James G. Ramsay

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (54)278.29 Total impact

  • Anesthesia and analgesia 09/2006; 103(2):307-8. DOI:10.1213/01.ane.0000226168.79777.8d · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Jerrold H Levy, James G Ramsay, Robert A Guyton
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2006; 354(18):1953-7; author reply 1953-7. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epsilon-aminocaproic acid is a plasmin inhibitor that potentially reduces perioperative bleeding when administered prophylactically to cardiac surgery patients. To evaluate the efficacy of epsilon-aminocaproic acid, a prospective placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to receive either epsilon-aminocaproic acid (100 mg/kg before skin incision followed by 1 g/hour continuous infusion until chest closure, 10 g in cardiopulmonary bypass circuit) or placebo, and the efficacy of epsilon-aminocaproic acid was evaluated by the reduction in postoperative thoracic-drainage volume and in donor-blood transfusion up to postoperative day 12. Postoperative thoracic-drainage volume was significantly lower in the epsilon-aminocaproic acid group compared with the placebo group (epsilon-aminocaproic acid, 649 +/- 261 mL; versus placebo, 940 +/- 626 mL; p=0.003). There were no significant differences between the epsilon-aminocaproic acid and placebo groups in the percentage of patients requiring donor red blood cell transfusions (epsilon-aminocaproic acid, 24%; versus placebo, 18%; p=0.62) or in the number of units of donor red blood cells transfused (epsilon-aminocaproic acid, 2.2 +/- 0.8 U; versus placebo, 1.9 +/- 0.8 U; p=0.29). Epsilon-aminocaproic acid did not reduce the risk of donor red blood cell transfusions compared with placebo (odds ratio: 1.2, 95% confidence interval; 0.4 to 3.2, p=0.63). Prophylactic administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid reduces postoperative thoracic-drainage volume by 30%, but it may not be potent enough to reduce the requirement and the risk for donor blood transfusion in cardiac surgery patients. This information is useful for deciding on a therapy for hemostasis in cardiac surgery.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2006; 202(2):216-22; quiz A44-5. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2005.10.001 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Wei Lu, James G Ramsay, James M Bailey
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    ABSTRACT: Many pharmacologic studies record data as binary, yes-or-no, variables with analysis using logistic regression. In a previous study, it was shown that estimates of C50, the drug concentration associated with a 50% probability of drug effect, were unbiased, whereas estimates of gamma, the term describing the steepness of the concentration-effect relationship, were biased when sparse data were naively pooled for analysis. In this study, it was determined whether mixed-effects analysis improved the accuracy of parameter estimation. Pharmacodynamic studies with binary, yes-or-no, responses were simulated and analyzed with NONMEM. The bias and coefficient of variation of C50 and gamma estimates were determined as a function of numbers of patients in the simulated study, the number of simulated data points per patient, and the "true" value of gamma. In addition, 100 sparse binary human data sets were generated from an evaluation of midazolam for postoperative sedation of adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery by random selection of a single data point (sedation score vs. midazolam plasma concentration) from each of the 30 patients in the study. C50 and gamma were estimated for each of these data sets by using NONMEM and were compared with the estimates from the complete data set of 656 observations. Estimates of C50 were unbiased, even for sparse data (one data point per patient) with coefficients of variation of 30-50%. Estimates of gamma were highly biased for sparse data for all values of gamma greater than 1, and the value of gamma was overestimated. Unbiased estimation of gamma required 10 data points per patient. The coefficient of variation of gamma estimates was greater than that of the C50 estimates. Clinical data for sedation with midazolam confirmed the simulation results, showing an overestimate of gamma with sparse data. Although accurate estimations of C50 from sparse binary data are possible, estimates of gamma are biased. Data with 10 or more observations per patient is necessary for accurate estimations of gamma.
    Anesthesiology 01/2004; 99(6):1255-62. DOI:10.1097/00000542-200312000-00005 · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • Jack S Shanewise, James G Ramsay
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been much interest in performing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery without the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Initial efforts focused on "minimally invasive" direct coronary artery bypass, wherein the left anterior descending artery is bypassed with an in situ left internal mammary artery graft through a small left anterior thoracotomy. A more widely adopted approach however, is off-pump CABG (OPCAB), in which CABG surgery is performed on one or more vessels through the usual median sternotomy approach without the aid of CPB. This article reviews the differences in the anesthetic considerations of OPCAB compared to conventional CABG using CPB.
    Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 10/2003; 21(3):613-23, x. DOI:10.1016/S0889-8537(03)00043-9
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    ABSTRACT: A key element in developing a process to determine knowledge and ability in applying perioperative echocardiography has included an examination. We report on the development of a certifying examination in perioperative echocardiography. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that examination performance is related to clinical experience in echocardiography. Since 1995, more than 1200 participants have taken the examination, and more than 70% have passed. Overall examination performance was related positively to longer than 3 mo of training (or equivalent) in echocardiography and performance and interpretation of at least six examinations a week. We concluded that the certifying examination in perioperative echocardiography is a valid tool to help determine individual knowledge in perioperative echocardiography application. IMPLICATIONS: This report describes the process involved in developing the certifying transesophageal echocardiography examination and identifies correlates with examination performance.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 01/2003; 95(6):1476-82, table of contents. DOI:10.1097/00000539-200212000-00004 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of elevated blood pressure is frequently necessary after cardiac surgery to minimize postoperative bleeding and to attenuate afterload changes associated with hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a short-acting calcium channel antagonist, clevidipine, in the treatment of hypertension in postoperative cardiac surgical patients. Postoperative cardiac surgical patients were randomized to receive placebo or one of six doses of clevidipine. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded and blood samples were drawn for determination of clevidipine plasma concentrations during infusion and after discontinuation of clevidipine. The concentration-response relation was analyzed using logistic regression, and pharmacokinetic models were applied to the data using population analysis. There were significant decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance at doses greater than or equal to 1.37 microg. kg-1. min-1. There were no changes in heart rate, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, or cardiac index with increasing doses of clevidipine. The clevidipine C50 value for a 10% or greater decrease in mean arterial pressure was 9.7 microg/l and for a 20% or greater decrease in mean arterial pressure was 26.3 microg/l. The pharmacokinetics of clevidipine were best described with a three-compartment model with a volume of distribution of 32.4 l and clearance of 4.3 l/min. The early phase of drug disposition had a half-life of 0.6 min. The context-sensitive half-time is less than 2 min for up to 12 h of administration. Clevidipine is a calcium channel antagonist with a very short duration of action that effectively decreases systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure without changing heart rate, cardiac index, or cardiac filling pressures.
    Anesthesiology 06/2002; 96(5):1086-94. DOI:10.1097/00000542-200205000-00010 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context Although potassium is critical for normal electrophysiology, the association between abnormal preoperative serum potassium level and perioperative adverse events such as arrhythmias has not been examined rigorously. Objective To determine the prevalence of abnormal preoperative serum potassium levels and whether such abnormal levels are associated with adverse perioperative events. Design and Setting Prospective, observational, case-control study of data collected from 24 diverse US medical centers in a 2-year period from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993. Patients A total of 2402 patients (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [10.3] years; 24% female) undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting who were not enrolled in another protocol. The study population was identified using systematic sampling of every nth patient, in which n was based on expected total number of procedures at that center during the study period. Main Outcome Measures Intraoperative and postoperative arrhythmias, the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiac death, and death due to any cause prior to discharge, by preoperative serum potassium level. Results Perioperative arrhythmias occurred in 1290 (53.7%) of 2402 patients, with 238 patients (10.7%) having intraoperative arrhythmias, 329 (13.7%) having postoperative nonatrial arrhythmias, and 865 (36%) having postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation. The incidence of adverse outcomes was 3.6% for death, 2.0% for cardiac death, and 3.5% for CPR. Serum potassium level less than 3.5 mmol/L was a predictor of serious perioperative arrhythmia (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-4.0), intraoperative arrhythmia (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6), and postoperative atrial fibrillation/flutter (OR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.0-2.7), and these relationships were unchanged after adjusting for confounders. The significant univariate association between increased need for CPR and serum potassium level less than 3.3 mmol/L (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-9.5) and greater than 5.2 mmol/L (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.7) became nonsignificant after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Perioperative arrhythmia and the need for CPR increased as preoperative serum potassium level decreased below 3.5 mmol/L. Although interventional trials are required to determine whether preoperative intervention mitigates these adverse associations, preoperative repletion is low cost and low risk, and our data suggest that screening and repletion be considered in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery.
    Survey of Anesthesiology 01/2000; 44(3):131-132. DOI:10.1097/00132586-200006000-00007
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    ABSTRACT: Although potassium is critical for normal electrophysiology, the association between abnormal preoperative serum potassium level and perioperative adverse events such as arrhythmias has not been examined rigorously. To determine the prevalence of abnormal preoperative serum potassium levels and whether such abnormal levels are associated with adverse perioperative events. Prospective, observational, case-control study of data collected from 24 diverse US medical centers in a 2-year period from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993. A total of 2402 patients (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [10.3] years; 24% female) undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting who were not enrolled in another protocol. The study population was identified using systematic sampling of every nth patient, in which n was based on expected total number of procedures at that center during the study period. Intraoperative and postoperative arrhythmias, the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiac death, and death due to any cause prior to discharge, by preoperative serum potassium level. Perioperative arrhythmias occurred in 1290 (53.7%) of 2402 patients, with 238 patients (10.7%) having intraoperative arrhythmias, 329 (13.7%) having postoperative nonatrial arrhythmias, and 865 (36%) having postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation. The incidence of adverse outcomes was 3.6% for death, 2.0% for cardiac death, and 3.5% for CPR. Serum potassium level less than 3.5 mmol/L was a predictor of serious perioperative arrhythmia (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-4.0), intraoperative arrhythmia (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6), and postoperative atrial fibrillation/flutter (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7), and these relationships were unchanged after adjusting for confounders. The significant univariate association between increased need for CPR and serum potassium level less than 3.3 mmol/L (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-9.5) and greater than 5.2 mmol/L (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.7) became nonsignificant after adjusting for confounders. Perioperative arrhythmia and the need for CPR increased as preoperative serum potassium level decreased below 3.5 mmol/L. Although interventional trials are required to determine whether preoperative intervention mitigates these adverse associations, preoperative repletion is low cost and low risk, and our data suggest that screening and repletion be considered in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/1999; 281(23):2203-10. · 30.39 Impact Factor
  • J G Ramsay
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common in the surgical population, with up to 50% of postoperative deaths due to cardiac events. Most of these events are ischemic, with some being exacerbations of underlying congestive heart failure (CHF). Recent data indicate that acute perioperative beta-adrenergic blockade can reduce ischemia and ischemic events. Postoperative monitoring should focus on myocardial ischemia, with preparation for rapid treatment using IV therapy. A few studies suggest that elderly patients with known CAD undergoing major procedures might benefit from perioperative treatment guided by information from a pulmonary artery catheter. Postoperative CHF, which is likely to present early after surgery, may need aggressive management with diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic drugs. Mechanical ventilation should be considered. When the patient develops severe or refractory dysrhythmias, serum magnesium levels should be supplemented and consideration given to IV use of amiodarone. Postoperative hypertension is common and can precipitate ischemia, CHF, and arrhythmias as well as cause bleeding. Newer IV drugs are arterial specific and can lower BP in a smooth and predictable manner. All acute cardiac disorders can be precipitated or exacerbated by inadequate pain control, hypoxemia, and fluid or electrolyte disorders.
    Chest 06/1999; 115(5 Suppl):138S-144S. DOI:10.1378/chest.115.suppl_2.138S · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Midazolam is commonly used for short-term postoperative sedation of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The purpose of this multicenter study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and intersubject variability of midazolam in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. With institutional review board approval, 90 consenting patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled at three study centers. All subjects received sufentanil and midazolam via target-controlled infusions. After operation, midazolam was titrated to maintain deep sedation for at least 2 h. It was then titrated downward to decrease sedation for a minimum of 4 h more and was discontinued before tracheal extubation. Arterial blood samples were taken throughout the study and were assayed for midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam. Midazolam population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using NONMEM. Cross-validation was used to estimate the performance of the model. The pharmacokinetics of midazolam were best described by a simple three-compartment mammillary model. Typical pharmacokinetic parameters were V1 = 32.2 l, V2 = 53 l, V3 = 245 l, Cl1 = 0.43 l/min, Cl2 = 0.56 l/min, and Cl3 = 0.39 l/min. The calculated elimination half-life was 15 h. The median absolute prediction error was 25%, with a bias of 1.4%. The performance in the cross-validation was similar. Midazolam metabolites were clinically insignificant in all patients. The intersubject variability and predictability of the three-compartment pharmacokinetic model are similar to those of other intravenous anesthetic drugs. This multicenter study did not confirm previous studies of exceptionally large variability of midazolam pharmacokinetics when used for sedation in intensive care settings.
    Anesthesiology 01/1999; 89(6):1418-29. DOI:10.1097/00000542-199812000-00020 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Midazolam is used commonly for sedation in the surgical intensive care unit. A suboptimal dosing regimen may lead to relative overdosing, which could result in delayed extubation and increased cost. This multicenter trial characterized midazolam pharmacodynamics in patients recovering from coronary artery bypass grafting. Three centers enrolled 90 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. All patients received sufentanil and midazolam via target-controlled infusion. After surgery, midazolam was titrated to a Ramsay sedation score of 5 for 2 h and then decreased to maintain a sedation score of 3 or 4 for at least another 4 h. Pharmacodynamic parameters were derived using NONMEM. The model was cross-validated to test performance. The probability of a given level of sedation was related to the midazolam concentration by this equation: P(Sedation > or = ss) = Cn/(Cn + C(50,ss)n), where ss is the sedation score, C is the sum of the midazolam concentration and a term reflecting the dissipating effect of anesthesia: C = [midazolam] + theta x e(-Kt), where theta = 256 ng/ml and K = 0.19 h(-1). C(50,ss) values for Ramsay scores of 2 to 6 were 5.7, 71, 171, 260, and 659 ng/ml, respectively. The model predicted 57% of the data points correctly and 88% within one sedation score. Despite previous reports of high interindividual variability in midazolam pharmacodynamics in patients in the surgical intensive care unit, these cross-validation results suggest that, when midazolam is administered using a target-controlled infusion device, the level of sedation can be predicted within 1 sedation score in 88% of patients based on the target midazolam concentration and the time since the conclusion of the anesthetic.
    Anesthesiology 01/1999; 89(6):1430-43. DOI:10.1097/00000542-199812000-00021 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is related to multiple factors. Excess protamine weakens clot structure and decreases platelet function; therefore, an increased activated clotting time (ACT) after protamine reversal of heparin may be misinterpreted as residual heparin anticoagulation. We evaluated the effects of protamine, recombinant platelet factor 4 (rPF4), and hexadimethrine on ACT in blood obtained after CPB. In addition, we examined the effect of protamine on in vitro platelet aggregation. Incremental doses of protamine, rPF4, and hexadimethrine were added to heparinized blood from CPB, and ACTs were performed. Incremental concentrations of protamine were added to heparinized platelet-rich plasma, and aggregometry was induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. The mean heparin concentration at the end of CPB was 3.3 U/mL. Protamine to heparin ratios >1.3:1 produced a significant prolongation of the ACT that was not seen with rPF4 and was observed only with 5:1 hexadimethrine to heparin ratios. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was reduced with protamine administration > or =1.3:1. Excessive protamine reversal of heparin prolongs ACT and alters ADP-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Additional protamine administered to treat a prolonged ACT may further increase clotting time, reduce platelet aggregation, and potentially contribute to excess bleeding after CPB. IMPLICATIONS: We found that excess protamine prolonged the activated clotting time and altered platelet function after cardiopulmonary bypass, whereas heparin antagonists, such as recombinant platelet factor 4 and hexadimethrine, exhibited a wider therapeutic range without adversely affecting the activated clotting time. Approaches to avoid excess protamine or use of alternative heparin antagonists after cardiopulmonary bypass may be beneficial.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 10/1998; 87(4):781-5. DOI:10.1097/00000539-199810000-00008 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Joachim M. Erb, James G. Ramsay
    Anesthesiology 09/1998; 89(2):543-4. DOI:10.1097/00000542-199808000-00045 · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • Anesthesia & Analgesia 04/1998; 86(4). DOI:10.1097/00000539-199804001-00082 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute changes in renal function after elective coronary bypass surgery are incompletely characterized and represent a challenging clinical problem. To determine the incidence and characteristics of postoperative renal dysfunction and failure, perioperative predictors of dysfunction, and the effect of renal dysfunction and failure on in-hospital resource utilization and patient disposition after discharge. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. 24 university hospitals. 2222 patients having myocardial revascularization with or without concurrent valvular surgery. Prospective histories, physical examinations, and electrocardiographic and laboratory studies. The main outcome measure was renal dysfunction (defined as a postoperative serum creatinine level > or = 177 mumol/L with a preoperative-to-postoperative increase > or = 62 mumol/L). 171 patients (7.7%) had postoperative renal dysfunction; 30 of these (1.4% overall) had oliguric renal failure that required dialysis. In-hospital mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and hospitalization were significantly increased in patients who had renal failure and those who had renal dysfunction compared with those who had neither (mortality: 63%, 19%, and 0.9%; intensive care unit stay: 14.9 days, 6.5 days, and 3.1 days; hospitalization: 28.8 days, 18.2 days, and 10.6 days, respectively). Patients with renal dysfunction were three times as likely to be discharged to an extended-care facility. Multivariable analysis identified five independent preoperative predictors of renal dysfunction: age 70 to 79 years (relative risk [RR], 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1 to 2.3]) or age 80 to 95 years (RR, 3.5 [CI, 1.9 to 6.3]); congestive heart failure (RR, 1.8 [CI, 1.3 to 2.6]); previous myocardial revascularization (RR, 1.8 [CI, 1.2 to 2.7]); type 1 diabetes mellitus (RR, 1.8 [CI, 1.1 to 3.0]) or preoperative serum glucose levels exceeding 16.6 mmol/L (RR, 3.7 [CI, 1.7 to 7.8]); and preoperative serum creatinine levels of 124 to 177 mumol/L (RR, 2.3 [CI, 1.6 to 3.4]). Independent perioperative factors that exacerbated risk were cardiopulmonary bypass lasting 3 or mor hours and three measures of ventricular dysfunction. Many patients having elective myocardial revascularization develop postoperative renal dysfunction and failure, which are associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stays, significant increases in mortality, and greater need for specialized long-term care. Resources should be redirected to mitigate renal injury in high-risk patients.
    Annals of internal medicine 02/1998; 128(3):194-203. · 16.10 Impact Factor
  • J Ramsay
    Advances in wound care: the journal for prevention and healing 01/1998; 11(3 Suppl):5-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Electrocardiographic (ECG) changes during coronary artery bypass graft surgery have not been described in detail in a large multicenter population. The authors describe these ECG changes and evaluate them, along with demographic and clinical characteristics and intraoperative hemodynamic alterations, as predictors of myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by two sets of criteria. Data from 566 patients at 20 clinical sites, collected as part of a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of acadesine for reducing MI, were analyzed at core laboratories. Perioperative ECG changes were identified using continuous three-lead Holter ECG. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded each minute during operation. The occurrence of MI by Q wave or myocardial fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) or autopsy criteria, and by (Q wave and CK-MB) or autopsy criteria was determined. During perioperative Holter monitoring, episodes of ST segment deviation, major cardiac conduction changes > or = 30 min, or use of ventricular pacing > or = 30 min occurred in 58% patients, primarily in the first 8 h after release of aortic occlusion. Of the 25% patients who met the Q wave or CK-MB or autopsy criteria for MI, 19% had increased CK-MB as well as ECG changes. (Q wave and CK-MB) or autopsy criteria for MI were met by 4% of patients. The CK-MB concentration generally peaked by 16 h after release of aortic occlusion. In patients with (n = 187) and without a perioperative episode of ST segment deviation, the incidence of MI was 36% and 19%, respectively (P < 0.01), by Q wave or CK-MB or autopsy criteria, and 6% and 3%, respectively (P = 0.055), by (Q wave and CK-MB) or autopsy criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that intraoperative ST segment deviation, intraventricular conduction defect, left bundle branch block, duration of hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg) after cardiopulmonary bypass, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass are independent predictors of Q wave or CK-MB or autopsy MI. The independent predictors of (Q wave and CK-MB) or autopsy MI are intraoperative ST segment deviation and duration of aortic occlusion. Major ECG changes occurred in 58% of patients during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, primarily within 8 h after release of aortic occlusion. Multicenter data collection revealed a substantial variation in the incidence of MI and an overall incidence of up to 25%, with most MI occurring within 16 h after release of aortic occlusion. Intraoperative monitoring of ECG and hemodynamics has incremental value for predicting MI.
    Anesthesiology 04/1997; 86(3):576-91. · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Electrocardiographic (ECG) changes during coronary artery bypass graft surgery have not been described in detail in a large multicenter population. The authors describe these ECG changes and evaluate them, along with demographic and clinical characteristics and intraoperative hemodynamic alterations, as predictors of myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by two sets of criteria.
    Anesthesiology 02/1997; 86(3):576–591. DOI:10.1097/00000542-199703000-00009 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    James Ramsay
    Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 06/1996; 43(5 Pt 2):R99-107. DOI:10.1007/BF03011672 · 2.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
278.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2006
    • Emory University
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2000
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996–1999
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 1985–1994
    • McGill University
      • Department of Anesthesia
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1986–1988
    • University of Oxford
      • Nuffield Division of Anaesthetics (NDA)
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom