Y K Shong

Seoul National University, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (11)9.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the associations between HLA alleles of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism varied according to the presence or absence of TSH receptor-blocking antibody (TRBab). We analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR antigens by serotyping and the DQA1 and DQB1 genes using both enzymatic DNA amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridizations. The patient population consisted of 47 Korean patients with atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and 62 patients with goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. The antigen frequency of HLA-DR8 was significantly increased in 23 atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis patients that were positive for TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) compared to 136 controls [52% vs. 16%; chi 2 = 13.1; Pc (corrected P value) = 0.003]. This relative risk was 5.7; the etiological fraction was 0.43. HLA-DQB1*0302 was also increased in patients with TBII-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (24% vs. 7%; chi 2 = 11.2; Pc = 0.012; relative risk = 4.4; etiological fraction = 0.19). No specific DR antigens or DQB1 alleles were increased in either TBII-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis or goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. A significant decrease in the frequency of HLA-DR6 antigen was observed in both TBII-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; chi 2 = 8.4; Pc = 0.03) and goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis (0% vs. 32%; chi 2 = 23.2; Pc < 0.001) patients. The frequency of the HLA-Cw1 antigen was significantly increased in all patient groups. We conclude that TRBab-positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis is immunogenetically different from both goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis and TRBab-negative atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis. It is possible that HLA-DR8 and/or DQB1*0302 may be related to the susceptibility genes involved in the production of TRBab in Koreans.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 09/1993; 77(3):611-5. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate changes in TSH receptor antibody after surgery in Graves' disease and its relationship with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration, serial serum levels of TSH receptor antibody were measured before and after the subtotal thyroidectomy in 50 patients with Graves' disease. In 22 (44%) out of 50 patients, thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) levels gradually decreased and disappeared completely within 12 months after surgery (TBII disappearing group). Twenty-eight (56%) patients showed persistent TBII activity and their levels were not changed until 12 months after surgery (TBII persistent group). The changes of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSab) levels were very similar to those of TBII in both groups. The thyroidal lymphocytic infiltration was more prominent in the TBII disappearing group. The degree of the decrease of TBII levels after surgery correlated with the grade of thyroidal lymphocytic infiltration. There was no significant difference of TSH receptor antibody (both TBII and TSab) levels between the thyroid and peripheral venous blood. These data suggest that the persistence or disappearance of TSH receptor antibody after surgery may reflect the difference between patients in whom the thyroid is the major site of TSH receptor antibody and those in whom additional sites of TSH receptor antibody synthesis exist.
    Autoimmunity 02/1990; 8(2):143-7. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of a single dose of 131I upon thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) in 21 patients with Graves' disease. The thyrotropin receptor antibodies were assessed by parallel measurements of thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII), thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb), and thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSBAb) in serum by radioreceptor assay, stimulation of adenylate cyclase and inhibition of TSH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activation in FRTL-5 cells, respectively. Prior to radioiodine treatment TBII was detected in all 21 patients and TSAB in 19 patients. After radioiodine treatment TBII activities did not change during 12 months observation period, but in eight patients TSAb activities gradually decreased and were undetectable at the end of a 12 month observation period. Persistence of TSAb was not associated with clinical outcome. Eight patients developed hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine treatment. Three of the hypothyroid patients developed TSBAb, and the appearance of TSBAb coincided with the development of hypothyroidism. These results suggest that TSBAb might develop after radioiodine treatment in a minority of patients with Graves' disease, and that the appearance of TSBAb, in addition to radiation induced thyroid destruction, might be involved in the development of hypothyroidism following radioiodine treatment.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 01/1990; 1(3):109-14.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors measured thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII), thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb), and thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSBAb) sequentially in patients who developed hyperthyroidism following primary hypothyroidism, and compared changes in these various functional parameters of thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) with clinical manifestations, in order to investigate the role of TRAb in the development of hyperthyroidism following primary hypothyroidism. In a patient with goitrous chronic thyroiditis, TBII, TSAb and TSBAb were not detected at the initial hypothyroid phase. But with appearance of TBII and TSAb, the patient developed hyperthyroidism. In a patient with primary nongoitrous myxedema, initially high TBII and TSBAb were detected without TSAb activity. His TSBAb disappeared and TSAb appeared with development of goiter growth and hyperthyroidism. These two mechanisms, that is, appearance of previously absent TSAb and conversion of TSBAb to TSAb, might play a causative role in the development of hyperthyroidism following primary hypothyroidism. These phenomena might be evidence that Graves' disease, chronic thyroiditis, and primary nongoitrous myxedema are on a continuing spectrum of a common syndrome sharing similar pathophysiology, at least with respect to TRAb.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 08/1989; 4(2):118-24.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied blocking type TSH receptor antibodies in 28 patients with primary myxedema and 21 patients with goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis by measuring the ability of their IgG to inhibit TSH binding to its receptor, and to inhibit TSH-stimulated cAMP increases and 3H-thymidine incorporation in a rat thyroid cell line, FRTL-5. The incidences of TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII), thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSBAb) and thyroid growth blocking antibody (TGBAb) in patients with primary myxedema were 53.6%, 75% and 65.2%, respectively. However, in goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis, these were 14.3%, 0% and 17.7%, respectively. These antibodies inhibited the receptor binding of 125I-bTSH dose-dependently, and also inhibited dose-dependently not only TSH-stimulated but also Graves' IgG-stimulated cAMP increase and 3H-thymidine incorporation. TBII activities of patients with primary myxedema were significantly correlated with both their TSBAb (r = 0.665; p less than 0.01) and TGBAb (r = 0.618; p less than 0.01) activities. Thirteen patients whose TBII activities were more than 50% had both strong TSBAb (75.1-100%) and TGBAb (57.4-100%) activities. Transient neonatal hypothyroidism was found in an infant born to a mother having potent TBII activities. Serum of the baby also had potent TBII activities and the baby's IgG inhibited TSH-stimulated cAMP increase and 3H-thymidine incorporation. These data suggest that a significant proportion of patients with primary myxedema have potent blocking type TSH receptor antibodies. These might play a role in primary myxedema causing hypothyroidism and thyroid atrophy through inhibition of TSH-stimulated cAMP generation.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 08/1989; 4(2):108-17.
  • B Y Cho, Y K Shong, H K Lee, C S Koh, H K Min
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    ABSTRACT: A 40-year-old male who developed Graves' hyperthyroidism following primary hypothyroidism is reported. He presented with clinical signs of hypothyroidism and concomitant myasthenia gravis. The thyroid was not palpable. He was treated with T4, pyridostigmine and prednisolone. One year later he developed hyperthyroidism and goitre. His initial serum IgG had no intrinsic thyroid stimulating activity, but showed almost complete inhibition of TSH-stimulated cAMP generation (99.4%, normal less than 38%) and [3H]thymidine incorporation (99.5%, normal less than 40%) into rat thyroid cells, FRTL-5 cells, with very high activity (80.2%, normal less than 15%) of TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin. When he developed hyperthyroidism and goitre, his IgG showed a strong thyroid stimulation, both cAMP production (27-fold increase) and [3H]thymidine incorporation (5.5-fold increase). No inhibitory activities were noted. These findings suggest that clinical states of autoimmune thyroid diseases can be changed in accordance with changes of functional properties of TSH receptor antibodies.
    Acta endocrinologica 05/1989; 120(4):447-50.
  • B Y Cho, Y K Shong, H K Lee, C S Koh, H K Min
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    ABSTRACT: Three patients with Graves' disease and one patients with primary myxedema had serum TSH-binding immunoglobulins of high affinity detected by the TSH binding inhibition immunoglobulin (TBII) assay. These IgGs bound 61%, 33%, 60% and 53% of radiolabeled TSH, respectively, higher than the maximal specific binding (25%) in the TBII assay. Such binding was detected even in the absence of TSH receptor with only small differences in the precipitable radioactivity (61%, 28%, 61%, 54%, respectively, in comparison with the assay non-specific binding 11.3%). The 125I-bTSH binding of IgGs was competitively inhibited by the addition of bTSH, but not inhibited by hTSH. Moreover IgG binding to bTSH was not inhibited by the addition of serial dilutions of TBII positive pooled Graves' IgG (0.1-10 mg/ml) from different untreated patients. The titers of these TSH binding antibodies were not changed during the treatment of Graves' disease. Following guinea pig fat cell membrane receptor purification, the IgG of one patient with Graves' disease revealed TBII activity of 43.7% inhibition of 125I-bTSH binding to the TSH receptor without binding activity of 125I-bTSH in the absence of the TSH receptor. These studies suggest that anti-TSH antibodies and TSH receptor antibodies are present independent of one another in sera of some patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases and anti-TSH antibodies result in false TBII assay results.
    Thyroidology / A.P.R.I.M. 05/1989; 1(1):31-7.
  • B Y Cho, Y K Shong, H K Lee, C S Koh, H K Min
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the blocking type TSH receptor antibodies in 28 patients with primary myxedema and 21 patients with goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis by measuring the ability of their IgGs to inhibit TSH binding to its receptor, and to inhibit TSH-stimulated cAMP increase and [3H]thymidine incorporation in a rat thyroid cell line, FRTL-5. The incidences of TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin, thyroid stimulation inhibiting immunoglobulin and thyroid growth inhibiting immunoglobulin in patients with primary myxedema were 54.6, 75 and 65.2%, respectively, against 14.3, 0 and 17.7%, respectively, in goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The antibodies inhibited dose-dependently not only TSH stimulated but also Graves' IgG-stimulated cAMP increase and [3H]thymidine incorporation. The TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin activities in patients with primary myxedema were significantly correlated with both the thyroid stimulation inhibiting immunoglobulin (r = 0.665; P less than 0.01) and the thyroid growth inhibiting immunoglobulin (r = 0.618; P less than 0.01) activity. Thirteen patients whose TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin activities were more than 50% had both strong thyroid stimulation inhibiting immunoglobulin (75.1-100%) and thyroid growth inhibiting immunoglobulin (57.4-100%) activities. These data suggest that the vast majority of patients with primary myxedema have potent blocking type TSH receptor antibodies. These might play a role in primary myxedema causing hypothyroidism and thyroid atrophy through inhibiting TSH-stimulated cAMP generation.
    Acta endocrinologica 02/1989; 120(1):99-106.
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    ABSTRACT: Transient neonatal hypothyroidism due to transplacental transfer of maternal blocking type TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) was found in a baby born to a 27-yr-old mother, who had been receiving thyroxine medication for primary myxedema. Maternal IgG inhibited radiolabelled TSH binding to its receptor (TBII), TSH-stimulated thyroid adenylate cyclase (AC) activation (TSII) and TSH-stimulated 3H-thymidine uptake (TGII) in cultured rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5). At birth, the baby's IgG showed similar activities to maternal IgG but all these activities decreased gradually, and disappeared from her serum within 12 weeks of age. In the baby, initially nonvisualized thyroid was clearly visualized on 99 m-Tc thyroid scintigraphy when all these blocking activities disappeared, TSII and TGII being decreased more slowly than TBII, and the baby remained euthyroid after discontinuation of thyroxine. This study suggests that such IgGs induced hypothyroidism and thyroid atrophy in the mother and were responsible for transient neonatal hypothyroidism in the baby.
    Endocrinologia japonica 01/1989; 35(6):819-26.
  • The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 02/1988; 3(1):1-8.
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    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 02/1988; 3(1):15-23.