Janio Morais Santurio

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (156)198.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The polysaccharide β-glucan presents beneficial effects on the immune system, although the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect remain poorly understood. The potential cytoprotective and genoprotective effects of β-glucans were evaluated in broiler chicken lymphocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and/or β-glucans. AFB1 significantly decreased cell viability at the concentrations of 10 and 20 μg/ml at 72 h of incubation (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, the AFB1 concentrations of 1, 10 and 20 μg/ml increased DNA fragmentation levels at 24 h (p < 0.001). Conversely, lymphocyte death was prevented by β-glucans at the concentrations of 1 and 10%, indicating a cytoprotective effect. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in the cells treated with 20 μg/ml AFB1 at 24 h (p < 0.05) and 10% β-glucans with or without AFB1 at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation (p < 0.001). DNA damage increased by more than 100% in AFB1-treated lymphocytes when compared to control group. β-glucans at 1% was able to fully revert the AFB1-induced lymphocyte DNA damage, indicating a genoprotective effect and maintaining DNA integrity. In conclusion, β-glucans showed in vitro dose-dependent cytoprotective and genoprotective effects in broiler chicken lymphocytes exposed to AFB1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The high mortality rates associated with candidemia episodes and the emergence of resistance to antifungal agents necessitate the monitoring of the susceptibility of fungal isolates to antifungal treatments. The new, recently approved, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs)(M27-S4) for evaluating susceptibility require careful interpretation and comparison with the former proposals made using the M27-A3 breakpoints, both from CLSI. This study evaluated the susceptibility of the different species of Candida that were isolated from candidemias based on these two clinical breakpoints. Four hundred and twenty-two isolates were identified and, among them, C. parapsilosis comprised 46.68%, followed by C. albicans (35.78%), C. tropicalis (9.71%), C. glabrata (3.55%), C. lusitaniae (1.65%), C. guilliermondii (1.65%) and C. krusei (0.94%). In accordance with the M27-A3 criteria, 33 (7.81%) non-susceptible isolates were identified, of which 16 (3.79%) were resistant to antifungal agents. According to SS-CBPs, 80 (18.95%) isolates were non-susceptible, and 10 (2.36%) of these were drug resistant. When the total number of non-susceptible isolates was considered, the new SS-CBPs detected 2.4 times the number of isolates that were detected using the M27-A3 interpretative criteria. In conclusion, the detection of an elevated number of non-susceptible species has highlighted the relevance of evaluating susceptibility tests using new, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs), which could impact the profile of non-susceptible Candida spp. to antifungal agents that require continuous susceptibility monitoring.
    Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 12/2014; 56(6):477-82. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of micafungin alone and in combination with the iron chelator deferasirox against Pythium insidiosum. Micafungin showed a poor in vitro activity when it was used alone, but synergistic interactions were observed for 88.2% of the strains when the drug was combined with deferasirox. Smaller lesions were observed in infected rabbits receiving the combination therapy, although it favored disease dissemination to the lungs. The present results show that micafungin alone is ineffective against P. insidiosum, and the combination micafungin–deferasirox might have deleterious effects for the host.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 11/2014; · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the in vitro activities of the combinations of carvacrol and thymol with antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline) and antifungal agents (amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole and terbinafine) against 23 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution. Based on the mean FICI values, the main synergies observed were combinations of carvacrol+itraconazole and thymol+itraconazole (96%), thymol+clarithromycin (92%), carvacrol+clarithromycin (88%), thymol+minocycline (84%), carvacrol+minocycline (80%), carvacrol+azithromycin (76%), thymol+azithromycin (68%), carvacrol+tigecycline (64%) and thymol+tigecycline (60%). In conclusion, we found that combinations of carvacrol or thymol with these antimicrobial agents might provide effective alternative treatments for cutaneous pythiosis due to their synergistic interactions. Future in vivo experiments are needed to elucidate the safety and therapeutic potential of these combinations.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 11/2014; · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pesq. Vet. Bras. 34(12):1173-1180, dezembro 2014 1173 RESUMO.-Micotoxinas representam um vasto grupo de contaminantes químicos naturais originados a partir do metabolismo secundário de fungos filamentosos patogê-nicos. Elas são produzidas, principalmente, pelos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus e Penicillium, os quais po-dem contaminar grãos e cereais, como trigo, milho e soja. Conforme sua natureza e níveis de concentração, micotoxi-nas podem induzir efeitos tóxicos em animais de produção e humanos. Um estudo in vitro foi realizado para avaliar a susceptibilidade das células linfocitárias de frangos de corte a diferentes concentrações de ocratoxina A, deoxini-Efeitos in vitro de ocratoxina A, deoxinivalenol e zearalenona sobre a viabilidade celular e atividade de E-ADA em linfócitos de frangos de corte¹.R. & Santurio J.M. 2014. [In vitro effects of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zear-alenone on cell viability and E-ADA activity in broiler chickens lymphocytes.] Efeitos in vitro de ocratoxina A, deoxinivalenol e zearalenona sobre a viabilidade celular e atividade de E--ADA em linfócitos de frangos de corte. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(Mycotoxins are a group of chemically diverse naturally occurring substances resulting from the secondary metabolism of pathogenic filamentous fungi. They are produced mainly by the genera Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium which can contaminate grains and cereals such as wheat, corn and soy. According to the nature and the concentration levels, mycotoxins can induce toxic effects in food-production animals and humans. An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of broiler chickens lymphocytes to different con-centrations of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Each toxin was added to the cell medium at different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1μg/mL). Cell viability and ecto-ade-nosine deaminase activity were assessed at 24, 48 and 72 hours by colorimetric assays. Thus, it were used 0.7x10 5
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 10/2014; 34(12):1173. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in rats experimentally infected by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Adult rats (35) were divided in two groups: 18 for the control group (uninfected) (A), and 17 for the infected group (B). Each group was separated into three sub-groups (A1, A2, A3 - B1, B2, B3), and samples were collected on 10, 20, and 30 days post-infection (PI). Leukocyte counts, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IgM, IgG levels, and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were analyzed. It was possible to observe that IgG and IgM seric levels of infected rats were significantly elevated (P < 0.01) on days 10, 20 and 30 PI, as well as the levels of TNF-α and INF-γ when compared to uninfected rodents. Regarding E-NTPDase activity in lymphocytes, it was possible to observe that the ATP hydrolysis was significantly decreased on days 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 PI (P < 0.05), while ADP hydrolysis was significantly reduced only on day 20 PI (P < 0.01) when compared with uninfected group. Seric E-ADA activity had a significant reduction (P < 0.01) during all three evaluated periods when compared to the control group, while E-ADA activity in lymphocytes increased significantly (P < 0.01) when compared to the group A on day 10 PI; however on days 20 and 30 PI, its activity was considerable reduced in lymphocytes of infected animals (P < 0.01). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the infection caused by C. neoformans in immunocompetent rats leads to changes in the purinergic signaling (NTPDase and E-ADA), concomitantly with an inflammatory response (increased levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins) associated with inflammatory infiltrates and histological lesions in the lung.
    Veterinary Microbiology 09/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have determined the in vitro activity of several antibacterial and antifungal drugs against Pythium insidiosum using broth microdilution (BMD), disk diffusion and Etest methods. The largest zone of inhibition (disk diffusion) and the lowest BMD and Etest MICs were observed for azithromycin, clarithromycin, linezolid, mupirocin, doxycycline, minocycline and tigecycline. The observed in vitro activities suggest that antibacterials, which act by inhibiting protein synthesis, are promising candidate therapies for the treatment of pythiosis infection.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2014; · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contamination of consumer food and animal feed with toxigenic fungi has resulted in economic losses worldwide in animal industries. Mycotoxins are highly biologically reactive secondary metabolites and can inhibit protein synthesis and cell multiplication. Considering the cytotoxicity of mycotoxins, this experiment was performed to determine the in vitro influence of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on lipid peroxidation in lymphocytes of broiler chickens at different concentrations. This study has also evaluated whether the presence of these mycotoxins changes the acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes, which is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Blood lymphocytes of broiler chickens were isolated through density gradient centrifugation and incubated with the respective mycotoxins at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/mL. Lipid peroxidation, which was evaluated through the amount of malondialdehyde measured in a thiobarbituric acid-reactive species test, and the enzymatic activity were analyzed at 24, 48 and 72 h. Results of the lipid peroxidation evaluation showed an increasing cytotoxicity relation: ochratoxin A > deoxynivalenol > zearalenone. Conversely, cytotoxicity was valued as zearalenone > deoxynivalenol > ochratoxin A in relation to the acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity. At a concentration of 1 μg/mL, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol induced the highest cellular oxidative stress levels and the highest enzymatic activity at the majority of time points. However, the same mycotoxins, except at 1 μg/mL concentration, induced a reduction of lymphocytic lipid peroxidation 72 h after incubation, suggesting the action of a compensatory mechanism in these cells.
    SpringerPlus 09/2014; 3(506):1-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Pythiosis is an invasive, ulcerative, pyogranulomatous disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like oomycete that has been reported to affect humans, horses, dogs, and other mammals mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease is characterized by an eosinophilic granulomatous and a Th2 immune response which in turn helps to protect the fungus from the host cells. Pythiosis can present clinically in subcutaneous, gastrointestinal, and vascular tissues or in a systemically disseminated form depending on the species and site of infection. Changes in iron metabolism and anemia are commonly observed. The diagnosis is accomplished through clinical and pathological features, laboratory characteristics of cultures, serological and molecular tests. Treatment includes radical surgery, antimicrobial drugs, immunotherapy or a combination of these treatments. Immunotherapy is a practical and non-invasive alternative for treating pythiosis which is believed to promote a switch from a Th2 to Th1 immune response, resulting in a favorable clinical response. This therapy has demonstrated cure rates above 70% and 55% in horses and humans but low cure rates in dogs and cats. Despite the curative properties of this type of immunotherapy, the antibodies that are produced do not prevent host reinfection. Thus, development of effective adjuvants and new diagnostic techniques for early disease diagnosis are of utmost importance. The aim of this review was to promote pythiosis awareness and to provide an update about the immunotherapy and immunobiology of this disease.
    World Journal of Immunology. 07/2014; 4(2):88-97.
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    ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy has been applied successfully against cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses. We applied methylene blue as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (InGaAlP) against Sporothrix schenckii complex species in an in vitro assay. The viability of the conidia was determined by counting colony-forming units. Methylene blue in conjunction with laser irradiation was able to inhibit the growth of all tested samples. The in vitro inhibition of Sporothrix spp. isolates by laser light deserves in vivo experimental and clinical studies since it may be a promising treatment for cutaneous and subcutaneous sporotrichosis.
    Medical Mycology 07/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the in vitro activity of the combination of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin against 30 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the M38-A2 technique and the checkerboard microdilution method. The main synergism observed was through the combination of minocycline with amphotericin B (73.33%), itraconazole (70%) and micafungin (70%) as well as clarithromycin with micafungin (73.33%).
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    Veterinary Microbiology 06/2014; 171(1-2):255. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extracts of Achyrocline satureioides against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro. A. satureioides extracts, known as macela, were used on trypomastigotes at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 µg/ml) and exposure times (0, 1, 3, 6, and 9 hr). A dose-dependent effect was observed when the 3 extracts were tested. The concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 µg/ml were not able to kill trypomastigotes until 3 hr after exposure, and the highest concentrations (500 and 1,000 µg/ml) were able to kill all trypomastigotes after 1 hr. When the time of exposure was increased up to 9 hr, the concentrations at 50 and 100 µg/ml were 100% effective to 3 extracts. The chemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, a trypanocidal compound already described. Based on the results, we can conclude that the A. satureioides extracts exhibit trypanocidal effects.
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology 06/2014; 52(3):311-5. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A clinical epidemiological study was conducted among 34 rural properties located within the Brazilian Pantanal region and nearby areas between 2007 and 2010. The diagnosis of equine pythiosis was based on antibody detection (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), polymerase chain reaction, histopathological analysis, and cultures positive for Pythium insidiosum. The majority of the affected animals (85%) were in the Pantanal biome, which had a higher disease prevalence (0.9%-66.7%) than that of the Cerrado (2.7%-33.3%). The disease was more prevalent in the rainy season (January-March), with an abrupt fall in the number of cases during the drought period (April–September; correlation of R2 = 0.77; P < .01). Generally, the average prevalence of equine pythiosis in both regions was 5%, with mortality and lethality rates of 1.3% and 23.1%, respectively, in the Pantanal and 2.3% and 45.5%, respectively, in the Cerrado. However, the treatment with immunotherapy may have underestimated these numbers, especially in the Pantanal. Animals older than 1 year were 8.09 times more affected by the disease than younger animals in the same environment (P < .05). A correlation between the anatomical area of the lesion and the type of skin color was also observed. Approximately 73% of the lesions were found in dark-pigmented areas, and animals with a dark coat color were affected more frequently. These findings highlight the importance of hematophagous insects in the epidemiology of pythiosis because these areas are preferred for blood feeding.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 02/2014; 34(2):270–274. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The protective effect of a natural Brazilian calcium montmorillonite (CaMont) against aflatoxins was studied in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 1056 d-old Cobb male broilers were housed in experimental pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. Three levels of CaMont (0, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and two levels of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg) were assayed. Each treatment had8 replicate pens of 22 broiler chickens each. 3. Of all the chickens tested in the experiment, the ones treated with aflatoxins were the most adversely affected. CaMont treatment at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 g/kg improved body weight of chickens at 42 d of age by 13.3 and 22.7%, increased daily feed intake by 9.7 and 24.7%, and improved the productive efficiency index of chickens by 53 and 66.5%, respectively. 4. Dietary CaMont positively affected parameters such as weight of liver, heart and gizzard; however, serum potassium concentration decreased by 15.3% compared with that of chickens given only the aflatoxin-contaminated diet. 5. CaMont did not cause adverse effects in chickens that did not receive aflatoxins. 6. CaMont at pH 8.5 partially reduced the toxic effects of aflatoxins in broilers when included at levels of 2.5 and 5 g/kg in the diet.
    British Poultry Science 01/2014; · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pythium insidiosum is an important pathogen of mammals' species, including humans. Equine is the main species affected by this oomycete. P. insidiosum requires an aquatic environment to develop its life cycle, and the susceptible hosts are contaminated when they contact the microorganism in swampy areas. The equine pythiosis is characterized by the formation of irregular masses within the cutaneous lesions, called kunkers, which easily detach from the lesion. From these structures, it is possible to isolate P. insidiosum in pure cultures. The present study aimed to reproduce in vitro the life cycle of P. insidiosum from kunkers of equine clinical lesions. Fifteen kunkers from different horses were tested. It was observed that the discharge of zoospores occurred after 24-48 h of incubation at 37 °C in, respectively, 40 and 47 % of the kunkers evaluated. Only two samples showed no development of the asexual cycle of P. insidiosum under the conditions tested. It was possible to demonstrate that kunkers are able to restart the asexual cycle of P. insidiosum. Based on our in vitro results, we highlight the importance of these structures in the epidemiology of the pythiosis, since kunkers can be a potential source of contamination of this oomycete for aquatic environments.
    Mycopathologia 12/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete, a fungal like microorganism, which infects mammals, causing pythiosis in animals and humans, especially in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The treatment for this infection is very difficult, and therapeutic options commonly comprise surgery, immunotherapy and antimicrobial drugs. The present report describes the clinical healing of a dog with gastrointestinal pythiosis by treatment with a combination of antifungals and immunotherapy, as well as reviews the cases reported in the literature that used some type of therapy for canine pythiosis. A 2.5-year-old male beagle initially showed sporadic vomiting episodes, and this symptom became more frequent 5 months after the onset of clinical signs. Celiotomy procedure found thickness of the stomach wall extending to the pylorus and duodenum. A biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis of pythiosis was made by mycological, histopathological analyses and molecular identification. Therapy was based on an association of terbinafine plus itraconazole during 12 months and immunotherapy for 2.5 months. The healing of the dog reported here allows us to propose the use of immunotherapy associated with antifungal therapy to treat canine gastrointestinal pythiosis. However, additional studies should be performed on a larger number of patients to establish a standard treatment protocol for canine pythiosis.
    Mycopathologia 08/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data regarding the susceptibility of Conidiobolus lamprauges is limited and there is no consensus about the optimal treatment for infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of six C. lamprauges strains isolated from sheep conidiobolomycosis to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, flucytosine, and terbinafine using the CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique. Terbinafine was the most active (MIC range <0.06-0.5μg/mL). Resistance or reduced susceptibility was observed for amphotericin B and azole and echinocandin antifungals. Additional studies are necessary to determine the therapeutic potential of terbinafine as monotherapy or in combination therapy with other antifungals.
    Veterinary Microbiology 08/2013; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of animal models of pythiosis, a life-threatening disease of humans and animals that has poorly understood immunopathogenesis. We developed a pythiosis model by injecting Pythium insidiosum zoospores in Toll (Tl)-deficient Drosophila melanogaster flies. The infection of Tl mutant flies resulted in significantly lower survival rates (73.7%) when compared to control flies. Our study reveals the important role of Tl pathway activation in fly immune response to pythiosis.
    Microbiology and Immunology 07/2013; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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Publication Stats

623 Citations
198.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • • Department of Microbiology and Parasitology
      • • Department of Preventive Veterinary Medecine
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2013
    • Universidade Federal de Pelotas
      São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2010–2011
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2000
    • University of Wyoming
      • Department of Veterinary Sciences
      Laramie, WY, United States