[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biallelic inactivation of ATM gene causes the rare autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Female relatives of A-T patients have a two-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer (BC) compared with the general population. ATM mutation carrier identification is laborious and expensive, therefore, a more rapid and directed strategy for ATM mutation profiling is needed. We designed a case-control study to determine the prevalence of 32 known ATM mutations causing A-T in Spanish population in 323 BRCA1/BRCA2 negative hereditary breast cancer (HBC) cases and 625 matched Spanish controls. For the detection of the 32 ATM mutations we used the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique. We identified one patient carrier of the c.8264_8268delATAAG ATM mutation. This mutation was not found in the 625 controls. These results suggest a low frequency of these 32 A-T causing mutations in the HBC cases in our population. Further case-control studies analyzing the entire coding and flanking sequences of the ATM gene are warranted in Spanish BC patients to know its implication in BC predisposition.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2011; 128(2):573-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the secular trend of cancer incidence in Catalonia and to compare it with that observed in European regions.
Using data from the Tarragona and Gerona cancer registries, the number of cases, adjusted rates, and the annual percentages of change in cancer incidence in Catalonia for the period 1985-2002 were estimated. Cancer incidence trends in Catalonia, Spain, and four European regions were compared using variations in the adjusted rates between the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2002.
The number of invasive cancers increased from 15,773 in 1985 to 30,755 in 2002. The adjusted incidence rate showed an annual increase of 2.64% in males and of 1.81% in females. Almost all tumoral types showed an increasing trend. The most frequent malignant tumors in males were prostate, lung, colon and rectum, and urinary bladder tumors, showing increases of 8.74%, 1.67%, 3.47% and 4.32% respectively. The most frequent tumors in females were breast, colon and rectum and corpus uterine tumors, showing increases of 2.45%, 1.67% and 0.78%, respectively. In males, Catalonia showed lower annual incidence rates than the remaining European regions in 1985 and higher rates in 2002. In females, rates remained lower than in other European regions.
In Catalonia, the number of incident cancers increased because of population growth and aging, greater exposure to risk factors and, for some cancer types, higher detection rates. Overall cancer incidence trends followed a similar pattern to those of southern Europe, with higher increases than in the remaining European regions, especially in males.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to calculate the incidence of cancer in Catalonia for the period 1998-2002 using incidence data from the areas covered by population-based cancer registries in Catalonia (Tarragona and Gerona), to analyze the similarities and differences in the geographic patterns of cancer incidence between the two areas, and to analyze the cancer incidence calculated for Catalonia in the European context.
The average annual number of new cancer cases (except for non-melanoma or in situ skin cancer) estimated for Catalonia as whole during the period 1998-2002 was 29,062 (16,984 in males and 12,078 in females). The most frequent tumor in males was prostate cancer (18.0% of the total in males) followed by lung cancer (16.1%) and colorectal cancer (13.9%). In females, the most frequent type of cancer was breast cancer (28.1% of the total in women) followed by colorectal (15.2%) and uterine corpus cancers (6.1%).
The incidence of cancer in males was slightly higher in Gerona, mainly due to a higher incidence of prostate and lung cancers. Similar rates were observed for females in both geographic areas. These differences could be attributed to a distinct prevalence in the risk factors and/or differences in access to and utilization of preventive diagnostic services. In the European context, the incidence of cancer in Catalan males is in fourth place, whereas the incidence of cancer in Catalan females is one of the lowest.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterozygous carriers of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene) mutations have increased risk of breast cancer (BC). We have estimated the prevalence of mutations in the ATM gene among Spanish patients with early-onset BC. Forty-three patients diagnosed with BC before the age of 46 years, and negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, were analysed for the presence of ATM mutations. A total of 34 ATM sequence variants were detected: 1 deleterious mutation, 10 unclassified variants and 23 polymorphisms. One patient (2.3%) carried the ATM deleterious mutation (3802delG that causes ataxia telangiectasia in the homozygous state) and 13 patients carried the 10 ATM unclassified variants. The truncating mutation 3802delG and eight of the rare variants were not detected in a control group of 150 individuals. Different bioinformatic sequence analysis tools were used to evaluate the effects of the unclassified ATM changes on RNA splicing and function protein. This in silico analysis predicted that the missense variants 7653 T>C and 8156 G>A could alter the splicing by disrupting an exonic splicing enhancer motif and the 3763 T>G, 6314 G>C, and 8156 G>A variants would affect the ATM protein function. These are the initial results concerning the prevalence of germline mutations in the ATM gene among BC cases in a Spanish population, and they suggest that ATM mutations can confer increased susceptibility to early-onset BC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the incidence and survival of leukemias according to the different histologic types in Tarragona, Spain.
Analysis of the information obtained from the Cancer Registry of Tarragona (Spain) between 1980-1994. The leukemias were classified in: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The estimated incidence rates have been adjusted to the worldwide population, the percentage of the incidence annual change through Poisson regression models and the relative survival using the registry of death rate of Catalonia.
The adjusted rate for leukemias between the period 1990-1994 was 8.0 per 100,000 inhabitants in men and of 5.2 in women, being the CLL the most frequent subtype. Regarding the trend of incidence an increase of the CLL of 2.2% annual (CI 95%, 0.1-6.6) in men and of 7.7% (CI 95%, 1.4-14.4) in women was observed. In the remaining subtypes, there was no trend, but the non-classified leukemias decreased a -10.8% annual (CI 95%, -15.0 to -6.4) in men and a -9.9% annual (CI 95%, 15.4 to -4.0) in women. 5-year relative survival (RS5y) for the total leukemias was 37.7% in men and 45.3% in women. It stands out the CLL with a RS5y of 64.8% in men and of 75.7% in women and childhood ALL with a RS5y of 83.0% in boys and of 84.9% in girls.
In Tarragona, Spain, an increase of the CLL incidence has been observed suggesting an improvement in the diagnosis, parallel to a decrease of the non-classified leukemias. The survival in this cohort of patients was similar to the that reported in other european registries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver cancer (LC) ranks fifth in frequency in the world with an estimated number of 437,000 new cases in 1990. In developing countries, incidence rates are two- to three-fold higher than in developed countries. The geographic areas at highest risk are located in Eastern Asia, with age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) ranking from 27.6 to 36.6 per 100,000 in men; Middle Africa, with AAIRs ranking from 20.8 to 38.1 per 100,000 in men; and some countries of Western Africa, with AAIRs ranking from 30 to 48 per 100,000 in men. The geographic areas at lowest LC risk are Northern Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and the Caucasian populations in North and Latin America, with AAIRs below 5.0 per 100,000 in men. Excess of LC incidence among men compared to women is universal, with sex ratios between 1.5 and 3.0. Significant variations in LC incidence among different ethnic groups living in the same geographical area and among migrants of the same ethnic groups living in different areas have been extensively described. The variability of LC incidence rates between countries and within countries, strongly suggests differences in exposure to risk factors. The role of chronic infection with the Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) in the etiology of LC is well established. The attributable risk estimates for LC for each of these hepatotropic viruses vary among countries but the combined effects of persistent HBV or HCV infections account for well over 80% of LC cases worldwide. Other documented risk factors such as aflatoxin exposure in diets, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and oral contraceptives may explain the residual variation between and within countries. Interactions between some risk factors have been postulated, and are subject of active research. New laboratory techniques and biological markers such as polymerase chain reaction detection of HBV DNA and HCV RNA, as well as specific mutations related to aflatoxin exposure may help to provide quantitative estimates of the risk related to each these factors.
Seminars in Liver Disease 02/1999; 19(3):271-85. · 8.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cumulative risk reflects the lifetime probability that a person will develop a disease or will die from a disease. In this paper we estimate the cumulative risk of developing cancer and dying from cancer during the period 1988-1992 in Catalonia (Spain).
Data from the Tarragona Cancer Registry and Catalonia Mortality Registry are used. Cancer incidence from Tarragona is extrapolated to the total Catalan population. Cumulative risk is estimated from cumulative rate and with a life table method, which takes into account competing risks. The change in risk with age is also studied.
Lifetime risk of developing cancer in Catalonia is 38.9% for men and 28.0% for women. Risk of dying from cancer is 26.3% for men and 17.2% for women, that is, a 67.6% and a 61.5% of incident cases, respectively. One in 14 men will develop lung cancer and nearly all of them will die from the disease. One in 14 women will develop breast cancer and 45% of them will die from the disease.
Cancer is an important health problem in Catalonia because its high impact at the individual level shown by the cumulative risk. More than one in 3 men and one in 4 women are diagnosed of cancer during their lives and, among them, two thirds die because the disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: En el Registro Poblacional de Cáncer de la Provincia de Tarragona se han estudiado durante el año 1984 los casos que solamente eran conocidos a través del Boletín Estadístico de Defunción (BED). En primer lugar se ha investigado las historias clínicas de los principales hospitales y después se ha consultado a los médicos firmantes del BED. Se han identificado las causas de la falta de información en otros puntos del organigrama y se ha estudiado su distribución según las distintas localizaciones tumorales. La revisión de dichos casos permite mejorar la información errónea existente y aumentar la exhaustividad del registro, entre otras mejoras.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: News on health and health care are increasingly common in the mass media, and cancer is one of the most prominent topic among these news due to its health impact.
All news published in major newspapers in Catalonia, Spain between April to December 1996 were analysed, together with items from science and health supplements general information and science journals. Types of cancer-related topics, sources of information, the importance of cancer in the news item and the theme of the piece were analysed.
During the period analysed, 974 news items were published which dealt with cancer. Of these, cancer was the principal topic in 53.5% of the items published in the national press, and 63.4% of the items published in the regional press. Cancer was the subject of an editorial comment on only four occasions. The source of information was mentioned in 64.8% of the items, and mean number of sources was 1.6. Political institutions were the most frequent source of information in newspapers, while science and health supplements and other magazines tended to cite scientific and health care institutions, as well as scientific journals. Basic research was the most common topic for news (30.3%) in science and health supplements while risk and environmental factors (29.6%) were the most common topics in magazines; environmental and technological risk factors (18,6%) and conflicts with health administrative bodies (16%) were the most frequent topics in the newspapers.
News about risk factors and their prevention as well as technological and environmental factors related to cancer were among the most important topics published in the general press and magazines, together with conflicts with administrative bodies. Informations related to new therapies were a less frequent topic. Scientific journals have an important role as an information source for mass media together with political and scientific institutions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the number of incident cases of cancer in Spain between 1993 and 1996.Methods: We used data on the incidence of cancer from nine Spanish population-based cancer registries published in the monograph Cancer incidence in Five Continents, vols. VI and VII (period 1983-92). The National Institute of Statistics provided mortality data (period 1983-96). Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the number of incident cases. The incidence/mortality ratio was modeled. To account for heterogeneity, the providence of residence was considered as a random effect. Other factors analyzed were sex, age and period. Model parameters were estimated using a Bayesian approach with BUGS software. Estimates were valdated by comparing the observed number of cases with those predicted by the model in the regions with cancer registry data.Results: The average number of incident cases per annum for all cancer sites except non-melanoma skin cancer was 78,440 for men and 55,480 for women. The most frequent neoplasm in men was lung with 15,480 cases followed by bladder with 9,445 cases and colorectal with 8,876 cases. In women the most frequent cancer was breast with 13,490 cases followed by colorectal with 8,274 cases. These absolute frequencies showed an increasing time trend for all cancers and for the most frequent sites, with the exception of stomach and uterine cervix. Internal validation of the estimates allowed calculation of a relative error smaller than 10%.Implications: This is the first time that the number of incident cases of cancer in Spain has been estimated with methods that account for heterogeneity. These figures show the importance of cancer as a public health problem in our community.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While trends in the prevalence of smoking and ex-smoking in Catalonia, Spain have been monitored, the characteristics of those smokers who quit have not been investigated. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the prevalence of cessation, or quit ratio, in Catalonia and to study its sociodemographic, life-style, and smoking correlates.
We analyzed data collected in the Catalan Health Interview Survey conducted in 1994. This is a cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the non-institutionalized population of Catalonia. We included for analysis a total of 5,424 subjects (3,649 males and 1,775 females) who declared to be current smokers (2,335 males and 1,331 females) or past smokers (1,314 males and 444 females). We computed the crude and age-standardized quit ratios (QR) or prevalence of cessation, as well as the odds ratio (OR) of quitting smoking, according to gender and the variables studied.
The age-standardized QR was 31. 8% for males and 30.9% for females and increased with age. The QR was, both in males and females, greater among married subjects, with higher socioeconomic status, and with healthy life-styles (moderate and heavy leisure physical activity and moderate alcohol consumption). The OR of quitting smoking was higher in heavy smokers (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 2.2-3.8; smokers of > 30 cigarettes/day vs. 1-10 cigarettes/day) in males, while it was < 1 for females of medium intensity, conforming a shaped curve rather than a linear trend (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9, in heavy smokers).
This study confirms a positive association in males and females between quitting smoking and increasing age, a higher socioeconomic level, heavy smoking, and healthy life-styles. The identification of these groups should facilitate the planning of successful interventions. Further effort is also necessary to target groups with low cessation rates, such as individuals in disadvantaged social classes and light smokers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral metastases and the sequelae of their treatment are the major cause of neurological symptoms in patients with cancer.
In this article we review the oto-neuro-ophthalmological complications of the treatment of metastases with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
When speaking of the iatrogenic diseases caused by radiotherapy treatment of metastases, it is important to emphasize that the major complications of this form of treatment are seen in the long term, in general, months or years later. When dealing with incurable diseases, such as most metastatic cancers, the benefit/risk balance of each therapeutic option has to be taken into account. Thus we have a population of patients with symptoms secondary to metastatic involvement, and with an overall life expectancy which may be measured in months. The oto-neuro-ophthalmological toxicity of the chemotherapy may present as an infrequent and unexpected complication or as a usual, expected secondary effect of the drug used. A large variety of drugs are used for the systemic control of cancer (cystostatic drugs, hormones and modifiers of the biological response) which, in one way or another, may cause neurological signs.
The increasingly frequent use of high dose chemotherapy and of the combined use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy mean that these types of toxicity have become common clinical syndromes in current oncological practices.
Revista de neurologia 31(12):1267-75. · 1.18 Impact Factor