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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) repair damaged endothelium and promote capillary formation, processes involving receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Because estradiol augments vascular repair, we hypothesize that estradiol increases EPC proliferation and capillary formation via RTK activation and induction of HO-1. Physiological concentrations of estradiol (10 nmol/L) increased EPC-induced capillary sprout and lumen formation in matrigel/fibrin/collagen systems. Propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT; 100 nmol/L; estrogen receptor [ER]-alpha agonist), but not diarylpropionitrile (ER-beta agonist), mimicked the stimulatory effects of estradiol on capillary formation, and methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (ER-alpha antagonist) abolished the effects of estradiol and PPT. Three different RTK activators (vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and stromal derived growth factor 1) mimicked the capillary-stimulating effects of estradiol and PPT. SU5416 (RTK inhibitor) blocked the stimulatory effects of estradiol and PPT on capillary formation. Estradiol increased HO-1 expression by 2- to 3-fold, an effect blocked by SU5416, and PPT mimicked the effects of estradiol on HO-1. The ability of estradiol to enhance capillary formation, increase expression of HO-1, and augment phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, Akt, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 was mimicked by its cell-impermeable analog BSA estradiol. Actinomycin (transcription inhibitor) did not alter the effects of estradiol on RTK activity or vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. We conclude that estradiol via ER-alpha promotes EPC-mediated capillary formation by a mechanism that involves nongenomic activation of RTKs and HO-1 activation. Estradiol in particular and ER-alpha agonists in general may promote healing of injured vascular beds by promoting EPC activity leading to more rapid endothelial recovery and capillary formation after injury.
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Endothelial progenitor cells play a pivotal role in tissue repair, and thus are used for cell replacement therapies in "regenerative medicine." We tested whether the anesthetic sevoflurane would modulate growth or mobilization of these angiogenic cells.
In an in vitro model, mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were preconditioned with sevoflurane (3 times 30 min at 2 vol% interspersed by 30 min of air). Colony-forming units were determined after 9 days in culture and compared with time-matched untreated control. Using magnetic cell sorting, CD133+/CD34+ endothelial progenitors were enriched from human umbilical cord blood, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR2 (KDR), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), STAT3, c-kit, and CXCR4 expressions were determined in sevoflurane-treated and untreated cells by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In a volunteer study with crossover design, we tested whether sevoflurane inhalation (<1 vol% end-tidal concentration) would mobilize endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow niche into the circulation using flow cytometry of peripheral blood samples. VEGF and G-CSF plasma levels were also measured.
In vitro sevoflurane exposure of mononuclear cells enhanced colony-forming capacity and increased VEGF mRNA levels in CD133+/CD34+ cord blood cells (P = 0.017). Sevoflurane inhalation in healthy volunteers did not alter the number of CD133+/CD34+ or KDR+/CD34+ endothelial progenitors in the circulation, but increased the number of colony-forming units (P = 0.034), whereas VEGF and G-CSF plasma levels remained unchanged.
Sevoflurane preconditioning promotes growth and proliferation of stem cell-like human endothelial progenitors. Hence, it may be used to promote perioperative vascular healing and to support cell replacement therapies.
Anesthesia and analgesia 10/2009; 109(4):1117-26. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181b5a277 · 3.42 Impact Factor