Janio Morais Santurio

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Are you Janio Morais Santurio?

Claim your profile

Publications (169)212.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.mycmed.2015.06.003 · 0.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of melanin in the fungal cell is a major virulence factor of the genus Sporothrix since it protects the fungal cells against the defense systems. The present study aimed to investigate the interference of melanin in the susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto to amphotericin B and itraconazole, drugs recommended as therapy for disseminated and subcutaneous sporotrichosis, respectively. Yeast cells were cultivated in minimal medium with or without l-DOPA in order to induce the production of melanin. Microdilution and killing assay methods were used to determine the antifungal activity against yeast cells with different amounts of melanin. The killing assay showed that melanization protected isolates within the S. schenckii complex from amphotericin B, particularly in the lower concentrations tested. Studies combining amphotericin B and inhibitors of melanin are required in order to avoid this effect. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
    Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.riam.2015.03.001 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the combination of posaconazole with amphotericin B in vitro and in a murine model of systemic infections by Sporothrix brasiliensis and S. schenkii sensu stricto. In vitro data demonstrated a synergistic effect and although posaconazole alone was effective against sporotrichosis, efficacy in terms of survival and burden reduction was increased in the combination. This combination could be an option against disseminated sporotrichosis, especially when itraconazole or amphotericin B at optimal doses are contraindicated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2015; 59(8). DOI:10.1128/AAC.00052-15 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pythium insidiosum iron acquisition mechanisms are unknown. We previously showed that the iron chelator deferasirox had weak activity in vitro and in rabbits with experimental pythiosis. Here we show that deferasirox causes damage to P. insidiosum hyphae in vitro, but that activity is diminished in the presence of exogenous iron. The tissue activity of the proinflammatory enzyme adenosine deaminase and the histological pattern observed in pythiosis lesions of rabbits treated with deferasirox were similar to the ones in animals treated with immunotherapy.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118932. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118932 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506) and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole) against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%), followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%), against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%), itraconazole (73%), voriconazole (63%) and fluconazole (60%). The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.
    Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 03/2015; 46(ahead):00-00. DOI:10.1590/S1517-838246120120442 · 0.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The polysaccharide β-glucan presents beneficial effects on the immune system, although the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effect remain poorly understood. The potential cytoprotective and genoprotective effects of β-glucans were evaluated in broiler chicken lymphocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and/or β-glucans. AFB1 significantly decreased cell viability at the concentrations of 10 and 20 μg/ml at 72 h of incubation (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, the AFB1 concentrations of 1, 10 and 20 μg/ml increased DNA fragmentation levels at 24 h (p < 0.001). Conversely, lymphocyte death was prevented by β-glucans at the concentrations of 1 and 10%, indicating a cytoprotective effect. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in the cells treated with 20 μg/ml AFB1 at 24 h (p < 0.05) and 10% β-glucans with or without AFB1 at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation (p < 0.001). DNA damage increased by more than 100% in AFB1-treated lymphocytes when compared to control group. β-glucans at 1% was able to fully revert the AFB1-induced lymphocyte DNA damage, indicating a genoprotective effect and maintaining DNA integrity. In conclusion, β-glucans showed in vitro dose-dependent cytoprotective and genoprotective effects in broiler chicken lymphocytes exposed to AFB1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Toxicology in Vitro 01/2015; 29(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2015.01.005 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of aescin and aescin liposomes against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 12/2014; 4(12). DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0435
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aspergillosis is one of the most frequent mycosis affecting avian species. Here is reported an outbreak of aspergillosis affecting 60-day-old white Pekin mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). About 10 % of animals in a lot of 200 mallards from a commercial husbandry presented respiratory disorders and skin lesions at slaughter. Three out of 13 animals sent to diagnosis showed, simultaneously, airsacculitis, lung and liver presenting white nodules with variable diameters and elevated, yellowish brown, crusted, multifocal skin lesions located at the base of the feather follicles in the breast. Histopathological examination of lung and liver samples revealed nodules of different sizes with small areas of necrosis surrounded by intense granulomatous inflammation and the presence of fungal hyphae. The skin samples showed dermatitis surrounding a severe necrotizing folliculitis, associated with fungal hyphae. Mycological evaluation of tissues allowed the isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from the skin samples and Aspergillus flavus from lungs and liver samples. The application of quicklime (CaO) in the litter as part of the disinfection procedures could have contributed to the development of skin lesion in the mallards, predisposing the fungal installation in the damaged site. The occurrence of cutaneous lesions associated with A. fumigatus is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in birds, and this appears to be the first case reported in white Pekin mallards.
    Mycopathologia 12/2014; 179(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s11046-014-9833-6 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The high mortality rates associated with candidemia episodes and the emergence of resistance to antifungal agents necessitate the monitoring of the susceptibility of fungal isolates to antifungal treatments. The new, recently approved, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs)(M27-S4) for evaluating susceptibility require careful interpretation and comparison with the former proposals made using the M27-A3 breakpoints, both from CLSI. This study evaluated the susceptibility of the different species of Candida that were isolated from candidemias based on these two clinical breakpoints. Four hundred and twenty-two isolates were identified and, among them, C. parapsilosis comprised 46.68%, followed by C. albicans (35.78%), C. tropicalis (9.71%), C. glabrata (3.55%), C. lusitaniae (1.65%), C. guilliermondii (1.65%) and C. krusei (0.94%). In accordance with the M27-A3 criteria, 33 (7.81%) non-susceptible isolates were identified, of which 16 (3.79%) were resistant to antifungal agents. According to SS-CBPs, 80 (18.95%) isolates were non-susceptible, and 10 (2.36%) of these were drug resistant. When the total number of non-susceptible isolates was considered, the new SS-CBPs detected 2.4 times the number of isolates that were detected using the M27-A3 interpretative criteria. In conclusion, the detection of an elevated number of non-susceptible species has highlighted the relevance of evaluating susceptibility tests using new, species-specific clinical breakpoints (SS-CBPs), which could impact the profile of non-susceptible Candida spp. to antifungal agents that require continuous susceptibility monitoring.
    Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 12/2014; 56(6):477-82. DOI:10.1590/S0036-46652014000600004 · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are a group of chemically diverse naturally occurring substances resulting from the secondary metabolism of pathogenic filamentous fungi. They are produced mainly by the genera Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium which can contaminate grains and cereals such as wheat, corn and soy. According to the nature and the concentration levels, mycotoxins can induce toxic effects in food-production animals and humans. An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of broiler chickens lymphocytes to different concentrations of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Each toxin was added to the cell medium at different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mu g/mL). Cell viability and ecto-adenosine deaminase activity were assessed at 24, 48 and 72 hours by colorimetric assays. Thus, it were used 0.7x10(5) lymphocytes/mL in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 2.5 IU of penicillin/streptomycin per mL, incubated at 37 degrees C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. All the experiments were carried out in triplicate and the results were expressed as mean +/- standard error of the mean. The results showed that OTA and DON induced lymphocyte proliferation and reduced enzymatic activity in vitro (P<0,05), whereas ZEA also promoted proliferation (P<0,05), but neither alteration on enzymatic activity (P>0,05). It was possible to correlate the results about viability cell and ecto-adenosine deaminase activity, suggesting that, at minimal concentrations, the evaluated mycotoxins do not stimulated the enzymatic activity, which has proinflammatory action and contributes for the immunosuppression process, thus, avoiding a decrease on the viability cell. This is the first in vitro study conducted with OTA, DON and ZON in broiler chickens lymphocytes evaluating these parameters.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 12/2014; 34(12):1173-1180. · 0.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of micafungin alone and in combination with the iron chelator deferasirox against Pythium insidiosum. Micafungin showed a poor in vitro activity when it was used alone, but synergistic interactions were observed for 88.2% of the strains when the drug was combined with deferasirox. Smaller lesions were observed in infected rabbits receiving the combination therapy, although it favored disease dissemination to the lungs. The present results show that micafungin alone is ineffective against P. insidiosum, and the combination micafungin–deferasirox might have deleterious effects for the host.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 11/2014; 25(1). DOI:10.1016/j.mycmed.2014.09.002 · 0.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the in vitro activities of the combinations of carvacrol and thymol with antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tigecycline) and antifungal agents (amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole and terbinafine) against 23 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the M38-A2 technique and checkerboard microdilution. Based on the mean FICI values, the main synergies observed were combinations of carvacrol+itraconazole and thymol+itraconazole (96%), thymol+clarithromycin (92%), carvacrol+clarithromycin (88%), thymol+minocycline (84%), carvacrol+minocycline (80%), carvacrol+azithromycin (76%), thymol+azithromycin (68%), carvacrol+tigecycline (64%) and thymol+tigecycline (60%). In conclusion, we found that combinations of carvacrol or thymol with these antimicrobial agents might provide effective alternative treatments for cutaneous pythiosis due to their synergistic interactions. Future in vivo experiments are needed to elucidate the safety and therapeutic potential of these combinations.
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale/Journal of Medical Mycology 11/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.mycmed.2014.10.023 · 0.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Micotoxinas representam um vasto grupo de contaminantes químicos naturais originados a partir do metabolismo secundário de fungos filamentosos patogênicos. Elas são produzidas, principalmente, pelos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus e Penicillium, os quais podem contaminar grãos e cereais, como trigo, milho e soja. Conforme sua natureza e níveis de concentração, micotoxinas podem induzir efeitos tóxicos em animais de produção e humanos. Um estudo in vitro foi realizado para avaliar a susceptibilidade das células linfocitárias de frangos de corte a diferentes concentrações de ocratoxina A, deoxinivalenol e zearalenona. Cada micotoxina foi adicionada ao meio celular em diferentes concentrações (0,001; 0,01; 0,1 e 1μg/mL). A viabilidade celular e atividade de ecto-adenosina desaminase foram analisadas em 24, 48 e 72 horas através de ensaios colorimétricos. Para isso, foram utilizados 0,7x105 linfócitos/mL em meio RPMI 1640, suplementado com 10% de soro fetal bovino e 2,5 UI de penicilina/estreptomicina por mL, incubados em atmosfera de 5% de CO2 a 37 °C. Todos os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata e os resultados foram expressos como média e erro padrão da média. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que tanto ocratoxina A como deoxinivalenol induziram proliferação linfocitária e baixa atividade enzimática in vitro (P<0,05), enquanto zearalenona também induziu proliferação (P<0,05), mas nenhuma alteração na atividade enzimática (P>0,05). Foi possível correlacionar os dados referentes à viabilidade celular e atividade de ecto-adenosina desaminase, sugerindo que, em concentrações mínimas, as micotoxinas testadas não estimularam a atividade da enzima, que possui ação pró-inflamatória e contribui para o processo de imunossupressão e, portanto, evitando um decréscimo na viabilidade celular. Este é o primeiro estudo feito com OCRA, DON e ZEA sobre linfócitos de frangos de corte em cultivos in vitro na avaliação desses parâmetros.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 10/2014; 34(12):1173. DOI:10.1590/S0100-736X2014001200005 · 0.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in rats experimentally infected by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Adult rats (35) were divided in two groups: 18 for the control group (uninfected) (A), and 17 for the infected group (B). Each group was separated into three sub-groups (A1, A2, A3 - B1, B2, B3), and samples were collected on 10, 20, and 30 days post-infection (PI). Leukocyte counts, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IgM, IgG levels, and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were analyzed. It was possible to observe that IgG and IgM seric levels of infected rats were significantly elevated (P < 0.01) on days 10, 20 and 30 PI, as well as the levels of TNF-α and INF-γ when compared to uninfected rodents. Regarding E-NTPDase activity in lymphocytes, it was possible to observe that the ATP hydrolysis was significantly decreased on days 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 PI (P < 0.05), while ADP hydrolysis was significantly reduced only on day 20 PI (P < 0.01) when compared with uninfected group. Seric E-ADA activity had a significant reduction (P < 0.01) during all three evaluated periods when compared to the control group, while E-ADA activity in lymphocytes increased significantly (P < 0.01) when compared to the group A on day 10 PI; however on days 20 and 30 PI, its activity was considerable reduced in lymphocytes of infected animals (P < 0.01). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the infection caused by C. neoformans in immunocompetent rats leads to changes in the purinergic signaling (NTPDase and E-ADA), concomitantly with an inflammatory response (increased levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins) associated with inflammatory infiltrates and histological lesions in the lung.
    Veterinary Microbiology 09/2014; 174(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.09.007 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have determined the in vitro activity of several antibacterial and antifungal drugs against Pythium insidiosum using broth microdilution (BMD), disk diffusion, and Etest methods. The largest zones of inhibition (disk diffusion) and the lowest BMD and Etest MICs were observed for azithromycin, clarithromycin, linezolid, mupirocin, doxycycline, minocycline, and tigecycline. The in vitro activities observed suggest that antibacterials, which act by inhibiting protein synthesis, are promising candidate therapies for the treatment of pythiosis.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2014; 58(12). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02680-13 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The contamination of consumer food and animal feed with toxigenic fungi has resulted in economic losses worldwide in animal industries. Mycotoxins are highly biologically reactive secondary metabolites and can inhibit protein synthesis and cell multiplication. Considering the cytotoxicity of mycotoxins, this experiment was performed to determine the in vitro influence of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on lipid peroxidation in lymphocytes of broiler chickens at different concentrations. This study has also evaluated whether the presence of these mycotoxins changes the acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes, which is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Blood lymphocytes of broiler chickens were isolated through density gradient centrifugation and incubated with the respective mycotoxins at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/mL. Lipid peroxidation, which was evaluated through the amount of malondialdehyde measured in a thiobarbituric acid-reactive species test, and the enzymatic activity were analyzed at 24, 48 and 72 h. Results of the lipid peroxidation evaluation showed an increasing cytotoxicity relation: ochratoxin A > deoxynivalenol > zearalenone. Conversely, cytotoxicity was valued as zearalenone > deoxynivalenol > ochratoxin A in relation to the acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity. At a concentration of 1 μg/mL, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol induced the highest cellular oxidative stress levels and the highest enzymatic activity at the majority of time points. However, the same mycotoxins, except at 1 μg/mL concentration, induced a reduction of lymphocytic lipid peroxidation 72 h after incubation, suggesting the action of a compensatory mechanism in these cells.
    SpringerPlus 09/2014; 3(506):1-7. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-506
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pythiosis is an invasive, ulcerative, pyogranulomatous disease caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like oomycete that has been reported to affect humans, horses, dogs, and other mammals mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease is characterized by an eosinophilic granulomatous and a Th2 immune response which in turn helps to protect the fungus from the host cells. Pythiosis can present clinically in subcutaneous, gastrointestinal, and vascular tissues or in a systemically disseminated form depending on the species and site of infection. Changes in iron metabolism and anemia are commonly observed. The diagnosis is accomplished through clinical and pathological features, laboratory characteristics of cultures, serological and molecular tests. Treatment includes radical surgery, antimicrobial drugs, immunotherapy or a combination of these treatments. Immunotherapy is a practical and non-invasive alternative for treating pythiosis which is believed to promote a switch from a Th2 to Th1 immune response, resulting in a favorable clinical response. This therapy has demonstrated cure rates above 70% and 55% in horses and humans but low cure rates in dogs and cats. Despite the curative properties of this type of immunotherapy, the antibodies that are produced do not prevent host reinfection. Thus, development of effective adjuvants and new diagnostic techniques for early disease diagnosis are of utmost importance. The aim of this review was to promote pythiosis awareness and to provide an update about the immunotherapy and immunobiology of this disease.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy has been applied successfully against cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses. We applied methylene blue as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (InGaAlP) against Sporothrix schenckii complex species in an in vitro assay. The viability of the conidia was determined by counting colony-forming units. Methylene blue in conjunction with laser irradiation was able to inhibit the growth of all tested samples. The in vitro inhibition of Sporothrix spp. isolates by laser light deserves in vivo experimental and clinical studies since it may be a promising treatment for cutaneous and subcutaneous sporotrichosis.
    Medical Mycology 07/2014; 52(7). DOI:10.1093/mmy/myu041 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe here the in vitro activities of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline, or tigecycline alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, or micafungin against 30 isolates of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum. The assays were based on the CLSI M38-A2 technique and the checkerboard microdilution method. The main synergisms observed were through the combination of minocycline with amphotericin B (73.33%), itraconazole (70%), and micafungin (70%) and of clarithromycin with micafungin (73.33%).
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2014; 58(9). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02349-14 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Veterinary Microbiology 06/2014; 171(1-2):255. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.03.034 · 2.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

864 Citations
212.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • • Department of Microbiology and Parasitology
      • • Department of Preventive Veterinary Medecine
      • • Department of Crop Science
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2000
    • University of Wyoming
      • Department of Veterinary Sciences
      Laramie, WY, United States