J. Ruel

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (34)196.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg$^2$ of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of $\xi$ =4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the $\xi$>4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the $\xi$>5 candidates; the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts; we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above $z$~0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is $M_{\scriptsize 500c}(\rho_\mathrm{crit})$ ~ 3.5 x 10$^{14} M_\odot h^{-1}$, the median redshift is $z_{med}$ =0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at $z$>1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We use 95, 150, and 220GHz observations from the SPT to examine the SZE signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg^2 of the XMM-BCS. These systems extend to redshift z=1.02, have characteristic masses ~3x lower than clusters detected directly in the SPT data and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (>10^42 erg s^-1) yet. We develop an analysis tool that combines the SZE information for the full ensemble of X-ray-selected clusters. Using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, we extract selection-bias corrected constraints on the SZE significance- and Y_500-mass relations. The SZE significance- mass relation is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high mass clusters. However, the fit to the Y_500-mass relation at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from high mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8 sigma with the constraints from the Planck sample. We examine the tension with the Planck relation, discussing sample differences and biases that could contribute. We also present an analysis of the radio galaxy point source population in this ensemble of X-ray selected systems. We find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz SUMSS sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8$\sigma$ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17+-9) per cent in this sample of low mass systems.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a velocity dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion ($\sigma_v$) and 16 X-ray Yx measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. The calibrations using $\sigma_v$ and Yx are consistent at the $0.6\sigma$ level, with the $\sigma_v$ calibration preferring ~16% higher masses. We use the full cluster dataset to measure $\sigma_8(\Omega_ m/0.27)^{0.3}=0.809\pm0.036$. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming the sum of the neutrino masses is $\sum m_\nu=0.06$ eV, we find the datasets to be consistent at the 1.0$\sigma$ level for WMAP9 and 1.5$\sigma$ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger $\sum m_\nu$ further reconciles the results. When we combine the cluster and Planck+WP datasets with BAO and SNIa, the preferred cluster masses are $1.9\sigma$ higher than the Yx calibration and $0.8\sigma$ higher than the $\sigma_v$ calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (~44% and ~23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness of fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe dataset, we measure $\Omega_ m=0.299\pm0.009$ and $\sigma_8=0.829\pm0.011$. Within a $\nu$CDM model we find $\sum m_\nu = 0.148\pm0.081$ eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate. Allowing both the growth index $\gamma$ and the dark energy equation of state parameter $w$ to vary, we find $\gamma=0.73\pm0.28$ and $w=-1.007\pm0.065$, demonstrating that the expansion and the growth histories are consistent with a LCDM model ($\gamma=0.55; \,w=-1$).
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (YSZ) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We test this method on simulated cluster observations and verify that it can accurately recover cluster parameters with negligible bias. In realistic simulations of an SPT-like survey, with realizations of cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmosphere and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we find that YSZ is most accurately determined in an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure YSZ and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring YSZ within a 0.75' radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21+/-11% in YSZ at a fixed mass. Measuring YSZ within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.75' at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26+/-9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters, that YSZ measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The adiabatic evolution of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a key prediction of standard cosmology. We study deviations from the expected adiabatic evolution of the CMB temperature of the form $T(z) =T_0(1+z)^{1-\alpha}$ using measurements of the spectrum of the Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We present a method for using the ratio of the Sunyaev Zel'dovich signal measured at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPT data to constrain the temperature of the CMB. We demonstrate that this approach provides unbiased results using mock observations of clusters from a new set of hydrodynamical simulations. We apply this method to a sample of 158 SPT-selected clusters, spanning the redshift range $0.05 < z < 1.35$, and measure $\alpha = 0.017^{+0.030}_{-0.028}$, consistent with the standard model prediction of $\alpha=0$. In combination with other published results, we constrain $\alpha = 0.011 \pm 0.016$, an improvement of $\sim 20\%$ over published constraints. This measurement also provides a strong constraint on the effective equation of state in models of decaying dark energy $w_\mathrm{eff} = -0.987^{+0.016}_{-0.017}$.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2013; 440(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical spectroscopy of galaxies in clusters detected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We report our own measurements of $61$ spectroscopic cluster redshifts, and $48$ velocity dispersions each calculated with more than $15$ member galaxies. This catalog also includes $19$ dispersions of SPT-observed clusters previously reported in the literature. The majority of the clusters in this paper are SPT-discovered; of these, most have been previously reported in other SPT cluster catalogs, and five are reported here as SPT discoveries for the first time. By performing a resampling analysis of galaxy velocities, we find that unbiased velocity dispersions can be obtained from a relatively small number of member galaxies ($\lesssim 30$), but with increased systematic scatter. We use this analysis to determine statistical confidence intervals that include the effect of membership selection. We fit scaling relations between the observed cluster velocity dispersions and mass estimates from SZ and X-ray observables. In both cases, the results are consistent with the scaling relation between velocity dispersion and mass expected from dark-matter simulations. We measure a $\sim$30% log-normal scatter in dispersion at fixed mass, and a $\sim$10% offset in the normalization of the dispersion-mass relation when compared to the expectation from simulations, which is within the expected level of systematic uncertainty.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 792(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SPT-CLJ2040-4451 -- spectroscopically confirmed at z = 1.478 -- is the highest redshift galaxy cluster yet discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. SPT-CLJ2040-4451 was identified in the first 720 deg^2 of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey, and confirmed in follow-up imaging and spectroscopy. From multi-object spectroscopy with Magellan-I/Baade+IMACS we measure spectroscopic redshifts for 15 cluster member galaxies, all of which have strong [O II] 3727 emission. SPT-CLJ2040-4451 has an SZ-measured mass of M_500,SZ = 3.2 +/- 0.8 X 10^14 M_Sun/h_70, corresponding to M_200,SZ = 5.8 +/- 1.4 X 10^14 M_Sun/h_70. The velocity dispersion measured entirely from blue star forming members is sigma_v = 1500 +/- 520 km/s. The prevalence of star forming cluster members (galaxies with > 1.5 M_Sun/yr) implies that this massive, high-redshift cluster is experiencing a phase of active star formation, and supports recent results showing a marked increase in star formation occurring in galaxy clusters at z >1.4. We also compute the probability of finding a cluster as rare as this in the SPT-SZ survey to be >99.5%, indicating that its discovery is not in tension with the concordance Lambda-CDM cosmological model.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present first results on the cooling properties derived from Chandra X-ray observations of 83 high-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.2) massive galaxy clusters selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. We measure each cluster's central cooling time, central entropy, and mass deposition rate, and compare to local cluster samples. We find no significant evolution from z~0 to z~1 in the distribution of these properties, suggesting that cooling in cluster cores is stable over long periods of time. We also find that the average cool core entropy profile in the inner ~100 kpc has not changed dramatically since z ~ 1, implying that feedback must be providing nearly constant energy injection to maintain the observed "entropy floor" at ~10 keV cm^2. While the cooling properties appear roughly constant over long periods of time, we observe strong evolution in the gas density profile, with the normalized central density (rho_0/rho_crit) increasing by an order of magnitude from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0. When using metrics defined by the inner surface brightness profile of clusters, we find an apparent lack of classical, cuspy, cool-core clusters at z > 0.75, consistent with earlier reports for clusters at z > 0.5 using similar definitions. Our measurements indicate that cool cores have been steadily growing over the 8 Gyr spanned by our sample, consistent with a constant, ~150 Msun/yr cooling flow that is unable to cool below entropies of 10 keV cm^2 and, instead, accumulates in the cluster center. We estimate that cool cores began to assemble in these massive systems at z ~ 1, which represents the first constraints on the onset of cooling in galaxy cluster cores. We investigate several potential biases which could conspire to mimic this cool core evolution and are unable to find a bias that has a similar redshift dependence and a substantial amplitude.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 774(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we report a redshift survey at a wavelength of three millimetres, targeting carbon monoxide line emission from the star-forming molecular gas in the direction of extraordinarily bright millimetre-wave-selected sources. High-resolution imaging demonstrates that these sources are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. We detect spectral lines in 23 out of 26 sources and multiple lines in 12 of those 23 sources, from which we obtain robust, unambiguous redshifts. At least 10 of the sources are found to lie at z > 4, indicating that the fraction of dusty starburst galaxies at high redshifts is greater than previously thought. Models of lens geometries in the sample indicate that the background objects are ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, powered by extreme bursts of star formation.
    Nature 03/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensd dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The sources were selected to have S_1.4mm>20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S_843MHz<6mJy) or far-infrared counterparts (S_100um<1 Jy, S_60um<200mJy). We robustly detect 44 line features in our survey, which we identify as redshifted emission lines of 12CO, 13CO, [CI], H2O, and H2O+. We find one or more spectral features in 23 sources yielding a ~90% detection rate for this survey; in 12 of these sources we detect multiple lines, while in 11 sources we detect only a single line. For the sources with only one detected line, we break the redshift degeneracy with additional spectroscopic observations if available, or infer the most likely line identification based on photometric data. This yields secure redshifts for ~70% of the sample. The three sources with no lines detected are tentatively placed in the redshift desert between 1.7<z<2.0. The resulting mean redshift of our sample is =3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of =2.3 and for which only 10-15% of the population is expected to be at z>3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 767(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 micrometer imaging of four high-redshift (z=2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.5 arcsec resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1-3 arcsec, consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z=5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 X 10^13 L_sun and star formation surface density of 4200 M_sun yr^-1 kpc^-2. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, with lens Einstein radii of 1.1-2.0 arcsec and Einstein enclosed masses of 1.6-7.2x10^11 M_sun. These observations confirm the lensing origin of these objects, allow us to measure the their intrinsic sizes and luminosities, and demonstrate the important role that ALMA will play in the interpretation of lensed submillimeter sources.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 767(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, our understanding of galaxy evolution has been revolutionized by the discovery that luminous, dusty, starburst galaxies were 1,000 times more abundant in the early Universe than at present. It has, however, been difficult to measure the complete redshift 2 distribution of these objects, especially at the highest redshifts (z > 4). Here we report a redshift survey at a wavelength of three millimeters, targeting carbon monoxide line emission from the star-forming molecular gas in the direction of extraordinarily bright millimetrewave-selected sources. High-resolution imaging demonstrates that these sources are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. We detect spectral lines in 23 out of 26 sources and multiple lines in 12 of those 23 sources, from which we obtain robust, unambiguous redshifts. At least 10 of the sources are found to lie at z > 4, indicating that the fraction of dusty starburst galaxies at high redshifts is greater than previously thought. Models of lens geometries in the sample indicate that the background objects are ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, powered by extreme bursts of star formation.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these 'cool-core' clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 (ref. 11) at redshift z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (8.2 × 10(45) erg s(-1)) galaxy cluster that hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (around 3,820 solar masses a year). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (formation of around 740 solar masses a year), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool-core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star-formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form through accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than (as is currently thought) assembling entirely via mergers.
    Nature 08/2012; 488(7411):349-52. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first investigation of cool-core properties of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. We use 13 galaxy clusters uniformly selected from 178 deg^2 observed with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and followed up by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. They form an approximately mass-limited sample (> 3 x 10^14 M_sun h^-1_70) spanning redshifts 0.3 < z < 1.1. Using previously published X-ray-selected cluster samples, we compare two proxies of cool-core strength: surface brightness concentration (cSB) and cuspiness ({\alpha}). We find that cSB is better constrained. We measure cSB for the SPT sample and find several new z > 0.5 cool-core clusters, including two strong cool cores. This rules out the hypothesis that there are no z > 0.5 clusters that qualify as strong cool cores at the 5.4{\sigma} level. The fraction of strong cool-core clusters in the SPT sample in this redshift regime is between 7% and 56% (95% confidence). Although the SPT selection function is significantly different from the X-ray samples, the high-z cSB distribution for the SPT sample is statistically consistent with that of X-ray-selected samples at both low and high redshifts. The cool-core strength is inversely correlated with the offset between the brightest cluster galaxy and the X-ray centroid, providing evidence that the dynamical state affects the cool-core strength of the cluster. Larger SZ-selected samples will be crucial in understanding the evolution of cluster cool cores over cosmic time.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2012; 761(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L_2-10 keV = 8.2 x 10^45 erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (dM/dt = 3820 +/- 530 Msun/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Msun/yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of the ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up of 224 galaxy cluster candidates detected with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in the 720 deg^2 of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey completed in the 2008 and 2009 observing seasons. We use the optical/NIR data to establish whether each candidate is associated with an overdensity of galaxies and to estimate the cluster redshift. Most photometric redshifts are derived through a combination of three different cluster redshift estimators using red-sequence galaxies, resulting in an accuracy of \Delta z/(1+z)=0.017, determined through comparison with a subsample of 57 clusters for which we have spectroscopic redshifts. We successfully measure redshifts for 158 systems and present redshift lower limits for the remaining candidates. The redshift distribution of the confirmed clusters extends to z=1.35 with a median of z_{med}=0.57. Approximately 18% of the sample with measured redshifts lies at z>0.8. We estimate a lower limit to the purity of this SPT SZ-selected sample by assuming that all unconfirmed clusters are noise fluctuations in the SPT data. We show that the cumulative purity at detection significance \xi>5 (\xi>4.5) is >= 95 (>= 70%). We present the red brightest cluster galaxy (rBCG) positions for the sample and examine the offsets between the SPT candidate position and the rBCG. The radial distribution of offsets is similar to that seen in X-ray-selected cluster samples, providing no evidence that SZ-selected cluster samples include a different fraction of recent mergers than X-ray-selected cluster samples.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2012; 761(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present APEX SABOCA 350micron and LABOCA 870micron observations of 11 representative examples of the rare, extremely bright (S_1.4mm > 15mJy), dust-dominated millimeter-selected galaxies recently discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). All 11 sources are robustly detected with LABOCA with 40 < S_870micron < 130mJy, approximately an order of magnitude higher than the canonical submillimeter galaxy (SMG) population. Six of the sources are also detected by SABOCA at >3sigma, with the detections or upper limits providing a key constraint on the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) near its peak. We model the SEDs of these galaxies using a simple modified blackbody and perform the same analysis on samples of SMGs of known redshift from the literature. These calibration samples inform the distribution of dust temperature for similar SMG populations, and this dust temperature prior allows us to derive photometric redshift estimates and far infrared luminosities for the sources. We find a median redshift of = 3.0, higher than the = 2.2 inferred for the normal SMG population. We also derive the apparent size of the sources from the temperature and apparent luminosity, finding them to appear larger than our unlensed calibration sample, which supports the idea that these sources are gravitationally magnified by massive structures along the line of sight.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2012; 756(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The galaxy cluster SPT-CL J0205-5829 currently has the highest spectroscopically-confirmed redshift, z=1.322, in the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations measure a core-excluded temperature of Tx=8.7keV producing a mass estimate that is consistent with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich derived mass. The combined SZ and X-ray mass estimate of M500=(4.9+/-0.8)e14 h_{70}^{-1} Msun makes it the most massive known SZ-selected galaxy cluster at z>1.2 and the second most massive at z>1. Using optical and infrared observations, we find that the brightest galaxies in SPT-CL J0205-5829 are already well evolved by the time the universe was <5 Gyr old, with stellar population ages >3 Gyr, and low rates of star formation (<0.5Msun/yr). We find that, despite the high redshift and mass, the existence of SPT-CL J0205-5829 is not surprising given a flat LambdaCDM cosmology with Gaussian initial perturbations. The a priori chance of finding a cluster of similar rarity (or rarer) in a survey the size of the 2500 deg^2 SPT-SZ survey is 69%.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2012; 763(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use weak gravitational lensing to measure the masses of five galaxy clusters selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey, with the primary goal of comparing these with the SPT Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray based mass estimates. The clusters span redshifts 0.28 < z < 0.43 and have masses M_500 > 2 x 10^14 h^-1 M_sun, and three of the five clusters were discovered by the SPT survey. We observed the clusters in the g'r'i' passbands with the Megacam imager on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope. We measure a mean ratio of weak lensing (WL) aperture masses to inferred aperture masses from the SZ data, both within an aperture of R_500,SZ derived from the SZ mass, of 1.04 +/- 0.18. We measure a mean ratio of spherical WL masses evaluated at R_500,SZ to spherical SZ masses of 1.07 +/- 0.18, and a mean ratio of spherical WL masses evaluated at R_500,WL to spherical SZ masses of 1.10 +/- 0.24. We explore potential sources of systematic error in the mass comparisons and conclude that all are subdominant to the statistical uncertainty, with dominant terms being cluster concentration uncertainty and N-body simulation calibration bias. Expanding the sample of SPT clusters with WL observations has the potential to significantly improve the SPT cluster mass calibration and the resulting cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster survey. These are the first WL detections using Megacam on the Magellan Clay telescope.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2012; 758(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of 224 galaxy cluster candidates, selected through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature in the first 720 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. This area was mapped with the SPT in the 2008 and 2009 austral winters to a depth of 18 uK-arcmin at 150 GHz; 550 deg2 of it was also mapped to 44 uK-arcmin at 95 GHz. Based on optical imaging of all candidates and near-infrared imaging of the majority of candidates, we have found optical and/or infrared counterparts for 158 clusters. Of these, 135 were first identified as clusters in SPT data, including 117 new discoveries reported in this work. This catalog triples the number of confirmed galaxy clusters discovered through the SZ effect. We report photometrically derived (and in some cases spectroscopic) redshifts for confirmed clusters and redshift lower limits for the remaining candidates. The catalog extends to high redshift with a median redshift of z = 0.55 and maximum redshift of z = 1.37. Based on simulations, we expect the catalog to be nearly 100% complete above M500 ~ 5e14 Msun h_{70}^-1 at z > 0.6. There are 121 candidates detected at signal-to-noise greater than five, at which the catalog purity is measured to be 95%. From this high-purity subsample, we exclude the z < 0.3 clusters and use the remaining 100 candidates to improve cosmological constraints following the method presented by Benson et al., 2011. Adding the cluster data to CMB+BAO+H0 data leads to a preference for non-zero neutrino masses while only slightly reducing the upper limit on the sum of neutrino masses to sum mnu < 0.38 eV (95% CL). For a spatially flat wCDM cosmological model, the addition of this catalog to the CMB+BAO+H0+SNe results yields sigma8=0.807+-0.027 and w = -1.010+-0.058, improving the constraints on these parameters by a factor of 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. [abbrev]
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 763(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

111 Citations
196.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2012
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
      Cambridge, MA, United States
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States