Jan Borovicka

Kantonsspital St. Gallen, San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland

Are you Jan Borovicka?

Claim your profile

Publications (66)310.39 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rate of cecal intubation is a well-recognized quality measure of successful colonoscopy. Infrequently, the standard colonoscopy techniques fail to achieve complete examination. The role of single-balloon overtube-assisted colonoscopy (SBC) in these situations has only been sparsely studied. This prospective single-center study aimed to investigate the technical success (rate of cecal intubation) and the diagnostic gain of SBC. The study recruited consecutive patients with previous incomplete standard colonoscopy who were admitted for SBC at our tertiary center in Eastern Switzerland between February 2008 and October 2014. The primary outcome was defined as successful cecal intubation. Data on patient characteristics, indication, technical details of procedure, and outcome were collected prospectively. The Olympus enteroscope SIF-Q180 was used. The study included 100 consecutive patients (median age 70 years; range 38-87 years; 54 % female) who were examined using a single-balloon overtube-assisted technique. The cecal intubation rate was 98 % (98/100). The median time of total procedure was 54 min (range 15-119 min); the median time to reach the cecal pole was 27.5 min (range 4-92 min). Passage of the sigmoid colon was not possible in two cases with a fixed, angulated sigmoid colon. The diagnostic gain was 21 % regarding adenomatous polyps in the right colon. The complication rate was 2 % (2/100, minor) without need for surgery. This prospective patient cohort study shows that single-balloon colonoscopy is a safe and effective procedure to achieve a complete endoscopic examination in patients with a previous failed standard colonoscopy. A significant diagnostic and therapeutic gain in the right colon justifies additional procedure time.
    Surgical Endoscopy 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00464-015-4405-5 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy 06/2015; 81(6). DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2015.01.037 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    C. Krieger-Grubel · Radu Tutuian · Jan Borovicka
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Early relapse after treatment of achalasia occurs in 10-32 % of patients. The best method to follow up these patients is not known. Symptoms often do not correlate with esophageal clearance: some patients are oligosymptomatic despite persistent esophageal stasis/dilatation.
    05/2015; DOI:10.1177/2050640615584732
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-868. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)32943-7 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcome of over-the-scope-clip system (OTSC) for endoscopic treatment of various indications in daily clinical practice in Switzerland. This prospective, consecutive case series was conducted at a tertiary care hospital from September 2010 to January 2014. Indications for OTSC application were fistulae, anastomotic leakage, perforation, unroofed submucosal lesion for biopsy, refractory bleeding, and stent fixation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Primary technical success was defined as the adequate deployment of the OTSC on the target lesion. Clinical success was defined as resolution of the problem; for instance, no requirement for surgery or further endoscopic intervention. In cases of recurrence, retreatment of a lesion with a second intervention was possible. Complications were classified into those related to sedation, endoscopy, or deployment of the clip. A total of 28 OTSC system applications were carried out in 21 patients [median age 64 years (range 42-85), 33% females]. The main indications were fistulae (52%), mostly after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal, and anastomotic leakage after GI surgery (29%). Further indications were unroofed submucosal lesions after biopsy, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, or esophageal stent fixation. The OTSC treatments were applied either in the upper (48%) or lower (52%) GI tract. The mean lesion size was 8 mm (range: 2-20 mm). Primary technical success and clinical success rates were 85% and 67%, respectively. In 53% of cases, the suction method was used without accessories (e.g., twin grasper or tissue anchor). No endoscopy-related or OTSC-related complications were observed. OTSC is a useful tool for endoscopic closure of various GI lesions, including fistulae and leakages. Future randomized prospective multicenter trials are warranted.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aufgrund der Leberzirrhose mit portaler Hypertonie und Thrombopenie war das Komplikationsrisiko einer PEGEinlage im geschilderten Fall erhöht. Zusätzlich musste die PEG-Sonde aufgrund einer koronaren Herzkrankheit und bei Status nach zerebrovaskulärem Insult unter Therapie mit Azetylsalizylsäure eingelegt werden, was per se keine Kontraindikation zur PEG-Einlage darstellt. Mit dem geschilderten Fall zeigen wir eine weitere, bisher nicht beschriebene Anwendungsmöglichkeit von Hemospray® zur Hämostase im oberen Gastrointestinaltrakt nach PEG-Einlage.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanisms that ultimately lead to dysphagia are still not totally clear. Patients with laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB) often complain about dysphagia, regurgitation and heartburn. Our aim was to evaluate the contribution of intrabolus pressure to symptoms of gastric banding. This study investigated 30 patients with LAGB before and 3 months after conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), evaluating symptoms with a 7-point-Likert-scale and esophageal peristalsis, esophageal bolus transit and intrabolus pressure changes using combined impedance-manometry. Conversion from LAGB to RYGB leads to a significant reduction in dysphagia (1.9 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.0 +/- 0.0; p< 0.01) and regurgitation (4.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.1 +/- 0.1; p< 0.01) symptom scores. For liquid swallows we found a modest but significant correlation between the intensity of dysphagia and intrabolus pressure (r=0.11; p<0.05) and the intensity of regurgitation and intrabolus pressure for viscous swallows (r=0.12, p<0.05) in patients with LAGB. There was a significant (p< 0.05) reduction in intrabolus pressure at 5 cm above LES before (liquid 10.6 +/-1.0; viscous 13.5 +/- 1.5) and after (liquid 6.4 +/- 0.6; viscous 10.5 +/- 0.9) conversion from LAGB to RYGB. Current data suggest that intraesophageal pressure during bolus presence in the distal esophagus contributes to the development but not to the intensity of dysphagia and regurgitation.
    Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases: JGLD 03/2014; 23(1):13-7. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • The American Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2013; 108(7):1176-1178. DOI:10.1038/ajg.2013.140 · 9.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Positron emission tomography/computed tomographies (PET/CTs) may result in incidental findings of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lesions in the colon. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of a colonoscopic workup of such lesions. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analysed all PET/CT reports (n = 4,973) generated in our nuclear medicine department between May 2006 and May 2011; in 69 cases a colonoscopic evaluation was recommended for incidental FDG-avid lesions. Results: Of these 69 cases, 51 underwent colonoscopy because of the potential need for further treatment. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) ranged from 5.0 to 42.0 with an average of 10.9. In 44 of the 51 patients, a histopathological abnormality was found on colonoscopy, 44 in the location described by PET/CT. A further 38 lesions were identified that were not visible on PET/CT. The histopathological evaluation in the 51 patients revealed 14 hyperplastic polyps, 27 adenomas with low-grade and 4 with high-grade dysplasia, 3 adenocarcinomas and 1 neuro-endocrine tumour. Conclusion: Incidental findings of focal colorectal FDG uptake should lead to further workup with colonoscopy. The SUVmax was not predictive for higher grade histologies. With an SUV of 5 the yield was high for colonic premalignant and malignant lesions. However, malignancy cannot be ruled out in focal lesions with an SUV of less than 5, and for individual patients a colonoscopy should not be ruled out.
    Onkologie 04/2013; 36(4):200-4. DOI:10.1159/000350302 · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of individualised proton pump inhibitors (PPI) prescription on upper gastrointestinal adverse events in a cohort of patients who received combination antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Upper gastrointestinal risk factors and other parameters were extracted from a dedicated electronic database. Patients were contacted with a standardised questionnaire. A structured phone interview was performed in all patients with upper gastrointestinal adverse events. A cohort of 718 patients on combination therapy yielded 87 (12.1%) patients with prophylactic PPI treatment. Upper gastrointestinal adverse events occurred in 18.4% patients with and in 11.1% patients without prophylactic PPI (OR 1.80, P = 0.054). Co-treatment with corticosteroids was the main identifiable risk factor for upper gastrointestinal adverse events (adjusted OR 5.45, P = 0.014). Individualised prescription of PPI-prophylaxis after PCI in patients on combined antiplatelet therapy based on risk assessment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to represent an effective measure to minimise upper gastrointestinal adverse events after PCI.
    Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 02/2012; 162(3-4):67-73. DOI:10.1007/s10354-012-0056-5
  • F Stickel · I Pache · D Moradpour · B Helbling · J Borovicka · T Gerlach
    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2011; 49(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1285597 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of image cytometry (ICM)-DNA analysis on cytological brush specimens in improving the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for biliary neoplasias. A total of 71 patients with 89 samples of biliary tree brushing from a stenosis were included in this prospective study. Conventional cytology (CC) and DNA ploidy using ICM of the brushing were performed. Benign or malignant findings were confirmed by surgical exploration or a clinical follow-up of at least 12 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical follow-up in 44 cases and surgical investigation or histology in 41 cases. A definitive diagnosis of the smears resulted in 40 malignant and 49 benign diagnoses. The sensitivity was 0.666 for CC and 0.658 for ICM, and the specificity was 0.920 and 0.937, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.866 for CC and 0.900 for ICM. McNemar's test did not reveal a significant difference between CC and ICM (P=0.803). Agreement of the two methods was found in 73 samples, raising specificity to 0.998 but not sensitivity (0.725). ICM-DNA seems not to improve significantly the PPV and NPV for detecting neoplasias of the biliary tract compared to CC. Nevertheless a clinical advantage can be seen in the agreement of the two methods in diagnosing dysplasia or cancer, since it did not show false positive results.
    Surgical Endoscopy 06/2011; 25(6):1808-13. DOI:10.1007/s00464-010-1469-0 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quality assurance becomes an increasingly important part of clinical medicine and of the field of endoscopy. Endoscopic sphincterotomy is associated with a fairly high complication rate. We aimed to assess our quality of sphincterotomy for benchmarking by using a prospective electronic database registry, and to identify potential risk factors for post-interventional complications. Over 2 years, 471 sphincterotomies were performed in a single tertiary referral centre. Patient- and procedure-related variables were prospectively recorded with the support of a multi-centre international sphincterotomy registry. Multivariate analysis was performed. The overall post-interventional complication rate was 9.3%. Pancreatitis happened in 5.5%, bleeding in 2.1%, perforation in 1.3%, and cholangitis in 0.4%. In the multivariate analysis following variables remained highly significant and predictive for complications: ‘papilla only in lateral view’ (p=0.001), antiplatelet therapy (p=0.024), and opacification with contrast up to the pancreatic tail (p=0.001). The primary success rate of sphincterotomy was 95.1%. The rate of post-interventional pancreatitis did not differ significantly regardless of the presence of prophylactic pancreatic stent (p=0.56). The outcome of sphincterotomy in our centre matches with literature data. The extent of pancreatic duct opacification has an influence on the pancreatitis rate. Prevention of pancreatitis by inserting pancreatic stents is not confirmed.
    Central European Journal of Medicine 02/2011; 7(1). DOI:10.2478/s11536-011-0113-2 · 0.21 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2010; 138(5). DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(10)61589-2 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces chronic infection in 50% to 80% of infected persons; approximately 50% of these do not respond to therapy. We performed a genome-wide association study to screen for host genetic determinants of HCV persistence and response to therapy. The analysis included 1362 individuals: 1015 with chronic hepatitis C and 347 who spontaneously cleared the virus (448 were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]). Responses to pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin were assessed in 465 individuals. Associations between more than 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and outcomes were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Chronic hepatitis C was associated with SNPs in the IL28B locus, which encodes the antiviral cytokine interferon lambda. The rs8099917 minor allele was associated with progression to chronic HCV infection (odds ratio [OR], 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-3.06; P = 6.07 x 10(-9)). The association was observed in HCV mono-infected (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.64-3.79; P = 1.96 x 10(-5)) and HCV/HIV coinfected individuals (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.47-3.18; P = 8.24 x 10(-5)). rs8099917 was also associated with failure to respond to therapy (OR, 5.19; 95% CI, 2.90-9.30; P = 3.11 x 10(-8)), with the strongest effects in patients with HCV genotype 1 or 4. This risk allele was identified in 24% of individuals with spontaneous HCV clearance, 32% of chronically infected patients who responded to therapy, and 58% who did not respond (P = 3.2 x 10(-10)). Resequencing of IL28B identified distinct haplotypes that were associated with the clinical phenotype. The association of the IL28B locus with natural and treatment-associated control of HCV indicates the importance of innate immunity and interferon lambda in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.
    Gastroenterology 04/2010; 138(4):1338-45, 1345.e1-7. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2009.12.056 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new surgical technique, the Perineal Stapled Prolapse resection (PSP) for external rectal prolapse was introduced in a feasibility study in 2008. This study now presents the first results of a larger patient group with functional outcome in a mid-term follow-up. From December 2007 to April 2009 PSP was performed by the same surgeon team on patients with external rectal prolapse. The prolapse was completely pulled out and then axially cut open with a linear stapler at three and nine o'clock in lithotomy position. Finally, the prolapse was resected stepwise with the curved Contour Transtar stapler at the prolapse's uptake. Perioperative morbidity and functional outcome were prospectively measured by appropriate scores. 32 patients participated in the study; median age was 80 years (range 26-93). No intraoperative complications and 6.3% minor postoperative complications occurred. Median operation time was 30 minutes (15-65), hospital stay 5 days (2-19). Functional outcome data were available in 31 of the patients after a median follow-up of 6 months (4-22). Preoperative severe faecal incontinence disappeared postoperatively in 90% of patients with a reduction of the median Wexner score from 16 (4-20) to 1 (0-14) (P < 0.0001). No new incidence of constipation was reported. The PSP is an elegant, fast and safe procedure, with good functional results. ISRCTN68491191.
    BMC Surgery 03/2010; 10:9. DOI:10.1186/1471-2482-10-9 · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the impact of international consensus conference guidelines on the attitude of Swiss specialists when facing the decision to treat chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: Questionnaires focusing on the personal situation and treatment decisions were mailed to 165 patients who were newly diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and enrolled into the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study during the years 2002-2004. RESULTS: Survey respondents (n = 86, 52.1%) were comparable to non-respondents with respect to severity of liver disease, history of substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities. Seventy percent of survey respondents reported having been offered antiviral treatment. Patients deferred from treatment had less advanced liver fibrosis, were more frequently infected with HCV genotypes 1 or 4 and presented more often with a history of depression. There were no differences regarding age, socio-economic background, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug abuse or methadone treatment when compared with patients to whom treatment was proposed. Ninety percent of eligible patients agreed to undergo treatment. Overall, 54.6% of respondents and 78.3% of those considered eligible had actually received antiviral therapy by 2007. Ninety-five percent of patients reported high satisfaction with their own hepatitis C management. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with latest international consensus guidelines, patients enrolled in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort with a history of substance abuse were not withheld antiviral treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to provide antiviral treatment to patients suffering from depression.
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 02/2010; · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Treatment of chronic HCV infection has become a priority in HIV+ patients, given the faster progression to end-stage liver disease. The primary endpoint of this study was to evaluate and compare antiviral efficacy of Peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin in HIV-HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients, and to examine whether 6 months of therapy would have the same efficacy in HIV patients with favourable genotypes 2 and 3 as in mono-infected patients, to minimise HCV-therapy-related toxicities. Secondary endpoints were to evaluate predictors of sustained virological response (SVR) and frequency of side-effects. Patients with genotypes 1 and 4 were treated for 48 weeks with Pegasys 180 microg/week plus Copegus 1000-1200 mg/day according to body weight; patients with genotypes 2 and 3 for 24 weeks with Pegasys 180 microg/week plus Copegus 800 mg/day. 132 patients were enrolled in the study: 85 HCV mono-infected (38: genotypes 1 and 4; 47: genotypes 2 and 3), 47 HIV-HCV co-infected patients (23: genotypes 1 and 4; 24: genotypes 2 and 3). In an intention-to-treat analysis, SVR for genotypes 1 and 4 was observed in 58% of HCV mono-infected and in 13% of HIV-HCV co-infected patients (P = 0.001). For genotypes 2 and 3, SVR was observed in 70% of HCV mono-infected and in 67% of HIV-HCV co-infected patients (P = 0.973). Undetectable HCV-RNA at week 4 had a positive predictive value for SVR for mono-infected patients with genotypes 1 and 4 of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.54-0.93) and of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.64-0.92) for genotypes 2 and 3. For co-infected patients with genotypes 2 and 3, the positive predictive value of SVR of undetectable HCV-RNA at week 4 was 0.76 (95%CI, 0.50-0.93). Study not completed by 22 patients (36%): genotypes 1 and 4 and by 12 patients (17%): genotypes 2 and 3. Genotypes 2 or 3 predict the likelihood of SVR in HCV mono-infected and in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. A 6-month treatment with Peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin has the same efficacy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients with genotypes 2 and 3 as in mono-infected patients. HCV-RNA negativity at 4 weeks has a positive predictive value for SVR. Aggressive treatment of adverse effects to avoid dose reduction, consent withdrawal or drop-out is crucial to increase the rate of SVR, especially when duration of treatment is 48 weeks. Sixty-one percent of HIV-HCV co-infected patients with genotypes 1 and 4 did not complete the study against 4% with genotypes 2 and 3.
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2010; 140:w13055. DOI:10.4414/smw.2010.13055 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current gold standard for the surveillance of Barrett's esophagus is the Seattle four-quadrant biopsies protocol (4-QB). Using endoscopic brush cytology, this study prospectively investigated whether digital image cytometry (DICM) is of additional benefit over regular histology as a predictor for progression to high-grade dysplasia or cancer during a surveillance of at least 3 years. The prospective cohort in this study included 93 patients (72% male) with Barrett's esophagus, baseline endoscopies, and at least one DICM in addition to 4-QB who had been followed up a minimum of 3 years at the time of analysis. High-grade dysplasia (HGD) and adenocarcinoma were defined as primary end points. The DICM was performed on Feulgen-restained cytology smears with a continuous collision detection (CCD) three-chip color video camera (Sony) and an AutoCyte QUIC DNA workstation. Of the 93 patients, 11 presented with the diagnosis of HGD and adenocarcinoma at baseline endoscopy. The remaining 82 patients were analyzed after a median follow-up time of 44 months (range, 36-65 months). Of these 82 patients, 9 (11%) had low-grade dysplasia (LGD) at baseline histology: One of two patients with LGD and aneuploid DICM showed HGD at follow-up assessment, whereas none of seven patients with LGD and diploid DICM had development of HGD. Of the 82 patients, 73 (89%) had either specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) without dyplasia or indefinite findings for dysplasia at baseline histology. Of the eight patients with SIM and intermediate/aneuploid DICM, two had development of HGD. None of those with negative or indefinite findings for dysplasia and diploid DICM had HGD at the follow-up evaluation. In summary, the three patients who had development of HGD showed a pathologic DICM at baseline, and no patient with diploid DICM had HGD. Cytometry from brush cytology as an add-on to histology appears to be of additional benefit during surveillance of Barrett's esophagus. Whereas an aneuploid/intermediate DICM warrants an early re-endoscopy, a diploid DICM underscores the low-risk status especially of patients with low-grade dysplasia.
    Surgical Endoscopy 12/2009; 24(5):1144-50. DOI:10.1007/s00464-009-0741-7 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While several risk factors for the histological progression of chronic hepatitis C have been identified, the contribution of HCV genotypes to liver fibrosis evolution remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess independent predictors for fibrosis progression. We identified 1189 patients from the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort database with at least one biopsy prior to antiviral treatment and assessable date of infection. Stage-constant fibrosis progression rate was assessed using the ratio of fibrosis Metavir score to duration of infection. Stage-specific fibrosis progression rates were obtained using a Markov model. Risk factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression models. Independent risk factors for accelerated stage-constant fibrosis progression (>0.083 fibrosis units/year) included male sex (OR=1.60, [95% CI 1.21-2.12], P<0.001), age at infection (OR=1.08, [1.06-1.09], P<0.001), histological activity (OR=2.03, [1.54-2.68], P<0.001) and genotype 3 (OR=1.89, [1.37-2.61], P<0.001). Slower progression rates were observed in patients infected by blood transfusion (P=0.02) and invasive procedures or needle stick (P=0.03), compared to those infected by intravenous drug use. Maximum likelihood estimates (95% CI) of stage-specific progression rates (fibrosis units/year) for genotype 3 versus the other genotypes were: F0-->F1: 0.126 (0.106-0.145) versus 0.091 (0.083-0.100), F1-->F2: 0.099 (0.080-0.117) versus 0.065 (0.058-0.073), F2-->F3: 0.077 (0.058-0.096) versus 0.068 (0.057-0.080) and F3-->F4: 0.171 (0.106-0.236) versus 0.112 (0.083-0.142, overall P<0.001). This study shows a significant association of genotype 3 with accelerated fibrosis using both stage-constant and stage-specific estimates of fibrosis progression rates. This observation may have important consequences for the management of patients infected with this genotype.
    Journal of Hepatology 07/2009; 51(4):655-66. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2009.05.016 · 10.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
310.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2015
    • Kantonsspital St. Gallen
      • Department of Surgery
      San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland
  • 2002–2010
    • Cantonal Hospital of Schwyz
      Schwyz, Schwyz, Switzerland
  • 2008
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland