[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the in vitro and the in vivo interactions among azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline against P. insidiosum. In vitro antimicrobial activities were determined by the broth microdilution method in accordance with the CLSI document M38-A2 and antibiotic interactions were assayed using the checkerboard MIC format. In vivo efficacy was determined using a rabbit infection model. Geometric mean MICs of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline against P. insidiosum were, respectively 1.91, 1.38, 0.91 and 0.79 μg/mL. By checkerboard testing, all combinations resulted in in vitro synergistic interactions (>60%). Antagonism was not observed. In vivo studies showed that azithromycin (20 mg/kg/day twice daily) alone or in combination with minocycline (10 mg/kg/day twice daily) significantly decreased the fungal burden. This study demonstrates that azithromycin possesses potent curative efficacy against subcutaneous pythiosis in the rabbit model.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/AAC.01480-15 · 4.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sporothrix schenckiiwas reclassified as a complex encompassing six cryptic species, which calls for the reassessment of clinical and epidemiological data of these new species. We evaluated the susceptibility of Sporothrix albicans(n = 1) , S. brasiliensis(n = 6) , S. globosa(n = 1), S. mexicana(n = 1) and S. schenckii(n = 36) to terbinafine (TRB) alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), and voriconazole (VRZ) by a checkerboard microdilution method and determined the enzymatic profile of these species with the API-ZYM kit. Most interactions were additive (27.5%, 32.5% and 5%) or indifferent (70%, 50% and 52.5%) for TRB+KTZ, TRB+ITZ and TRB+VRZ, respectively. Antagonisms were observed in 42.5% of isolates for the TRB+VRZ combination. Based on enzymatic profiling, the Sporothrix schenckiistrains were categorized into 14 biotypes. Leucine arylamidase (LA) activity was observed only for S. albicansand S. mexicana. The species S. globosaand S. mexicanawere the only species without β-glucosidase (GS) activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of virulence and resistance among species of the genus Sporothrixin further studies.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 09/2015; 57(4):289-294. DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652015000400003 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the role of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as biomarkers of inflammation and tissue injury on rats experimentally infected by Cryptococcus neoformans. For this purpose, 20 male rats were divided into two groups: 10 animals representing the uninfected control group (Group A) and 10 C. neoformans var. grubii infected animals (Group B). Blood and brain samples were collected on days 10 (A10 and B10), and 30 (A30 and B30) post-infection (PI) for hematological analyses; AChE (in lymphocytes and brain) and seric BChE activity; interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10); nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels; and markers of protein oxidation (AOPP) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). As a result, when animals of Group A were compared to animals of Group B, it was observed leukocytosis (P<0.05) on day 10 PI; AChE activity increase (P<0.05) in lymphocytes (day 30 PI) and in brain (days 10 and 30 PI); BChE activity decrease (P<0.05) on day 10 PI; IL-1 and IL-6 increase (P<0.01) in both periods, while IL-10 had reduced levels (P<0.01) in the same periods; NOx levels increased (P<0.05) significantly on days 10 and 30 PI, while AOPP and TBARS levels increased significantly on day 30 PI; as well as pneumonia on infected rats. Therefore, based on the results obtained, it was possible to conclude that AChE and BChE behavior lead to a proinflammatory reaction evidenced by the enhancement of IL-1, IL-6, and NOx throughout the experiment associated with reduction on IL-10 levels, and cellular damage.
Pathology - Research and Practice 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2015.08.005 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pythium insidiosum iron acquisition mechanisms are unknown. We previously showed that the iron chelator deferasirox had weak activity in vitro and in rabbits with experimental pythiosis. Here we show that deferasirox causes damage to P. insidiosum hyphae in vitro, but that activity is diminished in the presence of exogenous iron. The tissue activity of the proinflammatory enzyme adenosine deaminase and the histological pattern observed in pythiosis lesions of rabbits treated with deferasirox were similar to the ones in animals treated with immunotherapy.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118932. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118932 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506) and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole) against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%), followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%), against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%), itraconazole (73%), voriconazole (63%) and fluconazole (60%). The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of aescin and aescin liposomes against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Aescin and aescin liposomes were used in vitro on trypomastigotes at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) and exposure times (0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 h). In vivo tests were performed using mice as the experimental model. Trypanosome evansi infected mice were treated with aescin and aescin liposomes with doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg during 4 d. Results: The three concentrations tested in free form and nanoencapsulated showed trypanocidal activity in vitro, completely eliminating the parasites in small concentration after 6 h of assay. Animals treated with aescin (100 mg/kg) and aescin liposomes (100 mg/kg) showed increase in longevity, however without curative effect. Conclusions: Active compounds present in natural products, such as aescin, may potentiate the treatment of trypanosomosis when used in association with other trypanocidal drugs.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 12/2014; 4(12). DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0435
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspergillosis is one of the most frequent mycosis affecting avian species. Here is reported an outbreak of aspergillosis affecting 60-day-old white Pekin mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). About 10 % of animals in a lot of 200 mallards from a commercial husbandry presented respiratory disorders and skin lesions at slaughter. Three out of 13 animals sent to diagnosis showed, simultaneously, airsacculitis, lung and liver presenting white nodules with variable diameters and elevated, yellowish brown, crusted, multifocal skin lesions located at the base of the feather follicles in the breast. Histopathological examination of lung and liver samples revealed nodules of different sizes with small areas of necrosis surrounded by intense granulomatous inflammation and the presence of fungal hyphae. The skin samples showed dermatitis surrounding a severe necrotizing folliculitis, associated with fungal hyphae. Mycological evaluation of tissues allowed the isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from the skin samples and Aspergillus flavus from lungs and liver samples. The application of quicklime (CaO) in the litter as part of the disinfection procedures could have contributed to the development of skin lesion in the mallards, predisposing the fungal installation in the damaged site. The occurrence of cutaneous lesions associated with A. fumigatus is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in birds, and this appears to be the first case reported in white Pekin mallards.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high mortality rates associated with candidemia episodes and the emergence of resistance to antifungal agents necessitate the monitoring of the susceptibility of fungal isolates to antifungal treatments. The new, recently approved, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs)(M27-S4) for evaluating susceptibility require careful interpretation and comparison with the former proposals made using the M27-A3 breakpoints, both from CLSI. This study evaluated the susceptibility of the different species of Candida that were isolated from candidemias based on these two clinical breakpoints. Four hundred and twenty-two isolates were identified and, among them, C. parapsilosis comprised 46.68%, followed by C. albicans (35.78%), C. tropicalis (9.71%), C. glabrata (3.55%), C. lusitaniae (1.65%), C. guilliermondii (1.65%) and C. krusei (0.94%). In accordance with the M27-A3 criteria, 33 (7.81%) non-susceptible isolates were identified, of which 16 (3.79%) were resistant to antifungal agents. According to SS-CBPs, 80 (18.95%) isolates were non-susceptible, and 10 (2.36%) of these were drug resistant. When the total number of non-susceptible isolates was considered, the new SS-CBPs detected 2.4 times the number of isolates that were detected using the M27-A3 interpretative criteria. In conclusion, the detection of an elevated number of non-susceptible species has highlighted the relevance of evaluating susceptibility tests using new, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs), which could impact the profile of non-susceptible Candida spp. to antifungal agents that require continuous susceptibility monitoring.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 12/2014; 56(6):477-82. DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652014000600004 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are a group of chemically diverse naturally occurring substances resulting from the secondary metabolism of pathogenic filamentous fungi. They are produced mainly by the genera Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium which can contaminate grains and cereals such as wheat, corn and soy. According to the nature and the concentration levels, mycotoxins can induce toxic effects in food-production animals and humans. An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of broiler chickens lymphocytes to different concentrations of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Each toxin was added to the cell medium at different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mu g/mL). Cell viability and ecto-adenosine deaminase activity were assessed at 24, 48 and 72 hours by colorimetric assays. Thus, it were used 0.7x10(5) lymphocytes/mL in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 2.5 IU of penicillin/streptomycin per mL, incubated at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. All the experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results were expressed as mean +/- standard error of the mean. The results showed that OTA and DON induced lymphocyte proliferation and reduced enzymatic activity in vitro (P<0,05), whereas ZEA also promoted proliferation (P<0,05), but neither alteration on enzymatic activity (P>0,05). It was possible to correlate the results about viability cell and ecto-adenosine deaminase activity, suggesting that, at minimal concentrations, the evaluated mycotoxins do not stimulated the enzymatic activity, which has proinflammatory action and contributes for the immunosuppression process, thus, avoiding a decrease on the viability cell. This is the first in vitro study conducted with OTA, DON and ZON in broiler chickens lymphocytes evaluating these parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of micafungin alone and in combination with the iron chelator deferasirox against Pythium insidiosum. Micafungin showed a poor in vitro activity when it was used alone, but synergistic interactions were observed for 88.2% of the strains when the drug was combined with deferasirox. Smaller lesions were observed in infected rabbits receiving the combination therapy, although it favored disease dissemination to the lungs. The present results show that micafungin alone is ineffective against P. insidiosum, and the combination micafungin–deferasirox might have deleterious effects for the host.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the in vitro activities of the combinations of carvacrol and thymol with antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline) and antifungal agents (amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole and terbinafine) against 23 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution. Based on the mean FICI values, the main synergies observed were combinations of carvacrol+itraconazole and thymol+itraconazole (96%), thymol+clarithromycin (92%), carvacrol+clarithromycin (88%), thymol+minocycline (84%), carvacrol+minocycline (80%), carvacrol+azithromycin (76%), thymol+azithromycin (68%), carvacrol+tigecycline (64%) and thymol+tigecycline (60%). In conclusion, we found that combinations of carvacrol or thymol with these antimicrobial agents might provide effective alternative treatments for cutaneous pythiosis due to their synergistic interactions. Future in vivo experiments are needed to elucidate the safety and therapeutic potential of these combinations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micotoxinas representam um vasto grupo de contaminantes químicos naturais originados a partir do metabolismo secundário de fungos filamentosos patogênicos. Elas são produzidas, principalmente, pelos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus e Penicillium, os quais podem contaminar grãos e cereais, como trigo, milho e soja. Conforme sua natureza e níveis de concentração, micotoxinas podem induzir efeitos tóxicos em animais de produção e humanos. Um estudo in vitro foi realizado para avaliar a susceptibilidade das células linfocitárias de frangos de corte a diferentes concentrações de ocratoxina A, deoxinivalenol e zearalenona. Cada micotoxina foi adicionada ao meio celular em diferentes concentrações (0,001; 0,01; 0,1 e 1μg/mL). A viabilidade celular e atividade de ecto-adenosina desaminase foram analisadas em 24, 48 e 72 horas através de ensaios colorimétricos. Para isso, foram utilizados 0,7x105 linfócitos/mL em meio RPMI 1640, suplementado com 10% de soro fetal bovino e 2,5 UI de penicilina/estreptomicina por mL, incubados em atmosfera de 5% de CO2 a 37 °C. Todos os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata e os resultados foram expressos como média e erro padrão da média. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que tanto ocratoxina A como deoxinivalenol induziram proliferação linfocitária e baixa atividade enzimática in vitro (P<0,05), enquanto zearalenona também induziu proliferação (P<0,05), mas nenhuma alteração na atividade enzimática (P>0,05). Foi possível correlacionar os dados referentes à viabilidade celular e atividade de ecto-adenosina desaminase, sugerindo que, em concentrações mínimas, as micotoxinas testadas não estimularam a atividade da enzima, que possui ação pró-inflamatória e contribui para o processo de imunossupressão e, portanto, evitando um decréscimo na viabilidade celular. Este é o primeiro estudo feito com OCRA, DON e ZEA sobre linfócitos de frangos de corte em cultivos in vitro na avaliação desses parâmetros.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in rats experimentally infected by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Adult rats (35) were divided in two groups: 18 for the control group (uninfected) (A), and 17 for the infected group (B). Each group was separated into three sub-groups (A1, A2, A3 - B1, B2, B3), and samples were collected on 10, 20, and 30 days post-infection (PI). Leukocyte counts, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IgM, IgG levels, and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were analyzed. It was possible to observe that IgG and IgM seric levels of infected rats were significantly elevated (P < 0.01) on days 10, 20 and 30 PI, as well as the levels of TNF-α and INF-γ when compared to uninfected rodents. Regarding E-NTPDase activity in lymphocytes, it was possible to observe that the ATP hydrolysis was significantly decreased on days 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 PI (P < 0.05), while ADP hydrolysis was significantly reduced only on day 20 PI (P < 0.01) when compared with uninfected group. Seric E-ADA activity had a significant reduction (P < 0.01) during all three evaluated periods when compared to the control group, while E-ADA activity in lymphocytes increased significantly (P < 0.01) when compared to the group A on day 10 PI; however on days 20 and 30 PI, its activity was considerable reduced in lymphocytes of infected animals (P < 0.01). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the infection caused by C. neoformans in immunocompetent rats leads to changes in the purinergic signaling (NTPDase and E-ADA), concomitantly with an inflammatory response (increased levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins) associated with inflammatory infiltrates and histological lesions in the lung.