving the AI/AN population. The article describes: 1) how this program has demonstrated success in improving screening of AI/AN women; 2) innovative partnerships with the Indian Health Service, state programs, and other organizations that have improved tribal public health infrastructure; and 3) the evolution of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work with tribal communities. Cancer 2014;120(16 suppl):2557-65. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2014; 120 Suppl 16:2557-65. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the quality of national data generated by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP); to assess variables collected through the program that are appropriate to use for program management, evaluation, and data analysis; and to identify potential data-quality issues.
    Cancer 08/2014; 120 Suppl 16:2597-603. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little empirical evidence exists about the effectiveness of performance management systems in government. This study assessed the effectiveness of the performance management system of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and explored why it works.
    Cancer 08/2014; 120 Suppl 16:2566-74. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. Cancer 2014;120(16 suppl):2549-56. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2014; 120 Suppl 16:2549-56. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) is the largest cancer screening program for low-income women in the United States. This study updates previous estimates of the costs of delivering preventive cancer screening services in the NBCCEDP.
    Cancer 08/2014; 120 Suppl 16:2604-11. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is implemented through cooperative agreements with state health departments, US territories, and tribal health organizations (grantees). Grantees typically contract with clinicians and other providers to deliver breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services. As required by the CDC, grantees report biannually a subset of patient and clinical level program data known as the Minimum Data Elements. Rigorous processes are in place to ensure the completeness and quality of program data collection. In this article, the authors describe the NBCCEDP data-collection processes and data management system and discusses how data are used for 1) program monitoring and improvement, 2) evaluation and research, and 3) policy development and analysis. They also provide 2 examples of how grantees use data to improve their performance. Cancer 2014;120(16 suppl):2575-83. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2014; 120 Suppl 16:2575-83. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The benefits of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) on cervical cancer screening for participating uninsured low-income women have never been measured. Purpose To estimate the benefits in life-years (LYs) gained; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained; and deaths averted. Methods A cervical cancer simulation model was constructed based on an existing cohort model. The model was applied to NBCCEDP participants aged 18–64 years. Screening habits for uninsured low-income women were estimated using National Health Interview Survey data from 1990 to 2005 and NBCCEDP data from 1991 to 2007. The study was conducted during 2011–2012 and covered all 68 NBCCEDP grantees in 50 states, the District of Columbia, five U.S. territories, and 12 tribal organizations. Separate simulations were performed for the following three scenarios: (1) women who received NBCCEDP (Program) screening; (2) women who received screening without the program (No Program); and (3) women who received no screening (No Screening). Results Among 1.8 million women screened in 1991–2007, the Program added 10,369 LYs gained compared to No Program, and 101,509 LYs gained compared to No Screening. The Program prevented 325 women from dying of cervical cancer relative to No Program, and 3,829 relative to No Screening. During this time period, the Program accounted for 15,589 QALYs gained when compared with No Program, and 121,529 QALYs gained when compared with No Screening. Conclusions These estimates suggest that NBCCEDP cervical cancer screening has reduced mortality among medically underserved low-income women who participated in the program.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Women's Wellness Connection (WWC) program is administered by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) as part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). WWC provides free breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income, uninsured, and underserved women across Colorado. Screening and diagnostic testing services are provided through a network of 45 clinical providers, including local public health departments, Federally Qualified Health Centers, non-profit health centers, safety net clinics, and hospitals. In 2009, CDPHE developed the Bundled Payment System (BPS) and began paying providers predetermined reimbursement levels based on expected costs of a set of breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services. BPS provides increasing levels of reimbursement for escalating case complexity for screening and diagnosis ranging from $50-$1445 across four levels for breast services and $50-$480 for cervical services. Researchers from ICF International, CDPHE, and CDC conducted an evaluation of BPS to assess effectiveness in improving timeliness and completeness of care and impacts on costs. Using a mixed-methods approach of analyzing quantitative data from WWC's electronic data management and public health surveillance system used to track clinical service delivery and reimbursement and conducting key informant interviews with providers, the research team aimed to understand the clinical, data quality and financial impacts of BPS on breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services. Findings suggest that compared to the former capitated payment model, BPS is associated with increased likelihood of timely and complete patient care and follow-up for those with abnormal breast cancer screening results. This effect was not observed for abnormal cervical cancer results. In addition, BPS has no differential effect on clinicians' ordering practices; in other words, bundled payments did not appear to incentivize unnecessary diagnostic services among WWC providers. Findings related to costs will also be discussed. When implemented in combination with policies mandating data entry timeliness and standard lost-to-follow-up procedures, bundled payments for breast cancer screening may help ensure complete and timely service provision and improved data quality for public health programs. Further, the bundled payments model of reimbursement has the potential to assist other NBCCEDP grantees who are interested in moving away from a capitated or fee-for-service model.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: To the authors's knowledge, there are few published prospective cohort studies of colonoscopy complications in patients at average risk for colorectal cancer who received colorectal cancer screening from a community-based program. In this article, the authors report the rate of colonoscopy complications in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP), which provided colorectal cancer screening to a medically underserved population aged 50 years to 64 years for screening, diagnostic follow-up after positive stool blood tests, and surveillance purposes. Clinical data were collected prospectively from 5 community-based colorectal cancer screening programs. Complications were identified by reviewing the standardized clinical data and medical complication reporting forms submitted by the programs to the CDC. Serious complications were defined as conditions or symptoms that resulted in hospital admission within 30 days after the procedure, including perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding requiring or not requiring blood transfusion, cardiopulmonary events, postpolypectomy syndrome, excessive abdominal pain, or death. A total of 3215 individuals underwent 3355 colonoscopies. Of these, 89% of the colonoscopies were conducted for screening, 9% were conducted for diagnostic follow-up, and 2% were conducted for surveillance purposes. The mean age of the individuals was 55.9 years. Eight individuals experienced serious complications, for an incidence of 2.38 per 1000 colonoscopies. Three patients experienced bowel perforations that required surgery, 1 patient was hospitalized for postpolypectomy bleeding, 3 patients experienced cardiopulmonary events, and 1 patient visited the emergency room for excessive abdominal pain and underwent surgery for an identified colorectal mass. No deaths were reported. In the CDC's CRCSDP, in which a total of 3215 individuals underwent 3355 colonoscopies, the overall incidence of serious complications from colonoscopy was found to be low. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2849-54. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2849-54. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gaps in screening quality in community practice have been well documented. The authors examined recommended indicators of screening quality in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP), which provided colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic services between 2005 and 2009 for asymptomatic, low-income, underinsured, or uninsured individuals at 5 sites around the United States. For each client screened in the CRCSDP, a standardized set of colorectal cancer clinical data elements was collected. Data regarding client age, screening history, risk level, screening test indication, results, and recommendation for the next test were analyzed. For colonoscopies, data were analyzed regarding whether the cecum was reached, bowel preparation was adequate, and identified lesions were completely removed. Overall, 53% of the fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) (2295 tests) distributed were completed and returned. At the 2 sites with adequate numbers of FOBTs, 77% and 97%, respectively, of clients with positive results received follow-up colonoscopies. Site-specific cecal intubation rates ranged from 90% to 98%. Adenoma detection rates were 32% for men and 21% for women. For approximately one-third of colonoscopies, the recommended interval to the next test was shorter than recommended by national guidelines. At some sites, endoscopists failed to report on the adequacy of bowel preparation and completeness of polyp removal. Cecal intubation rates and adenoma detection rates met recommended levels. The authors identified the need for improvements in the follow-up of positive FOBTs, documentation of important elements in colonoscopy reports, and recommendations for rescreening or surveillance intervals after colonoscopy. Monitoring quality indicators is important to improve screening quality. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2834-41. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2834-41. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to explore the feasibility of establishing a large-scale colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program for underserved populations in the United States. The authors of this report assessed the clinical costs incurred at each of the 5 participating sites during the demonstration period. By using data on payments to providers by each of the 5 CRCSDP sites, the authors estimated costs for specific clinical services and overall clinical costs for each of the 2 CRC screening methods used by the sites: colonoscopy and fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Among CRCSDP clients who were at average risk for CRC and for whom complete cost data were available, 2131 were screened by FOBT, and 1888 were screened by colonoscopy. The total average clinical cost per individual screened by FOBT (including costs for screening, diagnosis, initial surveillance, office visits, and associated clinical services averaged across all individuals who received screening FOBT) ranged from $48 in Nebraska to $149 in Greater Seattle. This compared with an average clinical cost per individual for all services related to the colonoscopy screening ranging from $654 in St. Louis to $1600 in Baltimore City. Variations in how sites contracted with providers and in the services provided through CRCSDP affected the cost of clinical services and the complexity of collecting cost data. Health officials may find these data useful in program planning and budgeting. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2863-9. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2863-9. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established and supported a 4-year Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) from 2005 to 2009 for low-income, under- or uninsured men and women aged 50-64 at 5 sites in the United States. A multiple methods evaluation was conducted including 1) a longitudinal, comparative case study of program implementation, 2) the collection and analysis of client-level screening and diagnostic services outcome data, and 3) the collection and analysis of program- and patient-level cost data. Several themes emerged from the results reported in the series of articles in this Supplement. These included the benefit of building on an existing infrastructure, strengths and weakness of both the 2 most frequently used screening tests (colonoscopy and fecal occult blood tests), variability in costs of maintaining this screening program, and the importance of measuring the quality of screening tests. Population-level evaluation questions could not be answered because of the small size of the participating population and the limited time frame of the evaluation. The comprehensive evaluation of the program determined overall feasibility of this effort. Critical lessons learned through the implementation and evaluation of the CDC's CRCSDP led to the development of a larger population-based program, the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP). Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2940-6. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2940-6. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among US men and women. Screening rates have been slow to increase, and disparities in screening remain. To address the disparity in screening for this high burden but largely preventable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed and established a 4-year Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) in 2005 for low-income, under-insured or uninsured men and women aged 50 to 64 years in 5 participating US program sites. In this report, the authors describe the design of the CRCSDP and the overall clinical findings and screening test performance characteristics, including the positive fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rate; the rates of polyp, adenoma, and cancer detection with FOBTs and colonoscopies; and the positive predicative value for polyps, adenomas, and cancers. In total, 5233 individuals at average risk and increased risk were screened for colorectal cancer across all 5 sites, including 44% who underwent screening FOBT and 56% who underwent screening colonoscopy. Overall, 77% of all individuals screened were women. The FOBT positivity rate was 10%. Results from all screening or diagnostic colonoscopies indicated that 75% had negative results and required a repeat screening colonoscopy in 10 years, 16% had low-risk adenomas and required surveillance colonoscopy in 5 to 10 years, 8% had high-risk adenomas and required surveillance colonoscopy in 3 years, and 0.6% had invasive cancers. This report documents the successes and challenges in implementing the CDC's CRCSDP and describes the clinical outcomes of this 4-year initiative, the patterns in program uptake and test choice, and the comparative test performance characteristics of FOBT versus colonoscopy. Patterns in final outcomes from the follow-up of positive screening tests were consistent with national registry data. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2820-33. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2820-33. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to explore the feasibility of establishing a large-scale colorectal cancer screening program for underserved populations in the United States. The authors of the current report provide a detailed description of the total program costs (clinical and nonclinical) incurred during both the start-up and service delivery (screening) phases of the 4-year program. Tailored cost questionnaires were completed by staff at the 5 CRCSDP sites. Cost data were collected for clinical services and nonclinical programmatic activities (program management, data collection, and tracking, etc). In-kind contributions also were measured and were assigned monetary values. Nearly $11.3 million was expended by the 5 sites over 4 years, and 71% was provided by the CDC. The proportion of funding spent on clinical service delivery and service delivery/patient support comprised the largest proportion of cost during the implementation phase (years 2-4). The per-person nonclinical cost comprised a substantial portion of total costs for all sites. The cost per person screened varied across the 5 sites and by screening method. Overall, economies of scale were observed, with lower costs resulting from larger numbers of individuals screened. Programs incur substantial variable costs related to clinical services and semivariable costs related to nonclinical services. Therefore, programs that serve large populations are likely to achieve a lower cost per person. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2855-62. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 08/2013; 119 Suppl 15:2855-62. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine time intervals from cervical cancer screening to diagnosis and treatment initiation among low-income and uninsured women in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) during two consecutive time periods. We analyzed NBCCEDP data for women with abnormal Pap tests (n=100,167), from which 1,417 invasive cervical cancers were diagnosed. We examined two time intervals for this study: diagnostic interval (time from abnormal Pap test to the date of definitive diagnosis) and treatment initiation interval (time from definitive diagnosis to treatment initiation) for two time periods: 1996-2002 and 2003-2009. We compared median time intervals for diagnostic and treatment initiation using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Adjusted proportions (predicted marginals) were calculated using logistic regression to examine diagnosis and treatment within program benchmarks (≤60 days). Median diagnostic intervals decreased overall by 6 days (54 vs. 48 days, p<0.001). This decrease in the median diagnostic interval was noted for all variables examined. The median treatment initiation intervals remained stable over the two time periods. Women screened by the NBCCEDP receive diagnostic follow-up and initiate treatment within preestablished program guidelines.
    Journal of Women's Health 07/2012; 21(7):776-82. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    Value in Health 05/2011; 14(3):A1. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast cancer screening to medically underserved, low-income women aged 40-64 years. No study has evaluated NBCCEDP's effect on breast cancer mortality. This study estimates life-years saved by NBCCEDP breast cancer screening compared with screening in the absence of NBCCEDP and with no screening. A breast cancer simulation model based on existing Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network models was constructed. The screening module from these models was modified to reflect screening frequency for NBCCEDP participants. Screening data for uninsured women represented what would have happened without the program. Separate simulations were performed for women who received NBCCEDP (Program) screening, women who potentially received screening without the program (No Program), and women who received no screening (No Screening). The impact of NBCCEDP was estimated as the difference in life-years between the Program and No Program, and the Program and No Screening scenarios. The analysis was performed in 2008-2009. Among 1.8 million women who were screened between 1991 and 2006, the Program saved 100,800 life-years compared with No Program and 369,000 life-years compared with No Screening. Per woman screened, the Program saved 0.056 life-years (95% CI=0.031, 0.081) compared with No Program and 0.206 life-years (95% CI=0.177, 0.234) compared with No Screening. Per woman with invasive breast cancer and screen-detected invasive cancer, the Program saved 0.41 and 0.71 life-years, respectively, compared with No Program. These estimates suggest that NBCCEDP breast cancer screening has reduced mortality among medically uninsured and underinsured low-income women.
    American journal of preventive medicine 04/2011; 40(4):397-404. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) in 2005 to explore the feasibility of establishing a colorectal cancer screening program for underserved US populations. We provide a detailed overview of the evaluation and an assessment of the costs incurred during the service delivery (screening) phase of the program. Tailored cost questionnaires were completed by staff at the five CRCSDP sites for the first 2 years of the program. We collected cost data for clinical and programmatic activities (program management, data collection and tracking, etc.). We also measured in-kind contributions and assigned values to them. During the first 2 years of the demonstration excluding the start-up cost, the average cost per person was $2569. Per person cost of clinical services alone ranged from $264 to $1385, while per person programmatic costs ranged from $545 to $3017. Colorectal cancer screening programs can incur substantial costs for some non-clinical activities, such as data collection/tracking, and these support activities should be managed carefully to control costs and ensure successful program implementation. Our findings highlight the importance of performing economic evaluation to guide the design of future colorectal cancer screening programs.
    Evaluation and program planning 10/2010; 34(2):147-53. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the extent to which the only national organized screening program in the US, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), has helped to meet the cervical cancer screening needs of underserved women. Low-income, uninsured women 18-64 years of age are eligible for free cervical cancer screening services through NBCCEDP. We used data from the US Census Bureau to estimate the number of eligible women, based on insurance status and income. The estimates were adjusted for hysterectomy status using the National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used administrative data from NBCCEDP to obtain the number of women receiving NBCCEDP-funded Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. We then calculated the percentage of NBCCEDP-eligible women who received free cervical cancer screening through NBCCEDP. We also used the NHIS to calculate the percentage of NBCCEDP-eligible women screened nationally and the percentage unscreened. In 2004-2006, nearly 9% (775,312 of 8.9 million) of NBCCEDP-eligible women, received NBCCEDP-funded Pap test. Rates varied substantially by age groups, race, and ethnicity. NBCCEDP-eligible women 40-64 years of age had a higher screening rate (22.6%) than eligible women 18-39 years of age (2.3%). Non-Hispanic women had a higher screening rate (9.3%) than Hispanic women (7.3%). Among non-Hispanics, the screening rate was highest among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women (36.1%) and lowest among women of different race combinations (4.6%), The percentage of eligible women screened in each state ranged from 2.0 to 38.4%. Although NBCCEDP provided cervical cancer screening services to 775,312 low-income, uninsured women, this number represented a small percentage of those eligible. In 2005, more than 34% of NBCCEDP-eligible women (3.1 million women) did not receive recommended Pap tests from either NBCCEDP or other sources.
    Cancer Causes and Control 04/2010; 21(7):1081-90. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information system mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registries, especially for comprehensive cancer control planning and evaluation purposes. In this 2-part series, we answer frequently asked questions about choropleth map design to display cancer incidence data. We recommend that future initiatives consider more advanced mapping, spatial analysis, and spatial statistics techniques and include usability testing with representatives of state and local programs and other cancer prevention partners.
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2010; 7(1):A24. · 1.82 Impact Factor