[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory mediators are increased in autoimmune diseases and may activate microglia and might cause an inflammatory state and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Thus, we evaluated whether having an autoimmune disease increases the risk for developing Parkinson disease (PD).
A population based case-control study was conducted in Denmark of 13,695 patients with a primary diagnosis of PD recorded in the Danish National Hospital Register during the period 1986-2006. Each case was matched on year of birth and sex to 5 population controls selected at random from among inhabitants of Denmark who were alive at the date of the patient's diagnosis. The main exposure measure was a hospital diagnosis of 1 of 32 selected autoimmune diseases recorded 5 or more years before the index date in the files of the Danish Hospital Register.
We observed no overall association between a diagnosis of autoimmune disease and risk for subsequent PD (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.85-1.08). In a subgroup of patients with autoimmune diseases with systemic involvement, primarily rheumatoid arthritis, we saw a decrease in risk for PD of 30%.
Our results do not support the hypothesis that autoimmune diseases increase the risk for Parkinson disease. The decreased risk observed among patients with rheumatoid arthritis might be explained by underdiagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease in this patient group or by a protective effect of the treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs over prolonged periods.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use leads to hypergastrinaemia, which has been associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia. We evaluated the association between PPI use and risk of gastric cancer using population-based health-care registers in North Jutland, Denmark, during 1990-2003. We compared incidence rates among new users of PPI (n=18,790) or histamine-2-antagonists (H2RAs) (n=17,478) and non-users of either drug. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for multiple confounders. We incorporated a 1-year lag time to address potential reverse causation. We identified 109 gastric cancer cases among PPI users and 52 cases among H2RA users. After incorporating the 1-year lag time, we observed IRRs for gastric cancer of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8-2.0) among PPI users and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8-1.8) among H2RA users compared with non-users. These estimates are in contrast to significant overall IRRs of 9.0 and 2.8, respectively, without the lag time. In lag time analyses, increased IRRs were observed among PPI users with the largest number of prescriptions or the longest follow-up compared with H2RA users or non-users. Although our results point to a major influence of reverse causation and confounding by indication on the association between PPI use and gastric cancer incidence, the finding of increased incidence among PPI users with most prescriptions and longest follow-up warrants further investigation.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2009; 100(9):1503-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Offspring of childhood cancer survivors may be at risk of genetic disease due to the mutagenic cancer treatments received by their parents. Congenital malformations were evaluated in a population-based cohort study of 1715 offspring of 3963 childhood cancer survivors and 6009 offspring of 5657 survivors' siblings. The Danish Central Population Register, Cancer Registry and Hospital Register were used to identify study subjects and congenital malformations. Gonadal and uterine radiation doses were characterized based on standard radiation-treatment regimens. The prevalence of congenital malformations at birth in offspring of survivors (44 cases, 2.6%) was slightly higher but not statistically different from that of offspring of siblings (140 cases, 2.3%) [prevalence proportion ratio (PPR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.5] or of the general population (observed-to-expected ratio, 1.2; 0.9-1.6). Including malformations diagnosed later in life did not change the ratios appreciably. The risk for malformations was slightly higher in the offspring of irradiated parents than in that of non-irradiated parents (PPR 1.2 vs 1.0) but was unrelated to gonadal dose. This study provides evidence that cancer therapy of children does not increase the risk for malformations in their offspring. Continued monitoring of genetic risks among their offspring, however, is warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein encoded by the CHEK2 gene is involved in cellular repair of DNA damage. The truncating mutation, CHEK2*1100delC, seems to increase the risk for breast cancer. We investigated whether the CHEK2*1100delC mutation carrier status increases the risk for asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and whether it interacts with radiation therapy (RT) or chemotherapy in regard to CBC risk. The germline mutation frequency was assessed in 708 women with CBC and 1395 women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) in the Women's Environment, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study whose first primary breast cancer was diagnosed before age 55 years and during 1985--1999. Seven women with CBC (1.0%) and 10 women with UBC (0.7%) were CHEK2*1100delC variant carriers (rate ratio (RR)=1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.6-5.4 for CBC vs UBC). Carriers who received RT for their first breast cancer, compared with non-carriers not treated with RT, had an RR of developing CBC of 2.6 (95% CI=0.8-8.7). We found no significant associations between the CHEK2*1100delC mutation and CBC overall or among those treated with RT. However, the sampling variability was such that modest increases in risk could not be excluded. Nonetheless, because this is a rare mutation, it is unlikely to explain a major fraction of CBC in the population.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2008; 98(4):728-33. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Materials and methods Results Discussion References Acknowledgements Figures and TablesWe investigated the risk of lung cancer in relation to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among 573 cases and 857 sex- and age-matched controls for whom we had information on use of NSAIDs, from a prescription database covering all pharmacies in Denmark since 1995, and self-reported NSAID use, smoking habits and other potential confounders. Associations were expressed as odds ratios, assessed by logistic regression in unmatched analyses. After controlling for smoking habits, length of education and concomitant use of acetaminophen, we found a slightly decreased relative risk of 0.86 (95% confidence intervals, 0.65–1.14) for lung cancer associated with any use of NSAIDs. The risk decreased significantly (P=0.02) with increasing numbers of dispensed prescriptions per year during the 1–3 years before the index date with a relative risk of 0.49 (0.28–0.84) among those with four or more prescriptions per year during this period. Our findings suggest that regular use of NSAIDs is associated with a slightly or moderately reduced risk for lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, pharmacoepidemiology, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chemoprevention
British Journal of Cancer 12/2007; 98(1):232-237. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with cancer, it is not known if it is associated with risk of a second malignancy. Using the Danish Cancer Registry and National Registry of Patients, we studied a population-based cohort of 6285 patients with cancer who had an episode of VTE. The risk of a second cancer was compared with that among 30 713 cancer patients without VTE, matched for age, sex, cancer site and year of diagnosis. Overall, the relative risk for a second cancer diagnosis was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.4). However, the excess risk varied with the time from the initial cancer diagnosis to the thrombotic event. If the thrombotic episode occurred within the first year, the relative risk for a second cancer was 1.0 (95% CI 0.9-1.3), but if the VTE occurred more than 1 year after the initial cancer, the overall relative risk for a second cancer was 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7), with strong associations for cancers of the digestive organs, ovary and prostate. The association between VTE and subsequent incident cancer extends to patients who already have had a cancer diagnosis.
British Journal of Cancer 11/2005; 93(7):838-41. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the relationship between chromosomal radiosensitivity and early-onset cancer, the G(2) chromosomal radiosensitivity assay was undertaken on a group of 23 Danish survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer, a control group comprising their partners and a group of 38 of their offspring. In addition, the previously reported in-house control group from Westlakes Research Institute (WRI) was extended to 27 individuals. When using the 90th percentile cutoff for the WRI control group, the proportion of individuals with elevated radiosensitivity was 11, 35, 52 and 53% for the WRI control, partner control, cancer survivor and the offspring groups, respectively, with significant differences between the WRI control group and the cancer survivor group (P=0.002) and the offspring group (P<0.001). However, while the comparisons with the WRI control group support an association of chromosomal radiosensitivity with cancer predisposition, when the partner control group was used to define the radiosensitivity cutoff point, no significant differences in radiosensitivity profiles were found between the partner control group and either the cancer survivor group or the offspring group. The failure to distinguish between the G(2) aberration profiles of the apparently normal group of partners and the cancer survivor group suggests that any association with cancer should be viewed with caution, but also raises questions as to the suitability of the partners of cancer survivors to act as an appropriate control group. Heritability of the radiosensitive phenotype was examined by segregation analysis of the Danish families and suggested that 67.3% of the phenotypic variance of G(2) chromosomal radiosensitivity is attributable to a putative major gene locus with dominant effect.
British Journal of Cancer 11/2005; 93(9):1038-45. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have consistently shown elevated rates of breast cancer among female blood relatives of patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), a rare autosomal recessive disease. A large proportion of the members of AT families are carriers of AT-causing gene mutations in ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated), and it has been hypothesised that these otherwise healthy carriers are predisposed to breast cancer. This is an extended and enlarged follow-up study of cancer incidence in blood relatives of 75 patients with verified AT in 66 Nordic families. Blood relatives were identified through population registry linkages, and the occurrence of cancer was determined from cancer registry files in each country and compared with national incidence rates. The ATM mutation carrier probabilities of relatives were assigned from the combined information on location in family, consanguinity, if any, and supplementary carrier screening in some families. Among the 1445 blood relatives of AT patients, 225 cancers were observed, with 170.4 expected, yielding a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-1.4). Invasive breast cancer occurred in 34 female relatives (SIR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4) and was diagnosed in 21 women before the age of 55 years (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.8-4.5), including seven mothers of probands (SIR, 8.1; 95% CI, 3.3-17). When the group of mothers was excluded, no clear relationship was observed between the allocated mutation carrier probability of each family member and the extent of breast cancer risk. We concluded that the increased risk for female breast cancer seen in 66 Nordic AT families appeared to be restricted to women under the age of 55 years and was due mainly to a very high risk in the group of mothers. The findings of breast cancer risk in mothers, but not other likely mutation carriers, in this and other studies raises questions about the hypothesis of a simple causal relationship with ATM heterozygosity.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2005; 93(2):260-5. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The notion that inherited predisposition contributes to the development of haematological malignancies is generally thought of as being a relatively new idea. However, Videbaek made a clear enunciation of such a hypothesis in 1947, from a study of tumour incidence in relatives of patients with different leukaemias. To gain further insight into inherited susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), we followed up the descendants of Videbaek's 'Pedigree 14' series of families. Using the Danish medical and pedigree databases, complete tracing of 222 descendants of the original 57 family members was achieved. To date, 10 family members have been diagnosed with CLL, one with T-cell lymphoma and 17 with nonhaematological cancers, including five with breast cancer. The detailed follow up of this family provides further support for inherited predisposition to CLL and illustrates the value of follow-up studies of previously published family material for genetic analyses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal symptoms increases the risk of developing breast cancer, estimated to be 2.3% for each year of use. The influence of different oestrogen-progestin regimens has still not been fully evaluated. Using longitudinal data from the population-based prescription database of the county of North Jutland, Denmark, and the Danish Cancer Registry, we examined the risk of developing breast cancer in relation to HRT in a cohort of 78,380 women aged 40-67 years from 1989 to 2002. A total of 1462 cases of breast cancer were identified during a mean follow-up of 10 years. Use of HRT did not increase the risk of breast cancer in women aged 40-49 years. Restricting the cohort to 48,812 women aged 50 years or more at entry, of whom 15 631 were HRT users, we found an increased risk associated with current use of HRT (relative risk 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.38-1.88). The risk increased with increasing duration of use and decreased with time since last HRT prescription, reaching unity after 5 years. No material risk difference was observed among the various HRT-regimens. This population-based cohort study provides further confirmation that HRT increases the risk of developing breast cancer in women aged 50 years or more.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2005; 92(7):1293-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First pregnancies are known to have higher oestrogen levels than later ones and first-born women are at increased breast cancer risk compared with later-born women. We hypothesized that a birth order effect might be even more evident in male breast cancer patients, in whom oestrogens in adult life are generally low. In a population-based study in Denmark involving 77 male breast cancer patients and 288 population controls, first-born men compared with later-born men had a relative risk of 1.71 for the disease (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.92). This result is in line with that seen in female breast cancer cases and indicates that male breast cancer may have roots in the intrauterine life, oestrogens being a likely mediator.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention 05/2005; 14(2):185-6. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among 14,088 patients, with a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease during the period 1977-98 identified from the National Register of Patients, 1282 cancers were subsequently recorded in the Danish Cancer Registry, compared with 1464 expected, with a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-0.9). Significantly reduced risks were found for smoking-related cancers, for example, cancers of the lung (SIR, 0.38), larynx (0.47) and urinary bladder (0.52), although moderate reductions in risk were also seen for several nonsmoking-related cancers. In contrast, increased risks were seen for malignant melanoma (SIR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6), nonmelanocytic skin cancer (1.25; 1.1-1.4) and breast cancer (1.24; 1.0-1.5). The observed cancer pattern supports the hypothesis that constituents of tobacco smoke inhibit or delay the development of Parkinson's disease, but a low smoking prevalence appears to be only part of the explanation for the decreased cancer incidence. The increased relative risks of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer are not likely to be artefactual, but further investigations of potential mechanisms are warranted.
British Journal of Cancer 02/2005; 92(1):201-5. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the risk of cancer and survival in a cohort of patients hospitalised with herpes zoster between 1977 and 1996, drawn from the Danish National Registry of Patients. Through linkage with the Danish Cancer Registry, we compared the observed number of cancers with the expected number on the basis of national age-, gender-, and site-specific incidence rates. The survival of herpes zoster patients with cancer was compared with that of non-herpes zoster patients with cancer. Among the 10 588 patients hospitalised with herpes zoster whom we identified, 1427 cancers were observed compared with 1239 expected (relative risk=1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.2). The risk was substantially elevated during the first year of follow-up, mainly for haematological cancer. Patients with cancer within 1 year of follow-up had a higher prevalence of distant metastases than controls, although the mortality was similar. For those with haematological cancer, however, the mortality was higher for herpes zoster patients than for controls. Haematological cancer following hospitalisation for herpes zoster has a poorer prognosis than in non-herpes zoster patients.
British Journal of Cancer 11/2004; 91(7):1275-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To use a new immunologic assay to investigate antipolymer antibody (APA) levels in women with fibromyalgia (FM).
The study population consisted of 35 patients with FM and 129 controls. The controls were selected based on a prior history of breast surgery and the presence or absence of a prior hospital diagnosis of soft tissue rheumatism. Study subjects underwent blood sampling, including tests for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and APA, a clinical examination, and an interview focusing on rheumatic complaints and self-reported disability. The severity of rheumatic symptoms/signs was scored from 1 (= none) to 5 (= severe) based on the clinical examination and the interview.
FM patients in this study represented a broad spectrum of disease severity, with the majority having mild symptoms. FM patients had a higher symptom severity and myalgic scores than controls (p < 0.001 for both variables). Adjusting for symptom severity, a weak positive association between APA levels and FM was observed (p = 0.08). The APA level was inversely associated with age, i.e., decreasing APA levels were seen with increasing age (p = 0.008).
FM patients tended to have slightly higher APA levels than controls when adjusted for symptom severity. APA levels declined with age, a finding that has not been reported previously. The APA test and its clinical relevance should be evaluated in future studies.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 01/2004; 22(2):227-9. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent reports suggest that two ATM gene mutations, 7271T>G and IVS10-6T>G, are associated with a high risk of breast cancer among multiple-case families. To assess the importance of these two mutations in another 'high-risk' group, young women (under age 51) with multiple primaries, we screened a large population-based series of young women with bilateral breast cancer and compared the frequency of these mutations among similar women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer. The 1149 women included were enrolled in an ongoing population-based case-control study of the genetic factors that contribute to bilateral breast cancer; they were not selected on the basis of family history of cancer. Screening for 7271T>G and IVS10-6T>G ATM gene mutations was conducted using DHPLC followed by direct sequencing. The 7271T>G mutation was detected in one out of 638 (0.2%) women with unilateral breast cancer and in none of the bilateral cases, and the IVS10-6T>G mutation in one out of 511 (0.2%) bilateral and in eight out of 638 (1.3%) unilateral breast cancer cases. Carriers of either mutation were not limited to women with a family history. Given the likelihood that young women with bilateral breast cancer have a genetic predisposition, the observed mutation distribution is contrary to that expected if these two mutations were to play an important role in breast carcinogenesis among individuals at high risk.
British Journal of Cancer 10/2003; 89(8):1513-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To use a new immunological assay to evaluate silicate antibody levels in women with and without silicone breast implants (SBIs).
Women (n=186) were identified through Danish population-based registers and categorized into six groups defined by prior breast surgery (breast implantation/breast reduction/no breast surgery) and by the presence or absence of prior hospital diagnoses of soft-tissue rheumatism (muscular rheumatism, ICD-8 codes 717.90 and 717.99). The women underwent blood tests, a silicate antibody assay and a clinical examination. Severity of rheumatic symptoms/signs was scored from 1 (none) to 5 (severe).
The level of silicate antibodies was not significantly different between the three groups with prior soft-tissue rheumatism (P > 0.5), with the lowest value among women with SBIs. Among women who had no prior diagnosis of soft-tissue rheumatism, silicate antibody levels were highest in women with SBIs (P < 0.01). No significant correlations were observed between silicate antibody levels and symptom severity scores.
Silicate antibodies were not consistently associated with SBIs and were not correlated with rheumatic symptoms. The clinical relevance of these antibodies remains questionable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concern has been raised about the potential delay in breast cancer diagnosis in the augmented breast. We linked a cohort of 2955 women, who received cosmetic breast implants in Denmark during the period 1973-1997 with the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register. We identified 23 incident cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed subsequent to breast implantation. We randomly selected 11 controls for each case from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register, and obtained detailed information on all study subjects about surgery, histopathology and stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, intended adjuvant treatment according to trial protocols and overall survival. We found that women with breast implants on average were diagnosed with breast cancer at the same stage as controls. Significantly more women with breast implants had tumour cells in the surgical margins according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's data. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the two groups after an average of 6.4 years of follow-up. Based on this limited number of women with breast cancer subsequent to breast augmentation, breast implants do not appear to delay the diagnosis of breast cancer, and no evidence of impaired survival after breast cancer diagnosis in augmented women was found.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2003; 88(6):832-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using data from the population-based Prescription Database of North Jutland County and the Danish Cancer Registry, we compared cancer incidence among 29 470 individuals prescribed low-dose aspirin at maximum doses of 150 mg with expected incidence based on county-specific cancer rates, during a 9-year study period. We observed 2381 cancer cases compared with 2187 expected, yielding a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.13). No apparent risk reductions were found for cancers of the colon (SIR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.1) or rectum (SIR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.2), or for other site-specific cancers. Increased SIRs were observed for kidney cancer (SIR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7) and brain cancer (SIR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2), although the excess in the latter was confined to the first year of follow-up. Stratification by number of prescriptions and duration of follow-up revealed no apparent trends. The SIR for colorectal cancer was close to unity (SIR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.2) among persons with 10 or more prescriptions who were followed for at least 5 years. Our results do not support a major protective effect of low-dose aspirin on the development of colorectal or other cancers. The observed excesses of kidney and brain cancers are not likely to be causally related to the use of low-dose aspirin.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2003; 88(5):684-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that paternal gonadal exposure would increase the sex ratio by inducing X-chromosomal dominant lethals but that maternal gonadal exposure would decrease the sex ratio by inducing recessive sex-linked lethals. We therefore evaluated the sex ratio (male-to-female ratio) of children born to survivors of childhood cancers in Denmark. Children with cancer were identified from the Danish Cancer Registry from 1943 to 1996 and their offspring from the Central Population Registry. Radiation treatments were determined from records within the Cancer Registry and gonadal radiation exposures were estimated based on the cancer being treated and the likely proximity of the radiation fields to the gonads. Overall, 1100 survivors of childhood cancer became the parents of 2130 children. The sex ratio for male (0.99) and female (1.00) cancer survivors was similar and did not differ significantly from the Danish population (1.06). Radiotherapy did not influence the sex ratio of the children of either male or female survivors, and there was no evidence for dose-related changes over categories of estimated dose to parental gonads. We saw no consistent association between the sex ratio and the interval between cancer diagnosis of the parent and birth of the child. This nationwide study provides no support for the hypothesis that radiation exposure to the gonads results in an inherited genetic effect that would be manifested by a change in the sex ratio of children born after exposure. It may be, however, that sex ratio alterations are not a good or even a valid indicator of possible genetic effects in humans.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2003; 88(3):382-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extremely high risk reported for some types of cancer among patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is based on a limited number of investigations. Therefore, we examined the risks for cancer among 562 Danish and Swedish patients with CVID or IgA deficiency and 2071 relatives in 1958-96. The patients were identified through an Immunodeficiency Register and hospital records, while the relatives were traced through population registers. Cancer incidence was assessed by linkage to the Cancer Registries and compared with that in the general population. Among 386 patients with IgA deficiency, the incidence of cancer was not increased (standardized incidence ratio (SI) = 1.0); but two cases of stomach cancer were found, resulting in a non-significant increase in risk (SIR = 5.4; 95% CI = 0.7-19.5). Among 176 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the incidence of cancer at all sites combined was increased (SIR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.0-2.9), which was due mainly to significant excesses of malignant lymphoma (obs = 4; SIR = 12.1; 95% CI = 3.3-31.0) and of stomach cancer (obs = 3; SIR = 10.3; 95% CI = 2.1-30.2). Among the 626 relatives of patients with CVID, no increase in risk was found for these types of cancer or for cancer overall (obs = 53; SIR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.3). Our data show that the risks for malignant lymphoma and stomach cancer among patients with CVID may be lower than reported previously. The absence of an increased risk among relatives suggests that the increased cancer morbidity in patients with CVID is related to the immunodeficiency per se rather than to specific genetic traits shared with their relatives.